School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                               Unde...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                 Ma...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                 LA...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                          Land–Mode...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                              LAND-...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                      Any          ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                          What Woul...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences            Phyical assets & Consumer durables                     ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                           PERCEPTI...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                                   ...
School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences                                                          Presentat...
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Presentation final ifpri workshop

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Presentation final ifpri workshop

  1. 1. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Understanding the gendered control of assets: Findings from Uganda Gorettie Nabanoga and Justine Namaalwa School of Forestry, Environment and Geographical Studies Makerere University October 2011 Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  2. 2. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Project Goal/Objectives  HOW- People gain secure access to assets including land The patterns differ for women and men The formal legal frameworks and social norms, including marital and inheritance patterns, shape the individual’s access to land and other assets Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  3. 3. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Uganda- Study districts Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  4. 4. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Study sites Selection - based on the differences in land tenure regimes and culture  3 Districts Sample size (n) District Male Female Total Kapchorwa 121 117 238 Kibaale 122 149 271 Luweero 111 150 261 Total 354 416 770 Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  5. 5. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences METHODOLOGY Focus group discussions  [2 per village, separate for men and women]  Key Informants  [Up to 4 per village]  Surveys  [HH=379; Indv=770] Primary Respondent Other individuals (>18 yrs up to 3 pple) Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  6. 6. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Major Assets considered Major Assets Considerations  Acquistion & Ownership patterns • Land & Dwelling  Bundles of Rights  Marital and Inheritence • Livestock Regimes  Fate of Property • Financial  Individual Perceptions  Extra Ordinary Losses and • Phyical assets Shocks  Conflicts  Assets involved  Parties involved in Resolving Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  7. 7. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Bundles of Rights • Use rights: – Access , Withdrawal • Control rights: – Exclusion – Management – Alienation (transfer/Sell/Bequeath) • Usufruct (earn income from) Strengthening someone’s control rights weakens others’ use rights Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  8. 8. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences The study Provides empirical evidence of: • The concept of ownership in the context of legal pluralism – Goes beyond legalistic definition & considers the social/cultural definition • The importance of the various social & cultural institutions in asset ownership & accumulation – Marriage +++Inheritance regimes Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  9. 9. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Demographics Marital Regimes 100% Divorced 90% Widowed 80% Single % of Respondents 70% 60% Consensual 50% Statutory&Religiou 40% s 30% Customary Education 20% 100% 10% 90% 0% 80% Male Female Male Female Male Female 70% 60% Tertiary 50% 40% A-Level KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO 30% O-Level 20% Primary 10% No Education Male Female 0% Female Female Female Male Male Male Kapchorwa 121 117 Kibaale 122 149 Luwero 111 150 KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  10. 10. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences LAND – Reported Ownership 100% Joint-Other 90% Joint-Spouse 80% Sole Female 70% Sole Male 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Male Female Male Female Male Female KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO Individualistic Joint • Joint Ownership was often Parcels Parcels reported Men 110 259 • Individualistic ownership more Women 94 common in Kibaale and Luweero Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  11. 11. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Land–Mode of Acquistion & Ownership Individual Female Land Owners Individual Male Land owners (n=94) (n=110) Inheritance Gift/Transfer Sole Purchase Joint Purchase Rent/Lease Through Spouse Joint land Owners • Female owners (n=329) – Mainly inherit & receive gifts/ transfers – Several purchases • Male Owners – More likely - Purchased & Inheritence • Jointly owned Parcels – Joint Purchases – Inheritence & Through spouse = customary notions Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  12. 12. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Female Land Owners- Source inherited land & Gifts/Transfers Gifts/ Marital Status of Women Individual Kapchorwa Inherited Transfers Land Owners (n=94) Respondent’s mother 5% 4% 4% Respondent’s father 2 1 15% Other relative 1 Spouse 5 1 6% Government 3 Kibaale Respondent’s mother 1 1 Respondent’s father 2 Other relative 1 65% Spouse 5 3 Government 1 Luweero Respondent’s Customary Statutory/Religious mother 1 3 Consensual Single/Never Married Respondent’s father 5 1 Widowed Divorced/Separated Other relative 3 3 Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011 Spouse 4 3
