PROMOTING MILLETS FOR URBAN
FOOD SECURITY: AN ANALYSIS OF
MILLET PORRIDGE VENDORS AND
CONSUMERS IN MADURAI, TAMIL
NADU, IN...
Introduction
Food Insecurity in Urban
India
Urban vs Rural Poverty
Poverty has declined at a greater rate in rural India
Urban areas...
Informal Sector and Street
Food Vendors
Informal Sector plays a major role
providing urban poor (90%) with
employment and...
RESMISA Project
The CIFSRF project, led by CMU & DHAN Foundation, aims to increase
production, distribution, access, and ...
Field Site: Madurai, TN, India
Situating Madurai’s Millet Porridge
Vendors
Objectives,
Methods, and
Classifications
Research Objectives
Research was conducted with four overlapping objectives:
(i)To understand the role of street vendors f...
Methods
Mixed Methods Exploratory Research
90 Semi-Standardized Vendor
Interviews
239 Consumer Surveys
 Of which 169 c...
1. Porridge Vendor 2. Non-Porridge Push Cart
3. Hawker 4. Small Scale Restaurant
Classification of Street Food Vendors by
...
Classification of Street Food Vendors
by Infrastructure Level and Products
Sold
No
infrastructure
Pushcart/
tricycle
Semi-...
Findings
Socioeconomic Profile of
Vendors
Hawkers Porridge
Vendors
Non-porridge
Pushcart
Vendors
Curb-side
Food Stalls
% illiterate...
Products offered by
Vendors
10 Popular Products
Offered by Vendors
Idli
Dhosai
Pearl Millet Porridge*
Finger Millet Porrid...
Consumer Profile
◦ Poor labourers,
informal sector
workers, petty
traders
◦ Majority have less
than grade 11
education
◦ M...
Street Food Preferences
◦ Street foods are purchased often, (on average once
every 2 days) due to their convenience
◦ Mill...
Consumers and Health
◦ Literature indicated that poor consumers are not
concerned with health and hygiene
◦ On the contrar...
Lessons
Learned
Lessons for Policy Makers
◦ India’s food subsidy has grown more than 25 fold over the past
two decades: $0.62 billion (199...
Engaging the Informal
Sector in state run schemes
Amma Unavagam
◦ Launched on February 24, 2013 (Jayalalithaa’s birthday)....
Enabling Policy
Environment
◦ Current policy on health and safety standards of street food is
drafted by the Confederation...
Acknowledgements
•Canadian International Food Security Research Fund
(CIFSRF)
•International Development Research Center (...
Thanks!
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Policy: Promoting Millets for Urban Food Security: An Analysis of Millet Porridge Vendors and Consumers in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

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  • Clean up and use this as example how such scheme can be improved.
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  • Policy: Promoting Millets for Urban Food Security: An Analysis of Millet Porridge Vendors and Consumers in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

