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The Gender Asset Gap Project
 

The Gender Asset Gap Project

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Slides from dissemination workshop in Entebbe, Uganda; August 10-12, 2011

Slides from dissemination workshop in Entebbe, Uganda; August 10-12, 2011

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    The Gender Asset Gap Project The Gender Asset Gap Project Presentation Transcript

    • The Gender Asset Gap Project Dissemination Workshop Entebbe, Uganda August 10 12, 2011
    • Project team:India: Hema Swaminathan (PI), Suchitra J.Y., Rahul LahotiGhana: Abena Oduro (PI), William Baah Boateng, Louis Boakye YiadomEcuador: Carmen Diana Deere (PI), Jennifer Twyman, Jackeline Contreras DiazComparative Team: Cheryl Doss (PI), Caren Grown (PI), Marya Hillesland The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Gender Asset Gap Project Description• A joint initiative of the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, University of Ghana, Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) –– E d C S i lS i Ecuador, Center f L i for Latin American Studies, University of Florida (USA), and American University (USA)• Supported by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs under the MDG3 Fund f gender equality. h d for d l The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Pathways for Ensuring Access to Assets Project• A collaborative project of Yale University University, IFPRI, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Conservation Makerere University• Supported by USAID through the Assets and Market Access CRISP (Collaborative Research Support Program The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Project Objectives• Aims to better understand asset ownership patterns in the household and the extent of the gender asset gap.• Seeks to examine the importance of women’’s asset women ownership and control to their own and their household’’s well being and the gendered patterns of asset accumulation and di t l ti d disposall The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Why Assets? y Livelihoods Shocks Ease liquidityAssets Poverty constraints Overall well Store of wealth being b i The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Motivation, cont.•• Large literature shows that asset inequality can lead to productivity differences between those who own assets and those who do not which creates poverty and inequality not, traps.•• Ownership/control of assets and vulnerability are correlated: •• More ownership and control of assets less vulnerability •• Less ownership and control of assets more vulnerability y
    • Motivation, cont. M i i•• Until recently most assets studies have focused on households. But…… •• Can we assume that all members have the same access to ““household assets””? •• Can we assume that all members benefit equally from ““household assets””? •• Household and individual welfare are not necessarily the th same; •• Assets not owned by households but by individuals The Gender Asset Gap Project 8
    • Initial Research Questions• What are the patterns of asset ownership by men and women? What is the extent of their rights over these assets?• What are the main channels of asset acquisition for men and women?• What is the association between women’’s asset ownership and household decision making? The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Four phases• Qualitative field work• Large scale household survey of all forms of physical/financial assets• In country and comparative data analysis• Dissemination The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Results• Demonstrate the importance and feasibility of collecting data on individual level data on access to and ownership of property,• Identify minimal q y questions needed to understand the gender asset and wealth gaps in various settings, and• Develop a replicable survey instrument The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Outputs• Use data to develop a set of measures of the gender asset and wealth gaps for each country –– can be used for tracking progress toward Millennium Goal 3• Analysis of a range of research questions (how assets matter for women’’s well b i ) tt f ’’ ll being)• Country reports, comparative policy report, and country questionnaires/enumerator manuals and note on lessons learned in data collection The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Chose countries that met several criteria– They provide substantial variation in property and inheritance regimes, regimes– There is existing (though incomplete) sex disaggregated data against which we can compare our findings, and– There a e important emerging opportunities for e e are po a e e g g oppo u es o legal and policy reform. The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • GHANAQualitative data collection incommunities in the 10administrative regions Focus group discussion of two female and one male groups Key informant interviews The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Ecuador – 3 provinces (Coast & Sierra) – 40+ focus groups: urban & rural sectors • Predominantly with women’’s groups The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • INDIA16 rural, 10 urban16 women’s groups, 10 men’s groups The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • UGANDA 3 DistrictsKapchorwaKibaleLuwero
