Improved agronomy: Option for raising the
interest of finger millet farmers in Nepal
Presented at the International Food S...
• Finger millet is the fourth most important cereal crop of Nepal in
terms of area and production
• Despite having tremend...
• A survey named as “Sustainable Agriculture Kit survey” revealed
that raising nursery, transplanting, weeding and harvest...
• Finger millet is relayed with Maize in high hills and as mono-crop
in the foot hills. We considered maize in the agronom...
• All the experiments were single replicated i.e one farmer as one
replication
• Each experiment had a single block with t...
Studysites
Banke
Kapilbastu
Rupandehi
Nawalparasi
Parsa
Chitwan
Bardiya
Bara
Rautahat
Sarlahi
Mahottari
Dhanusa
Si
raha Su...
• We expected direct seeding to reduce the labour requirement
and drudgery faced in raising finger millet nursery
Resultso...
• Yield of direct seeding of finger millet as relay crop in maize with
traditional method of maize finger millet relay cro...
• Direct seeding as mono-crop was compared with direct seeding as
relay crop (N=7)
Testingdirectseedinginfingermillet,2012...
• Yield of direct seeded finger millet in line as relay crop with
maize was compared with traditional method of transplant...
• Difficult to maintain uniformity
while seeding
• Backache while seeding
• Not acceptable unless any
machine is available...
• We expected line transplanting of finger millet seedlings to
reduce the labour requirement and drudgery faced in weeding...
Linetransplantingoffingermillet,2013
SN Treatment/practice Mean yield
(kg/ha)
Test statistics
1 Line transplanting of
fing...
Plantpopulationintestandcontrolplots,2013
SN Treatment/practice Mean plant
population/m2
Test statistics
1 Line transplant...
Group discussions and survey
study showed that
• Line transplanting makes
weeding easy and requires less
• Maintenance of ...
• We intended to demonstrate benefits of finger millet legume
inter crop over no intercrop
Resultsoffingermilletlegumeinte...
• Cow pea was grown as inter crop just before the harvest of maize
• 44% more economic benefit was observed
• Cowpea not p...
• Black gram and soybean were intercropped
• 15% more economic benefit was observed
• farmers are willing to test in large...
• Maize auto-seeder was tested in 2013 to demonstrate line
transplanting in maize to facilitate line sowing and line
trans...
Perceptionoffarmersonauto-seeder
• In 2014, More than 70 farmers have tried auto-seeder in their
plots ranging from almost...
• It reduces the cost of labour
and draft power
• It can be handled by women
and children very easily
• Maize can be sown ...
• Direct seeding method in finger millet is appropriate in mono-
cropping conditions but not in relay crop with maize
• Li...
Thank You
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Sustainable Food Production: Improved agronomy: Option for raising the interest of finger millet farmers in Nepal

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Transcript of "Sustainable Food Production: Improved agronomy: Option for raising the interest of finger millet farmers in Nepal"

  1. 1. Improved agronomy: Option for raising the interest of finger millet farmers in Nepal Presented at the International Food Security Dialogue 2014 “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Sponsored By: Hosted By: Kamal Khadka, Asis Shrestha, Pashupati Chaudhary Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Nepal Correspondence: PO Box 324, Pokhara, Nepal, Email: kkhadka@libird.org
  2. 2. • Finger millet is the fourth most important cereal crop of Nepal in terms of area and production • Despite having tremendous potential for food and nutrition security finger millet is neglected by the National • Interest among farmers on finger millet cultivation is declining due to agronomic, social and cultural factors • Realizing the value of the crop, through IDRC and DFATD funded initiative “RESMISA”, we tried to identify the constraints and potential of finger millet cultivation in Nepal Background
  3. 3. • A survey named as “Sustainable Agriculture Kit survey” revealed that raising nursery, transplanting, weeding and harvesting were highly labour consuming • The study also showed that women contributed to the majority of work involved in finger millet cultivation • We tested different on-farm experiments to identify the labour reducing and women friendly agronomic interventions and also tested different machineries Background…
  4. 4. • Finger millet is relayed with Maize in high hills and as mono-crop in the foot hills. We considered maize in the agronomic interventions since the testing sites fall under maize-finger millet relay cropping system. • Varieties: Finger millet- Kabre Kodo 1, Maize- Manakamana 3 Experiments • Direct seeding of finger millet • Line sowing of maize and line sowing of finger millet • Line sowing of maize and line transplanting of finger millet • Line sowing of maize, line transplanting of finger millet and intercropping of legume in finger millet Methodology
  5. 5. • All the experiments were single replicated i.e one farmer as one replication • Each experiment had a single block with two plots i.e. one test plot and the other control • Maize spacing (75 cm x 25 cm) and finger millet (15cm x 10 cm) • Farmers’ feedback collected through group discussions and survey Testing small machines/hand tools • Auto-seeder tested in trials and a few farmers’ plots Methodology