    1. 1. PROMOTING MILLETS FOR URBAN FOOD SECURITY: AN ANALYSIS OF MILLET PORRIDGE VENDORS AND CONSUMERS IN MADURAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL FOOD SECURITY DIALOGUE 2014 “ENHANCING FOOD PRODUCTION, GENDER EQUITY AND NUTRITIONAL SECURITY IN A CHANGING WORLD .” Sponsored By: Hosted By:
    2. 2. Introduction
    3. 3. Food Insecurity in Urban India Urban vs Rural Poverty Poverty has declined at a greater rate in rural India Urban areas lag behind in poverty reduction Schemes tend to focus on rural areas Urban Food Insecurity Compared with rural areas, urban India has a higher % of total population that consumes less that recommended 1890 kcal/day Food security schemes (whether production, distribution, or consumption related) see urban population simply as passive beneficiaries of cheap food grains
    4. 4. Informal Sector and Street Food Vendors Informal Sector plays a major role providing urban poor (90%) with employment and livelihood opportunities Street food vendors, as a part of the informal sector, provide urban poor with food security and livelihoods (especially for poor women) While street foods have been portrayed as unhealthy and unhygienic, nutritious street food options do exist (ie. Millet Porridge)
    5. 5. RESMISA Project The CIFSRF project, led by CMU & DHAN Foundation, aims to increase production, distribution, access, and daily consumption of small millets and pulses seeds in rainfed regions of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. An exploratory study of Street Food Industry in Madurai was initiated in order to explore urban channels for promoting consumption of small millets in the urban areas through informal channels
    6. 6. Field Site: Madurai, TN, India
    7. 7. Situating Madurai’s Millet Porridge Vendors
    8. 8. Objectives, Methods, and Classifications
    9. 9. Research Objectives Research was conducted with four overlapping objectives: (i)To understand the role of street vendors for enhancing consumption of nutritious RTE food among poor (including millet porridge) (ii) To understand the socioeconomic profile of street food vendors (iii) To understand the socio-economic profile of street food consumers and their preferences for food quality, nutrition, and hygiene (iv) To explore rural and urban linkages between rural peasants and the informal food sector employing urban poor.
    10. 10. Methods Mixed Methods Exploratory Research 90 Semi-Standardized Vendor Interviews 239 Consumer Surveys  Of which 169 consumed millet porridge from vendors Focus Group Discussions Mapping Exercise
    11. 11. 1. Porridge Vendor 2. Non-Porridge Push Cart 3. Hawker 4. Small Scale Restaurant Classification of Street Food Vendors by Infrastructure Level and Products Sold
    12. 12. Classification of Street Food Vendors by Infrastructure Level and Products Sold No infrastructure Pushcart/ tricycle Semi- permanent structure All infrastructure types Selling millet porridge – Porridge vendors (37) – 37 Selling other products Hawkers (21) Non-porridge pushcart vendors (13) Curb-side food stalls (19) 53 All products 21 50 19 90
    13. 13. Findings
    14. 14. Socioeconomic Profile of Vendors Hawkers Porridge Vendors Non-porridge Pushcart Vendors Curb-side Food Stalls % illiterate 76 61 27 10 % low caste (SC, BC, OBC) 100 94 100 100 % migrant 14 43 15 42 % without bank account 71 83 38 22 % without motorized vehicle 90 81 69 42 % below poverty line (BPL card) 100 92 100 89
    15. 15. Products offered by Vendors 10 Popular Products Offered by Vendors Idli Dhosai Pearl Millet Porridge* Finger Millet Porridge* Vada Poori Pongal Paanaryam Variety Rice Chapati
    16. 16. Consumer Profile ◦ Poor labourers, informal sector workers, petty traders ◦ Majority have less than grade 11 education ◦ More than 1/3 were not fully literate
    17. 17. Street Food Preferences ◦ Street foods are purchased often, (on average once every 2 days) due to their convenience ◦ Millet porridge is only available from porridge vendors (not made at home) ◦ Millet porridge ◦ Favoured by day labourers because it kept them full and gave them stamina to do their work ◦ Favoured by diabetic patients
    18. 18. Consumers and Health ◦ Literature indicated that poor consumers are not concerned with health and hygiene ◦ On the contrary, poor consumers were concerned with the quality and hygiene of street foods ◦ Awareness of the nutritional benefits of millet consumption was high ◦ Household incidences of diabetes is high among consumers (treated with Finger Millet Porridge)
    19. 19. Lessons Learned
    20. 20. Lessons for Policy Makers ◦ India’s food subsidy has grown more than 25 fold over the past two decades: $0.62 billion (1992) to $16.67 billion (2012). ◦ This subsidy will be further increased one the National Food Security Act will be implemented: Estimates are 1.1 to 3% of GDP. ◦ Production, Distribution, and Consumption related schemes have not engaged the urban poor ◦ Production schemes: Exclusively in rural areas ◦ Distribution schemes: Problems with leakage and corruption ◦ Consumption schemes: See the urban poor as passive beneficiaries  None of these schemes provide any employment opportunity for the urban poor
    21. 21. Engaging the Informal Sector in state run schemes Amma Unavagam ◦ Launched on February 24, 2013 (Jayalalithaa’s birthday). ◦ Offer ready-to-eat cooked food at subsidized rates to urban consumers at highly subsidized price. ◦ 200 outlets in the greater Chennai: 200, 000 people per day. ◦ Adverse impacts on street vendors? Street Food Voucher scheme? ◦ Market based food subsidy for the urban poor ◦ Vouchers to be used exclusively at street food vendors Engaging street vendors in RTE food distribution schemes such as ICDS, Mid Day Meal programs.
    22. 22. Enabling Policy Environment ◦ Current policy on health and safety standards of street food is drafted by the Confederation of Indian Industry! ◦ Street Vending Act (2014): ◦ Licensing and Legitimacy ◦ Greater voice for vendors?  Opportunities for food scientists improving the nutrition and quality of street foods  Limited understanding of the street food vending environment  Participatory approaches to link food scientists with vendors.  Opportunities to improve nutrition and diversity ◦ Role for NGOs ◦ linking small farmers with urban consumers via street food vendors ◦ capacity building for street vendors (micro credit, financial services)
    23. 23. Acknowledgements •Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) •International Development Research Center (IDRC) •Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) •Development for Humane Action Foundation (DHAN) •Esther Parameswari, Anwar Khan, and B. Gerard (translation)
    24. 24. Thanks!

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