    • Quantitative surveys have several features• Nationally representative in Ghana, Ecuador and representative of Karnataka, India• Representative of three districts in Uganda• They all move away from household headship –– objective was to interview a principal male and principal female in each household The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Survey Features, cont.• All forms of physical and financial assets – Principal residence – Agricultural land – Other real estate – Livestock – Agricultural tools and equipment – Non farm businesses – Consumer durables – Financial assets The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Basic Survey Structure• Asset inventory of all assets in the household• Individual questionnaire for male and female d d l f l df l respondents on the assets they own (their transaction rights, rights to income from assets, rights assets modes of acquisition)• Explored multiple definitions of ownership The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Other Modules• Marital and inheritance regimes• Credit• Livelihoods and employment• Shocks and losses• Conflicts over assets• Outcomes – Decision making – Subjective well being j g – Consumption expenditure The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Country Samples Ghana Gh Ecuador• 2,170 households with • 2,892 households with 7,984 7 984 respondents 4,668 4 668 respondents• Two stage sampling • Stratified using 2001 p procedure: random Census SES strata and selection of snowball sample of enumeration areas upper middle & upper from ten class in Quito administrative regions and random selection of h f households h ld The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Country Samples India I di Uganda• 4,110 households with • 378 households with 7,185 7 185 respondents 770 respondents across 8 districts;• Stratified random sampling in 4 agro climatic regions. The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Project Websitehttp://genderassetgap.iimb.ernet.inh // d b The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Measuring the Gender Asset Gap Dissemination Workshop Entebbe, Uganda August 10 12, 2011
    • Measuring the Gender Asset Gap• Four measures of the gender asset gap• We will discuss each measure using data from Ghana and Uganda• Then present comparative results and lessons learned from f l df four countries i• Measures of the gender wealth gap The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Measures of the Gender Asset GapDistribution of assets, by form of ownership assetsIncidence of asset ownership (% of men and women who own) f d h )Distribution of asset owners, by sex (% of owners who are male or female)Distribution of households, by form of households ownership The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of assets, by form of ownership h• Unit of analysis is an asset – For agricultural land, we are looking at each plot• Data is presented by type of asset (land, (land dwelling, animal, cell phone……)• Forms of ownership include individual and joint The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of principal residence, Ghana h Individual Property Joint Property Ownership by household members only Joint ownership Owned by Owned by all with household Individual Individual Other joint principle Household members and Male Female ownership Couple members non householdAll 51% 25% 11% 0% 1% 12% Urban 35% 30% 13% 0% 0% 22% Rural 56% 23% 11% 0% 2% 9% The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of agricultural land, Ugandad Individual Property Joint Property Ownership by household members only Joint Owned by Owned by all ownership: Individual Individual Other joint principle Household hh and non Male Female ownership Couple members hh members"Owners" 26% 18% 52% 0% 2% 2% n=550With Documents 73% 19% 7% 0% 0% 1% n=330With RegisteredDeed 72% 17% 0% 0% 0% 11% n=18 The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Incidence of Ownership• For each asset: # of women who own the asset/ all women # of men who own the asset/ all men f h h / llThis gives the percentage of women or men who are owners. The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Incidence of Asset Ownership, Ghana 66 70 60 53 49 50 40 37 40 31 30 23 19 20 17 20 10 8 10 0 Animals Other Real Agricultural Radio Jewellery Businesses Estate Equipment Percent of Men Percent of Women The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of Ownership• For each asset:• # of females who own the asset/ total # of owners• # of males who own the asset/total # of owners• This tells us, what proportion of the owners are women or men. The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution by Sex of Asset Owners, Ghana 100 90 33 37 43 80 47 70 70 78 60 50 40 67 63 57 30 53 20 30 22 10 0 Other Real Animals Agricultural Radios Jewellery Businesses Estate Equipment Male Female