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HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
HKI GAAP Presentation
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HKI GAAP Presentation

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  • 1. Helen Keller International’s Enhanced- Homestead Food Production (E-HFP) Program: Impacts on Women's Ownership and Control Over Assets, Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Dietary Diversity, and Children’s and Women’s Nutritional Status Presented by: Deanna Olney IFPRI research team: Andrew Dillon, Mara van den Bold, Julia Behrman, Esteban Quiñones, Lilia Bliznashka, Agnes Quisumbing and Marie Ruel HKI program implementation team: Marcellin Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye Pedehombga, Hippolyte Rouamba and Olivier Vebamba
  • 2. Enhanced-Homestead Food Production (E-HFP) program in Burkina Faso  Targeted to women with children 3-12 months of age at baseline  Eastern region, Gourma Province, Fada district  Water shortages inhibit having a second cultivation season  High prevalence of malnutrition (stunting 30%, underweight 30%, wasting 14%, anemia 92%)  Food insecurity  Suboptimal maternal and child health and nutrition practices  Limited availability, access and use of health services  Overall goal to improve women’s and children’s nutritional status
  • 3. Program impact pathways for HKI’s E-HFP program in Burkina Faso BCC training on ENA for beneficiaries Outcomes ImpactInputs Process Outputs HKI, APRG and governmental structures (Ministries of Health, Agriculture , Animals, Environ ment, and the Promotion of Women, local authorities and officials) work together Training in plant and animal production techniques for master trainers BCC training on ENA for community level nutrition trainers Develop a training strategy in animal; and plant production techniques BCC training on ENA for master trainers Develop a behavior change communication (BCC) strategy with regards to Essential Nutrition Actions (ENA) Training in plant and animal production techniques for Village Farm Leaders (VFL) Village Model Farms (VMF) established Training in plant and animal production techniques for beneficiaries Establishment of individual farms (40 women per village) Improved maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes Agriculture and zoological inputs distributed Improvements in small ruminant and poultry production Improvements in fruit and vegetable production Improvements in household consumption Increased Income Beneficiaries received and understood BCC training on ENA Improvements in nutrition and feeding practices for children, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers Adoption of agriculture practices Women’s empowerment improved Women’s assets increased Increased availability of micronutrient- rich fruits and vegetables Adoption of ENA practices by beneficiaries Improvements in care & hygiene practices for children, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers Beneficiaries received and understood agriculture training Increased availability of food from animal origin
  • 4. Comprehensive Evaluation Design  Impact evaluation  Cluster-randomized controlled trial  15 “older women leader” villages (OWL villages)  15 “health committee” villages (HC villages)  25 control villages (Control villages)  Longitudinal design  Baseline Feb-May 2010  Endline Feb-May 2012  Quantitative household survey along with children’s growth and hemoglobin measures  Two rounds of process evaluation including specific qualitative research on gender related topics including ownership and control over agricultural assets  Random sample of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries  Purposive sample of key informants  Longitudinal design  First round May-June 2011  Second round May-June 2012  Qualitative semi-structured interviews
  • 5. Key Questions for GAAP Key Questions Impact evaluation Qualitative research 1. Did the E-HFP program influence men’s and women’s ownership of assets? x 2. Were women able to maintain control over the E-HFP activities and outputs? x x 3. Did the E-HFP program influence community norms related to women’s land ownership or land rights? x 4. Did exposure to nutrition education diffused through village health committee members (HC) increase knowledge and uptake of new practices as compared to that diffused through older women leaders (OWL) or vice versa? x
  • 6. Did the E-HFP program increase women’s and/or men’s ownership of assets?
  • 7. Impact of the E-HFP program on men’s and women’s ownership of assets 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Men's durables baseline Men's durables endline Women's durables baseline Women's durables endline Treatment Control 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Men's agriculture assets baseline Men's agriculture assets endline Women's agriculture assets baseline Women's agriculture assets endline Treatment Control *** *** Note: Comparison is to a control group that did not receive any program services. All estimates controlled for clustering, and attrition. All values are coefficient (SE). ** p < 0.05, *** p <0.01 0 5 10 15 20 25 Men's small animals baseline Men's small animals endline Women's small animals baseline Women's small animals endline Treatment Control *** ** Figure 1: Change in men’s and women’s ownership of household durables Figure 2: Change in men’s and women’s ownership of agriculture assets Figure 3: Change in men’s and women’s ownership of small animals
  • 8. Were women able to maintain control over the E-HFP activities and outputs?
  • 9. Perceived ownership and responsibility for making decisions and managing revenue from produce and chickens 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Owns land for garden (2011) Owns land for garden (2012) Beneficiary Husband 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Makes decisions on produce (2011) Makes decisions on produce (2012) Beneficiary Husband 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Manages revenue generated from produce (2011) Manages revenue generated from produce (2012) Beneficiary Husband 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Manages revenue generated from chickens (2011) Manages revenue generated from chickens (2012) Beneficiary Husband
  • 10. Did the E-HFP program influence community norms related to women’s land ownership or land rights?