  13. 13. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences LAND- Ownership Documents Who owns a given ”Perceived” parcel of land Documents Exisiting • No Documentation = 27% How was it Acquired • Some Document = 73% – Sales Receipts/Agreements = 80% – Registered Deed = 6% – Other documents e.g will = 15% Any form of Documentation “Lack of registered deed ≠ imply insecurity of ownership” Names • Individualistic Parcels Names on the document – Majority had personal names • Joint parcels – Mainly the names of male partner Legalistic Ownership Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  14. 14. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Any document Registered % of men or women in Perceived in own deed in that district N= Ownership name own name Kapchorwa Men 113 80% 59% 3% Kapchorwa Women 125 69% 20% 1% Kibaale Men 122 67% 57% 3% Kibaale Women 149 60% 22% 0% Luweero Men 111 61% 39% 0% Luweero Women 150 49% 17% 3% Total 770 63% 34% 2% Total Men 346 69% 52% 2% Total Women 424 58% 20% 1% Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  15. 15. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences What Would Qualify ”Ownership”? Form of Acquisition Some proof of Ownership OWN AN ASSET • Individually • Jointly = Prior consultations Control Rights Use Rights •Exclusion • Access •Management • WIthdrawal •Alienation (transfer) Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  16. 16. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences BUNDLES OF RIGHTS Perceived Sell Bequeath Rent Rent out Owner-ship Sell alone Bequeath alone out alone Kapchorwa M 80% 57% 2% 64% 3% 57% 4% Kapchorwa W 69% 42% 2% 42% 2% 42% 3% Kibaale M 67% 39% 4% 47% 5% 45% 3% Kibaale W 60% 19% 4% 19% 5% 28% 6% Luweero M 61% 28% 5% 38% 18% 33% 7% Luweero W 49% 15% 5% 16% 9% 20% 6% Total 63% 32% 4% 36% 7% 36% 5% Total Men 69% 41% 4% 49% 8% 45% 5% Total Women 58% 25% 4% 25% 5% 29% 5% Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  17. 17. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Sources of Land Insecurity 35 Any Other Reasons 30 Illness of myself No. of Insecure Respondents 25 Death of HH head Eviction_Political person 20 Eviction_extended family 15 Eviction_landlord 10 5 0 Male Female Male Female Male Female KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO Sex of Respondent by District • Evictions by Extended family and/Death of HH head • Customary norms prevailing • Resettled/immigrant communities – Evictions by landlord; Situations of Bibanja holders = Absentee landlords Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  18. 18. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Phyical assets & Consumer durables • Luweero and Kibaale-highest no. physical assets • Rural people accumulate less of the luxurious assets Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  19. 19. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Shocks & Assets Sold/Pawned 45 • Respondents were 40 35 asked if they had experienced a shock No. Cases 30 25 and how they had 20 15 coped 10 5 0 • One response to Illness_P Illness _Other Death HH_member Death HH_member Death HH_member Natural Disasters Natural Disasters Natural Disasters Iillness _ HH member Iillness _ HH member Personal illness Personal illness shocks is to sell assets Robbery Robbery Robbery • Although patterns differ KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO by district, the most Major Shock common asset to sell in response to shocks is Livestock, Land, other assets & dwelling livestock Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  20. 20. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences CONFLICTS • Most of the Conflicts were related to land – Ownership rights • Most conflicts have Role Players Kapchorwa Kibaale Luweero been or were under resolution Community leader (clan/elder) 59% 31% 27% Local • Kapchorwa = Active Court/Official 14% 25% 35% Paralegals who worked Family 23% 34% 30% in hand with traditional leaders Other 4% 9% 8% Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  21. 21. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences PERCEPTIONS- INHERITANCE REGIMES Equal Right to Inherit a House/Land Right for Wives to Inherit a Land/House 100% 100% 80% 80% 60% 60% 40% 40% Dont know 20% Yes 20% No 0% 0% Female Female Female Male Male Male Female Female Female Male Male Male KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO Right for Women to Claim House upon Divorce 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Male Female Male Female Male Female KAPCHORWA KIBALE LUWEERO Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  22. 22. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Key Messages 1. Socio-cultural meaning/perception of property (esp. land) ownership is different from the legalistic definition 2. Land is one of the most important assets – Productive resource after which accumulation of other assets is facilitated • Use of land to manage other resources e.g. livestock • Use of the proceedings from the land-based activities e.g.cultivation to purchase other assets • Land as collateral – This implies that secure access to and/or ownership of land would greatly enhance • economic wellbeing, choice of livelihood, social status, empowerment, asset accumulation for all individuals in the community and more specifically the women
  23. 23. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Key Messages cont’d 3. We need to devise ways of securing women’s existing property rights – Women’s access to assets depends on different stages of their life cycle (Daughter, wife, widow) 4. Even though rural communities would aspire to register their land rights (titling), the process has not benefitted rural communities 5. Our findings challenge the western notion of ownership Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011
  24. 24. School of Forestry, Environment & Geographical sciences Presentation at Gender and Assets Workshop - IFPRI, Washington DC. 13th Oct. 2011

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