The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of households by form of ownership h• Forms of ownership within the household: – No one within the household owns the asset – Individual male is the only form of ownership – Individual female is the only form of ownership – Owned by couple is the only ownership form – Owned by all household members is the only ownership form – Multiple forms of ownership by household members – Ownership with non household members The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of households, by form of ownership, Uganda h d Multiple Forms of No form of An Individual An Individual All Household Asset Principal Couple Ownership in All Else ownership Male Female members Household Ownership by O O hi b Ownership by O hi b Ownership by hi b Ownership b O hi by Household owns individual individual the principal all the family is Asset not owned by more than one of male(s) is the female(s) is the couple is the the only form anyone in the the asset; with at only form of only form of only form of of ownership household least two forms of ownership in ownership in ownership in the in the ownership the household the household household householdPrincipal Residence 12% 11% 17% 60% 0% 0% 0%Agricultural Land 11% 24% 19% 44% 0% 1% 1%Agricultural Land, with 35% 43% 13% 4% 0% 0% 6%Businesses 65% 13% 12% 7% 0% 3% 0% The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Distribution of households, by form of ownership, ownership Ghana Multiple No form of An Individual An Individual Principal All Household Forms of All Else Total Asset ownership Male Female Couple members Ownership in HouseholdOther Real Estate 80 12 6 1 0 1 1 100Animals 56 21 14 2 2 6 0 100Ag Equipment & Installations 26 28 21 2 4 17 1 100Radio 37 42 16 0 4 1 0 100Jewellery 62 7 29 1 0 0 0 100Businesses 52 9 31 0 0 6 2 100 The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Advantages and Limitations of MeasuresDistribution of assets, by form of ownership st but o o o o o es p Uses asset as unit of analysis Provides information on different forms of joint and individual ownership If people own multiple units of the asset, each p p p , unit is counted separately The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Advantages and LimitationsBoth Incidence and Distribution demonstrate gender equity or inequity• Incidence also captures whether the asset is widely owned• Di ib i provides one statistic: Distribution id i i % of owners who are female The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Advantages and LimitationsDistribution of households by form of ownership• Uses household as the unit of analysis; Results are comparable to household incidence of ownership p p• But also shows the forms of individual and joint ownership within the household. p• Much richer information than by head of household The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Comparative Results of the Gender Asset Gap Dissemination Workshop Entebbe, Uganda August 10 12, 2011
    • Gender Asset Gap• Form of Ownership• Incidence of asset ownership The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Form of Ownership for Place of Residence•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Form of Ownership for Agricultural Land•Excludes Bangalore** Agricultural land in Ghana does not include family land The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Form of Ownership for Livestock•Excludes BangalorePercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Form of Ownership for Financial Assets p•Excludes BangalorePercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding The Gender Asset Gap Project
    • Incidence of asset ownership of Place of Residence Pl f R id•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Incidence of asset ownership of Agricultural L d A i l l Land•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Incidence of asset ownership of Businesses B i•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Incidence of asset ownership of Jewelry•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Incidence of asset ownership of Financial A t Fi i l Assets•Excludes Bangalore The Gender Asset Gap ProjectPercentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding
    • Estimating Individual Wealth: The Valuation of Assets The Gender Asset Project Entebbe, Uganda August 2011
    • Valuing Physical Assets• Market (or sales) value: For how much could you sell this asset?• Replacement cost: How much would it cost to purchase this same asset today?• P Present value: rental rate x di l l discount rate
    • Wealth Data Presented:• Market value• Gross rather than net (Have not yet analyzed debt)• Based on responses to Household Inventory• Weighted• Truncated ( d (Ecuador & Karnataka, India) d k di )The Presentation:1) Ecuador2) Comparative results with Ghana and Karnataka, India
    • ECUADOR: Distribution of Gross Household Wealth by Sex (US$)Asset Men Women TotalPhysical assets 38,263,298,126 42,409,654,652 80,672,952,779 % 47.5 52.5 100.0Financial assets 1,238,095,052 1 238 095 052 788,741,159 788 741 159 2,026,836,211 2 026 836 211 % 61.1 38.9 100.0Total 39,501,393,179 43,198,394,811 82,699,788,989 % 47.8 52.2 100.0
