WEAI Global Synthesis Report Presentation - Dhaka Gender Workshop
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  • 1. Measuring Progress Toward Empowerment Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index: Baseline Report Chiara Kovarik, Senior Research Assistant, IFPRI Gender and Agriculture: A Focus on Bangladesh June 18, 2014
  • 2. Overview • How the WEAI is constructed • WEAI cross country results • Examine major constraints to empowerment • Compare the WEAI and selected indicators: – Factors that might affect empowerment • Income • Education – Outcomes that might result from empowerment • Household hunger score • Maternal behavior • Summary
  • 3. How is the Index constructed? Five domains of empowerment (5DE) A direct measure of women’s empowerment in 5 dimensions Gender parity Index (GPI) Women’s achievement’s relative to the primary male in hh Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) WEAI is made up of two sub indices All range from zero to one; higher values = greater empowerment
  • 4. 5DE, GPI, and WEAI Scores Country Region 5DE GPI WEAI Ranking Bangladesh Asia 0.65 0.80 0.66 Low Cambodia Asia 0.98 0.99 0.98 High Nepal Asia 0.79 0.89 0.80 Medium Tajikistan Asia 0.68 0.79 0.69 Low Haiti Latin America & Caribbean 0.83 0.94 0.85 High Honduras Latin America & Caribbean 0.74 0.87 0.75 Medium Kenya East Africa 0.71 0.81 0.72 Low Rwanda East Africa 0.90 0.96 0.91 High Uganda East Africa 0.85 0.92 0.86 High Ghana West Africa 0.70 0.81 0.71 Low Liberia West Africa 0.66 0.95 0.69 Low Malawi Southern Africa 0.83 0.91 0.84 Medium Zambia Southern Africa 0.79 0.89 0.80 Medium
  • 5. Women’s Disempowerment scores (1-5DE) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 DisempowermentIndex(1-5DE) Leisure Workload Speaking in public Group member Control over use of income Access to and decisions on credit Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets Ownership of assets Autonomy in production Input in productive decisions
  • 6. #1 Constraint: Access to and decisions on credit 0.49 0.05 0.40 0.73 0.39 0.66 0.63 0.24 0.32 0.60 0.67 0.41 0.53 0.00 0.15 0.30 0.45 0.60 0.75 Proportionofwomennotempoweredandwho haveinadequateachievement
  • 7. #2 Constraint: Workload 0.26 0.04 0.39 0.13 0.27 0.25 0.42 0.21 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.33 0.52 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 Proportionofwomennotempoweredandwho haveinadequateachievement
  • 8. #3 Constraint: Group membership 0.58 0.03 0.55 0.56 0.35 0.33 0.27 0.14 0.17 0.26 0.27 0.21 0.23 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Proportionofwomennotempoweredandwho haveinadequateachievement
  • 9. Per capita expenditure (US$) Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Haiti Honduras Kenya Liberia Malawi Nepal Rwanda Tajikistan Uganda Zambia 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 0.75 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 WEAIScore per capita expenditure, US$
  • 10. Education: highest household achievement Households with no or primary education Households with secondary education Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Kenya Malawi Nepal Rwanda Zambia 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 WEAIScore Secondary education as highest level, % Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Kenya Malawi Nepal Rwanda Zambia 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 55 65 75 85 95 WEAIScore None or primary education as highest level, % Note: Correlation coefficient is significant (excluding Cambodia).
  • 11. Households with moderate or severe hunger (%) Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Haiti Honduras Kenya Liberia Malawi Nepal Rwanda Tajikistan Uganda Zambia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 Prevalenceofhouseholdswithmoderateorsevere hunger,% WEAI Score
  • 12. Maternal behavior Minimum Acceptable Diet Children 6-23 months receiving MAD Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Uganda Honduras Kenya HaitiNepal Rwanda Tajikistan MalawiZambia 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Childrenachievingminimumacceptablediet,% WEAI Score Exclusive breastfeeding Children < 6 months exclusively breastfed Bangladesh Cambodia Ghana Haiti Honduras Kenya MalawiNepal Rwanda Tajikistan Uganda Zambia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Prevalenceofexclusivebreastfeeding,% WEAI Score
  • 13. Summary • Greatest constraints: Too little credit, too much work and not enough groups! • Comparison with men: – On average women are 2X as disempowered as men – Women are almost 2X as disempowered as men in their ability to access and make decisions regarding credit, and over 1.5X as disempowered with respect to workload and group membership – While the magnitude of women’s disempowerment is greater, men are also disempowered in these domains • Geographic patterns: Specific constraints dominate certain regions • WEAI and poverty, health and nutrition outcomes: – TheWEAI is most strongly associated with household educational achievement,income, and maternal behavior (prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and children receiving a minimum acceptable diet)
  • 14. WEAI RESOURCE CENTER http://www.ifpri.org/book-9075/ourwork/program/weai-resource-center Any questions? Contact: Chiara Kovarik: c.kovarik@cgiar.org