  • 11. Perceived obstacles to women’s ability to own and use land  Land for agricultural production is primarily obtained through inheritance and gifts.  In general, men obtain land through inheritance  Women generally obtain land through marriage/widowhood or through gifts.  Respondents in both beneficiary villages (56%m-63%f) and non- beneficiary villages (46%m-51%f) reported obstacles to women’s ability to own land, mainly due to traditional / social barriers  Respondents in both beneficiary villages (36%m-40%f) and non- beneficiary villages (24%m-36%f) reported obstacles to women’s ability to use land, mainly due to lack of inputs such as seeds, fertilizers or tools and lack of rainfall as well as traditional practices.
  • 12. Perceived changes in women’s ability to own and use land by both women and men Women Men HC (n=70) OWL (n=75) Treatment (n=145) Control (n=75) HC (n=58) OWL (n=60) Treatment (n=118) Control (n=63) Change in opinion about who can own and use land 46 (66) 49 (65) 95 (62) 11 (15) 32 (55) 36 (60) 68 (57) 14 (22) Change in women’s ability to own land 18 (26) 15 (20) 33 (23) 1 (1) 16 (28) 15 (25) 31 (26) 2 (3) Change in women’s ability to use land 29 (41) 32 (43) 61 (42) 3 (4) 27 (47) 21 (35) 48 (41) 1 (2)
  • 13. Illustrative quotes from program implementers and beneficiaries “Thanks to HKI, women gain access to land when they ask for it.” “The women possess more and more land granted by their husbands.” “Thanks to HKI, I realized that a woman can garden. And the case of the VMF convinced me of the benefit.” “the women proved that they had the capabilities to manage the land well”
  • 14. Did exposure to nutrition education diffused through village health committee members (HC) increase knowledge and uptake of new practices as compared to that diffused through older women leaders (OWL) or vice versa?
  • 15. Impacts on maternal knowledge of optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and on dietary diversity Variable Control1 Treatment: OWL1 DID2 Treatment: HC1 DID2 Knowledge about IYCF practices 503 389 365 Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 mo of age Baseline 57% 73% 64% Endline 45% 30% 31%*** 22% 29%*** Introduction of liquids at 6 mo of age Baseline 39% 25% 33% Endline 54% 68% 28%*** 76% 27%*** Introduction of semi-solid foods at 6 mo of age Baseline 41% 33% 39% Endline 63% 73% 17%*** 76% 15%*** Dietary Diversity Household (1-12 food groups in past 7 days) (N) 596 441 440 Baseline 5.75 5.44 5.59 (1.68) (1.91) (1.94) Endline 5.11 5.42 0.540 5.77 0.78* (2.14) (2.01) (0.460) (2.13) (0.430) Children’s (4 out of 7 food groups in past 24 hours) (N) 310 220 231 Baseline 3% 3% 2% Endline 6% 15% 8.6% 18% 12.9%* Note: Comparison is to a control group that did not receive any program services. All estimates controlled for baseline age, sex, clustering, and attrition. All values are coefficient (SE). ** p < 0.05, *** p <0.01
  • 16. Summary  From the impact evaluation and process evaluations we found positive impacts of the E-HFP program in treatment compared to control villages on:  Women’s agriculture asset ownership (with a similar size negative impact on men’s ownership of agriculture assets) (combined treatment groups compared to control).  Women’s and men’s ownership of small animals (combined treatment groups compared to control).  Women's nutrition-related knowledge (Both HC and OWL compared to control).  Women’s ability to maintain and increase their control over products, assets and revenue related to the E-HFP program products.  Changes in perceptions and opinions about who can own and use land for agricultural production (combined treatment groups compared to control)  We also found positive impacts on dietary diversity but these positive impacts were limited to HC compared to control villages.
  • 17. Conclusions  Women’s participation in the E-HFP program increases their ownership and control over agriculture assets, has a positive influence on changing perceptions related to women’s ability to own and use land for agriculture purposes and improves their health and nutrition- related knowledge.  These positive changes were likely related to the positive changes we found on household and children’s dietary diversity although these were limited to HC villages.  Increasing women’s control over assets – specifically financial and physical assets such as land – has been shown to have positive impacts on food security, child nutrition, education, and women’s own well- being (Quisumbing 2003; Smith et al. 2003; World Bank 2001).
  • 18. Acknowledgements  Study participants  Helen Keller International (HKI) – especially the core E-HFP team in Burkina Faso (Abdoulaye Pedehombga, Marcellin Ouedraogo, Hippolyte Rouamba, Olivier Vebamba)  Data collectors in Burkina Faso  Research team at IFPRI and Michigan State University: Andrew Dillon, Julia Behrman, Esteban Quiñones, Mara van den Bold, Malek Abu-Jawdeh, Lilia Bliznashka, Agnes Quisumbing and Marie Ruel  Funding:  The Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)  Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project (GAAP), supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation  CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  • 19. THANKS!

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