    • Sources of Underestimation of Gross Household Wealth: h ld lh1. Truncated (missing wealthiest 5 10%)2. Missing observations – Don’’t know – Missing markets3.3 Financial assets underestimated – Respondents not comfortable divulging – Asked of principal couple only p p p y (not at household level)
    • ECUADOR: Missing Observations on Valuation (*includes (*i l d not applicable) li bl )Asset Male Owners Female Owners Total OwnersDwelling 2.8% 2.9% 2.9%Other real est 2.0% 2.5% 2.3%Ag land 4.2% 4 2% 4.4% 4 4% 4.3% 4 3%Animals 0.2% 0.1%Ag equip 0.2% 0.1%Businesses* 10.9% 17.2% 14.5%Consumer 0.3% 0.2% 0.3%durablesSavings acct. 24.1% 24.2% 24.2%
    • ECUADOR: Mean and Median Gross Wealth of Owners by Asset & S (US$) b A Sex Median Mean n = male Mean n = female n = total Median Female Median Male owners owners Female owners owners Mean Total owners Male owners owners Total 15.907,66 16.783,83 16.386,2Principal residence (22.368,12) 140.9462 (20.309,06) 1.695.557 (21.272,92) 3.105.019 10.000 10.000 10..000 14.325,15 14.164,25 14.235,31Other real estate (26.955,96) 263.646 (22.268,18) 333.318 (24.449,69) 596.964 5.000 5.000 5.000 731,95 731,95* 645,33 645 33* 686,3 686 3Consumer durables (2.056,1) 5.322.398 (1.540,82) 5.929.344 (1.803,53) 11.251.742 169 190 181 4.881,29*** 2.175,11*** 3.423,44Non ag businesses (13.977,06) 846.600 (7.008,66) 988.692 (10.881,11) 1.835.292 1.000 500 700 54.741,12 8.028,22 31.920,99Agricultural businesses (146.307,62) 20.564 (10.705,68) 19.641 (107.469,54) 40.206 500 2.000 1.650 10.332,88 10 332 88 9.502,88 9 502 88 9.888,51 9 888 51Land parcels (20.186,97) 262.120 (16.692,2) 302.051 (18.403,3) 564.171 5.000 5.000 5.000Ag equipment & 101,49 68,15 86,22installations (526,72) 489.306 (484,14) 413.541 (507,93) 902.847 11 10 10 155,58 149,98 152,37Animals (531,87) 983.154 (568,78) 1.316.053 (553,31) 2.299.207 17 22 20 6.982,97 6.990,51 6.986,93Total Physical Assets (23.201,16) 5.479.518 (18.056,67) 6.066.745 (20.658,44) 11.546.263 393 460 420 838,79** 513,34** 675,21Savings (3.420,74) 908.693 (1.366,79) 918.306 (2.604,88) 1.826.999 200 100 125 1.430,57 827,15 1.107,38Loans to third parties (3.380,94) 332.659 (3.132,77) 383.655 (3.264,28) 716.315 500 200 300 1.168,17** 690,27** 920,24Total Financial Assets (4.191,89) 1.059.861 (2.349,91) 1.142..657 (3.373,06) 2.202.518 270 120 200Total Wealth 7.197,4 5.488.287 7.109,24 6.076.375 7.151,08 (23.640,15) (18.260,8) (20.986,37) 11.564.662 440 500 200 Source: EAFF 2010. Note: T-tests significance: *** 99%; ** 95%; *90%.
    • ECUADOR: Composition of Gross p Wealth by Sex Women Men 0% 0% 0% 2% 3% 0% 7% 7% Principle Dwelling 5% Other Real Estate9% 13% Consumer Durables Businesses Ag Land11% 10% 57% Ag Equipment 66% Livestock k 10% Financial Assets
    • ECUADOR: Distribution of GrossHousehold Wealth by Quintile and Sex Quintiles Total Men Women I y II 2,9 29 2,8 28 3 (Poorest) 7,5 7,2 7,8 III 20 18,3 21,7 IV 69,5 71,7 67,5 V( i h ) (Richest) 100,0 100,0 100,0 Total Source: EAFF 2010.
    • COMPARATIVE: Share of Women’’s Gross Physical Wealth• Ecuador: 52.5%• Ghana: 30 2% 30.2%• Karnataka: 19%IMPLICATIONS:Marital & inheritance regimes make adifference!
    • COMPARATIVE: Share of Women’’s Women Wealth by Quintile70%60%50% I Poorest40% II III30% IV V Richest20%10%0% Ecuador India Ghana
    • COMPARATIVE: Share of WomenHomeowners and Women’’s Share of Women Housing Wealth54.6% 53.8% 39% 37% 29% 23% Ecuador India Ghana Womens share of wealth Proportion of owners who are women
    • COMPARATIVE: Share of Women Ag Land Owners and Women’’s Share of Ag Land Wealth Womens share of wealth Proportion of owners who are women 51% 48% 38% 24% 20% 12% Ecuador India Ghana
    • COMPARATIVE: Share of Women Business Owners and W O d Women’’s Sh ’’ Share of B i f Business Wealth 70% 54% 38% 31% 28% 5% Ecuador India Ghana Womens share of wealth Proportion of owners who are women
    • Composition of Wealth by Quintile Ecuador Ghana100% Financial Assets90% Consumer Durables80% Business70%60% Ag Equipment50% Livestock40% Other Real Estate30%20% Ag L d A Land10% Principal Dwelling 0%
    • Composition of Wealth by Quintile Karnataka, India Rural Karnataka, India Urban100% Jewelry90%80% Consumer70% Durables60% Business50% Livestock40%30% Other Real20% Estate Ag Land10% 0% Principal Dwelling
    • Tentative Conclusions1.1 It is possible to collect individual level wealthdata by sex!2.2 Wealth adds a new and important dimension tothe study of gender and social inequality3.3 For most assets the Gender Wealth Gap exceeds assets,the Gender Asset Gap (measured as shares)4.4 Across our 3 countries greatest disparity in countries,relative shares is with respect to non farmbusinesses
    • Tentative Conclusions 5. 5 Troubling that highest share of women’’s women household wealth concentrated in poorest quintile• Need to investigate the degree to which female headed households concentrated in this quintile 6. 6 Changing composition of wealth by quintile suggests new avenues for research and policy interventions to reduce Asset Poverty and hence household vulnerability