Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index - IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar


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Presented as part of the IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar Series, hosted by the IFPRI Gender Task Force. Presenter: Hazel Malapit.

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Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index - IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar

  1. 1. Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index Hazel Malapit Gender Methods Seminar November 19, 2013
  2. 2. Background • New survey-based tool designed to measure women’s empowerment and inclusion in the agriculture sector • Developed by USAID, IFPRI and OPHI as a monitoring tool for the U.S. government’s Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative • Rolled out to 19 FTF countries
  3. 3. What is empowerment? • Similar to Kabeer (2001), we define empowerment as the expansion of people’s ability to make strategic life choices, within their households and their communities, particularly in contexts where this ability has been limited
  4. 4. What is new about the WEAI? • Index components designed to be applicable across countries and cultures • Men and women from the same household are interviewed • The index applies to women in households with male adults--as well as those with only female adults • The survey questionnaire modules focus on men’s and women’s empowerment in agriculture
  5. 5. Scope of the WEAI • Focus is strictly on empowerment in agriculture, distinct from: – Economic status – Education – Empowerment in other domains This enables clear analysis of external determinates of empowerment in agriculture. • WEAI is international; Local adaptation possible.
  6. 6. How is the Index constructed? WEAI is made up of two sub indices Five domains of empowerment (5DE) A direct measure of women’s empowerment in 5 dimensions Gender parity Index (GPI) Women’s achievement’s relative to the primary male in hh Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) All range from zero to one; higher values = greater empowerment
  7. 7. A woman’s empowerment score shows her own achievements Five domains of empowerment
  8. 8. Who is empowered? A woman who has achieved ‘adequacy’ in 80% or more of the weighted indicators is empowered
  9. 9. 5DE Methodology Alkire and Foster 2011. J of Public Economics. • The 5DE is based on the Alkire Foster methodology and reflects: – Incidence of Empowerment - The percentage of women who are empowered – Adequacy among the Disempowered - The weighted share of indicators in which disempowered women enjoy adequate achievements • Based on each woman’s empowerment profile • Identifies who is empowered • Shows how women are disempowered • Rigorous properties
  10. 10. Gender Parity Index (GPI) Reflects two things: 1. The percentage of women who enjoy gender parity. A woman enjoys gender parity if – she is empowered or – if her empowerment score is equal to or greater than the empowerment score of the primary male in her household. 2. The empowerment gap - the average percentage shortfall that a woman without parity experiences relative to the male in her household. The GPI adapts the Foster Greer Thorbecke Poverty Gap measure to reflect gender parity.
  11. 11. Formula 5DE = He + Hd × Ae He is the percentage of empowered women Hd is the percentage of disempowered women Ae is the average absolute empowerment score among the disempowered GPI = I – (HGPI × IGPI) HGPI is percentage of gender parity-inadequate households IGPI is the average empowerment gap between women and men living in households that lack gender parity
  12. 12. Lilian is Empowered
  13. 13. Lilian, Uganda Empowerment Score = 83% Has achieved parity with her husband Wilson
  14. 14. Seema is Disempowered
  15. 15. Seema, Bangladesh Empowerment Score = 64% She has not achieved parity with her husband On average, disempowered women in the Bangladesh pilot have empowerment scores of 61%
  16. 16. The Pilots Conducted pilots in 3 FTF countries in different regions and different socio-cultural contexts, focused on the zone of influence: • Bangladesh, Guatemala, Uganda • Split roughly 20/80 between single female and dual adult households • ~350 households/625 individuals each Collaborators: • Data Analysis and Technical Assistance, Ltd. (Bangladesh), • Vox Latina (Guatemala), • Associates Research Uganda Limited (Uganda).
  17. 17. Case studies Case studies consisted of interviews on five domains with narratives to explain answers, describe “life stories,” and get concepts of empowerment from men and women themselves “Being empowered, it means that the woman can do things too, not just the man” ~ Woman, Guatemala aged 63
  18. 18. Bangladesh pilot results • 39% of women are empowered • Disempowered women have adequate achievements in 58.4% of domains • 59.8% of women enjoy gender parity • Households without gender parity have a 25.2% empowerment gap between the woman and man Overall, the WEAI score is 0.762
  19. 19. Bangladesh: How to increase empowerment? Proportion of women not empowered and who have inadequate achievements by indicator in Bangladesh sample
  20. 20. Bangladesh: How to increase empowerment? Policies need to focus on improving women's control over income
  21. 21. Limitations • Women engaged in non-agriculture decisions only may appear disempowered • Female-only HHs more likely to appear empowered because of focus on decisionmaking questions • Focus on agriculture may not capture other domains of empowerment that may be more relevant to specific desired outcomes • Nuances behind domains not fully captured
  22. 22. How will the WEAI be used? 1. As a monitoring indicator for FTF to evaluate whether programs are having intended effect on women's empowerment 2. As a diagnostic tool to help identify areas in which women and men are disempowered, so that programs and policies can be targeted to those areas 3. Conducting more research: testing new indicators/assessing validity in different contexts, etc.
  23. 23. For more information: • Alkire, S., Meinzen-Dick, R., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A. R., Seymour, G. and A. Vaz. 2012. “The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index,” World Development, Vol. 52, pp.71-91. • WEAI Resource Center: http://www.ifpri.org/book- 9075/ourwork/program/weai-resource-center • Email me! Hazel Malapit: h.malapit@cgiar.org
  24. 24. Preliminary WEAI Scores Country Region WEAI Score Ranking Bangladesh Asia 0.66 Low Cambodia Asia 0.98 High Nepal Asia 0.80 Medium Tajikistan Asia 0.69 Low Haiti Latin America & Caribbean 0.85 High Honduras Latin America & Caribbean 0.75 Medium Kenya East Africa 0.72 Low Rwanda East Africa 0.91 High Uganda East Africa 0.86 High Ghana West Africa 0.72 Low Liberia West Africa 0.69 Low Malawi Southern Africa 0.84 Medium Zambia Southern Africa 0.80 Medium
  25. 25. Preliminary Disempowerment scores for women (1 – 5DE) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Disempowerment Index (1 - 5DE)