WEAI and Agricultural Productivity Presentation - Dhaka Gender Workshop

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WEAI and Agricultural Productivity Presentation - Dhaka Gender Workshop

  1. 1. Women’s Empowerment and Agricultural Productivity in Bangladesh Greg Seymour PhD student American University Washington, DC
  2. 2. Linkages Between Empowerment and Agricultural Productivity • Greater access to human capital – Improved work capacity – Knowledge of modern agricultural science and technology • Greater access to physical capital – Increased control over productive resources – Stronger incentives to invest in land
  3. 3. 0 Input, X Output, Y Production frontier, Y=f(X) C A Male- managed farms Female- managed farms B Measuring Agricultural Productivity Technical efficiency Ratio of actual output to maximum technologically feasible output
  4. 4. Existing Evidence • Gender productivity gaps do exist – Africa • Holden et al. (2001);Tiruneh andVerkuijl (2001); Bezabih and Holden (2006); Goldstein and Udry (2008) – Bangladesh • Asadullah and Rahman (2009) • Gender productivity gaps do not exist – Africa • Horrell and Krishnan (2007); Githinji et al. (2011);,Alene et al. (2008); Peterman et al. (2011); Oladeebo and Fajuyigbe (2007); Kinkingninhoun-Medagbe et al. (2010); Ndlovu et al. (2014) – Bangladesh • Rahman (2010) • Lack of consensus may stem from methodological challenges
  5. 5. How to identify women’s role in farm management? • Most existing studies distinguish between male- and female- managed farms based on the sex of the household head. 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% Women’s plot ownership and participation in decision- making in Bangladesh Source: 2011-2012 BIHS, Author’s calculations
  6. 6. Primary Objective • Can differences in technical efficiency be explained by women’s empowerment? – Does this relationship depend on women’s role in farm management? 0 Input, X Output, Y Production frontier, Y=f(X) C A Male- managed farms Female- managed farms B
  7. 7. Data • 2011-2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) – Conducted by IFPRI and DATA • Only households engaged in crop agriculture – 3,369 (51.8%) of 6,503 households – 4,797 plots of land – 3 crop seasons • Total sample size: 7,387 plot-level, season-specific observations
  8. 8. PrimaryVariables of Interest • Indicators of women’s empowerment – Empowerment score – Empowerment gap – Group membership – Speaking in public • Indicators of women’s role in farm management – Socially recognized ownership – Legally recognized ownership – Participation in decision-making
  9. 9. Results Is technical efficiency associated with women’s empowerment? • Associated with higher levels of technical efficiency – Group membership • No statistically significant association – Empowerment score – Speaking in public – Empowerment gap
  10. 10. Results Is technical efficiency associated with women’s role in farm management? • Associated with lower levels of technical efficiency – Legally recognized ownership • No statistically significant association – Socially recognized ownership – Participation in decision-making • No interaction between group membership and women’s role in farm management
  11. 11. Conclusions and Policy Implications • Pattern of gender gaps speaks to the presence of unobservable factors that affect women only when they hold the title to a plot of land – Linkages between credit and land markets? • Women’s empowerment is predicted to increase technical efficiency of all plots operated by the household – May indicate positive spillover effects to other household members from investment in groups and social relationships
  12. 12. Thank you!

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