Gender: From gender analysis to transforming gender norms: using empowerment pathways to enhance gender equity and food security in Tanzania
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Gender: From gender analysis to transforming gender norms: using empowerment pathways to enhance gender equity and food security in Tanzania

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Gender: From gender analysis to transforming gender norms: using empowerment pathways to enhance gender equity and food security in Tanzania Gender: From gender analysis to transforming gender norms: using empowerment pathways to enhance gender equity and food security in Tanzania Presentation Transcript

  • From gender analysis to transforming gender norms: using empowerment pathways to enhance gender equity and food security in Tanzania Alessandra Galiè, Gender Scientist, ILRI Paula Kantor, Senior Gender Scientist, World Fish Jemimah Njuki, Senior Program Officer, IDRC International Food Security Dialogue 2014, May 2 Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World
  • Presentation overview -Research focus and key concepts -Overview of the ‘Crops and Goats’ project -Research methodology -Main findings -Discussion -A methodology to operationalize GTA
  • Overall research focus Background: -Persistent gender disparities in access to agricultural resources, markets and technologies -Agricultural development to address the fundamental causes and consequences of gender inequality, how? Focus: -Linkages gender analysis, GTA and empowerment -Option for operationalizing GTA in AR4D In the framework of the Crops and Goats project
  • Key concepts Empowerment Replacing the domination of circumstances and chance by the domination of individuals over chance and circumstances Sen (1990) The expansion of people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them Kabeer (1999) Gender transformative approaches (GTA) Women and men critically examine unequal gender roles and norms and act to challenge the underlying social structures, policies and norms that perpetuate them
  • The Crops and Goats project (CGP): overview Title: ‘Integrating Dairy Goat and Root Crop Production for Increasing Food, Nutrition and Income Security of Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania’ Partners: Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, TZ; Univ. of Alberta; ILRI Project duration: 42 months (February 2011 - August 2014) Donors: IDRC, CIDA
  • CGP’s objective and outcomes Objective: Improve household income, food security and wellbeing of 112 poor and women-headed hhs in agro-pastoral communities through a community-based crossbreeding program for dairy goats, and participatory trials for cassava and sweet potato varieties Gender-related expected outcomes: • Increased ability of women to participate in value chains • More equitable social relationships between men and women • Enhanced gender relations and empowerment
  • Project villages Kunke Wami Luhindo Masinyeti Ihanda
  • Goat houses
  • Cassava and sweet potato fields
  • Main research question Is the CGP project’s approach to gender integration sufficient to progress towards ‘transformative outcomes’?
  • Methodology 1. Review of project’s gender strategy 2. In-depth interviews with involved livestock keepers: • Aug 2013 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) study 27 women and 23 men • Jan 2014 Semi-structured interviews on changes in gender relations 17 women and 17 men
  • Fieldwork in Kunke village
  • Project’s gender strategy -Gender analysis to assess the situation overtime -Integration of gender in project activities & evaluation Gender-specific activities: • Gender transformative and awareness raising trainings • Secure co-ownership of goats and access to seed • Facilitate women’s participation in technical trainings • Ensure women and men have the same access to and control of resources, technologies, opportunities
  • Main findings from in-depth interviews Division of labour: many farmers emphasized that all activities are shared; dairy goats are mostly looked after by women and children (after school) Decision-making: mostly rests with the men although some mentioned increased consultation Independence: women mostly, and also men felt milk (sold or consumed) reduced reliance on loans Nutrition and food security: women in particular valued the reliable access to milk and their control of its consumption in the household
  • Discussion 1. Do gender trainings provide a space to question gender norms or only a language of equity? 2. Is women’s increase economic independence strategic or adds a further burden? 3. Is gender equity about sameness or enabling choices and opportunities?
  • Discussion continued 4. Who decides what are desirable gender relations? 5. Is a non-participatory approach to empowerment intrinsically disempowering? 6. What is the potential for larger-scale impact when wider gender norms are not addressed?
  • A methodology to operationalize GTA Individual level: Participatory empowerment pathways Aim: question assumptions and practices; develop aspirations for self-determination; enhance capabilities to define needs, voice them and act Societal level: Engage with media for social change; leverage collective action through groups Aim: catalyze questioning of gender norms towards less strict normative frameworks to allow adoption of more gender equitable behaviors
  • Proposed approach at individual level: Participatory empowerment pathways Participatory action research with value chain actors to: -Define empowerment -Formulate individual empowerment goals -Identify opportunities and threats to achieving goals -Diagnose constraints & solutions in value chains -Define key indicators to monitor progress towards goals -Learn from the outcomes of the actions
  • Proposed approach at societal level: Media and collective action for social change Media: Engage with innovative media for social change Package messages interesting for youth as stories for TV and radio, distributed as comics and on social media Foster social acceptance of new behaviours Collective action: leverage groups Build solidarity, reach ‘critical mass’ to challenge existing norms, avoid punitive sanctions
  • This work acknowledges the sponsor and host Acknowledgements
  • The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org