  6. 6. Studysites Banke Kapilbastu Rupandehi Nawalparasi Parsa Chitwan Bardiya Bara Rautahat Sarlahi Mahottari Dhanusa Si raha Sunsari Kailalai Dang Kanchanpur Jhapa Saptari Morang Palpa Dolaka Sindhupalchok Rasuwa Rhamechtap Sindhuli Taplejung Dhading Makwanpur Manang Mustang Gorkha Myagdi Baglung Gulmi Arghakhanchi Dolpa Lamjung Tanahu Kaski Parbat Syangja Kavrepalanchok Bhaktapur Lalitpur Kathmandu Nuwakot Mugu Humla Jumla Kalikot Rukum Sankhuwasabha Solukhumbu Panchthar Ilam Terhathum Dhankuta Bhojpur Khotang Okhaldhunga Udayapur Rolpa Pyuthan Salyan JajarkotDailekh Surkhet Bajura Bajhang Darchula AchhamDoti Baitadi Dadeldhura Dhading district Kaski district
  7. 7. • We expected direct seeding to reduce the labour requirement and drudgery faced in raising finger millet nursery Resultsofdirectseedingexperiments
  8. 8. • Yield of direct seeding of finger millet as relay crop in maize with traditional method of maize finger millet relay cropping (N=15) Directseedinginfingermillet,2012 SN Treatment/practice Mean yield (kg/ha) Test statistic 1 Direct seeding of finger millet in line as relay crop with maize 853.3 t = -5.14 on 14 d.f.; Probability < 0.001 2 Traditional method of transplanting of finger millet as relay crop with maize 2,113.3
  9. 9. • Direct seeding as mono-crop was compared with direct seeding as relay crop (N=7) Testingdirectseedinginfingermillet,2012 SN Treatment/practice Mean yield (kg/ha) Test statistic 1 Direct seeding as mono- cropping 2026.2 t = 4.35 on 6 d.f.; Probability = 0.005 2 Direct seeding as relay crop with maize 996.6
  10. 10. • Yield of direct seeded finger millet in line as relay crop with maize was compared with traditional method of transplanting of finger millet as a relay crop with maize (N=15) Directseedinginfingermillet,2013 SN Treatment/practice Mean yield (kg/ha) Test statistic 1 Direct seeded finger millet in line as relay crop with maize 665.4 t = -10.26 on 14 d.f.; Probability < 0.001 2 Transplanted finger millet in traditional method as relay crop with maize 2,110.3
  11. 11. • Difficult to maintain uniformity while seeding • Backache while seeding • Not acceptable unless any machine is available • The result clearly indicated that direct seeding is not appropriate for maize millet relay cropping Farmers’perceptionondirectseeding,2013
  12. 12. • We expected line transplanting of finger millet seedlings to reduce the labour requirement and drudgery faced in weeding Resultsoflinetransplantingoffingermillet
  13. 13. Linetransplantingoffingermillet,2013 SN Treatment/practice Mean yield (kg/ha) Test statistics 1 Line transplanting of finger millet 1,174.2 t = 5.50 on 14 d.f.; Probability < 0.001 2 Traditional practice of transplanting finger millet 1,949.4 Note: N= 15 • Nationally recommended spacing in finger millet not appropriate in farmers’ condition since weed was one of the biggest problems
  14. 14. Plantpopulationintestandcontrolplots,2013 SN Treatment/practice Mean plant population/m2 Test statistics 1 Line transplanting of finger millet 60.8 t = -19.60 on 4 d.f. Probability < 0.001 2 Traditional practice of transplanting finger millet 190.6 • Plant population in the test plots was less than 3 times lower than the farmers’ practice leading to low yield (N= 5)
  15. 15. Group discussions and survey study showed that • Line transplanting makes weeding easy and requires less • Maintenance of proper spacing important to increase yield • 45% women and 61% men showed interest to try line transplanting in the following year Farmersresponseonlinetransplanting
  16. 16. • We intended to demonstrate benefits of finger millet legume inter crop over no intercrop Resultsoffingermilletlegumeintercropping
  17. 17. • Cow pea was grown as inter crop just before the harvest of maize • 44% more economic benefit was observed • Cowpea not preferred as intercrop due to its growth habit Intercroppinglegumeinfingermillet,2012 SN Treatment/practice Mean gross benefit (NRs) Test statistic 1 Gross benefit from maize and millet only 104,678.4 t = -8.33 on 4 d.f. Probability = 0.001 2 Gross benefit from maize, millet and legume 150,683.5
  18. 18. • Black gram and soybean were intercropped • 15% more economic benefit was observed • farmers are willing to test in larger plots in the following year Intercroppinglegumeinfingermillet,2013 SN Treatment/practice Mean gross benefit (NRs) Test statistic 1 Gross benefit from maize and millet only 170,174 t = 2.47 on 15 d.f. Probability = 0.0262 Gross benefit from maize, millet and legume 195,745
  19. 19. • Maize auto-seeder was tested in 2013 to demonstrate line transplanting in maize to facilitate line sowing and line transplanting of finger millet Resultsoftestingmaizeauto-seeder
  20. 20. Perceptionoffarmersonauto-seeder • In 2014, More than 70 farmers have tried auto-seeder in their plots ranging from almost from 300 m2 to 1500 m2. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Useful Not useful Will adopt it Not sure about adoption Nooffarmers Perception (Male=12, Female=13) Male Female
  21. 21. • It reduces the cost of labour and draft power • It can be handled by women and children very easily • Maize can be sown in line with this machine • The machine can be adjusted and can be used for other cereals Generalfeedbackoffarmersonauto-seeder
  22. 22. • Direct seeding method in finger millet is appropriate in mono- cropping conditions but not in relay crop with maize • Line transplanting of finger millet seedlings as a relay crop to maize appears more promising than traditional method of transplanting • Economic benefits clearly demonstrated benefit of intercropping legumes in finger millet • Maize auto-seeder helps line sowing of maize which in turn facilitate line transplanting in finger millet leading to reduced drudgery and efficiency in weeding Conclusion
  23. 23. Thank You
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