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A Conceptual Framework for Analysis

A Conceptual Framework for Analysis

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Gender And Collective Action Gender And Collective Action Presentation Transcript

  • INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty Gender and Collective Action: AC Conceptual F t l Framework f A l i k for Analysis Ruth Meinzen Dick Lauren Pandolfelli, Meinzen-Dick, Pandolfelli Stephan Dohrn, Jessica Athens CGIAR System-Wide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights
  • Devolving resource management to user groups Page 2
  • Devolving resource management to user groups Page 3
  • Page 4
  • Overview  Collective Action (CA) and Gender  Why Are We Looking at Motivation, Effectiveness, Effectiveness and Impact?  The Analytical Framework  Motivations f engaging in CA: The for C Action Arena  Effectiveness of CA: Outcomes  Impacts of CA on Gender Relations p  Conclusions Page 5
  • Collective Action  “Action taken by a group (either Action directly or on its behalf through an organization) in pursuit of members’ members perceived shared interest” (Marshall 998) 1998).  Includes forming and enforcing rules for use (or non-use) of resources  Voluntary (not paid or forced) Page 6
  • Importance of Collective Action  Management of natural resources • Irrigation, watersheds, rangelands, fisheries esp. under devolution  Facilitates joint investment by small farmers  Dissemination of technologies  Marketing  Group empowerment  Protecting property rights  Development policies premised on CA • e.g. microfinance, CDD, women’s self-help groups Page 7
  • Defining Gender  Socially constructed roles associated with being male or female  Roles vary among cultures and over time  S Sources of gender roles include: f • Institutional arrangements • Legal and governance structures • Socio cultural attitudes • Religion  Differences within categories of men and women (class, race, ethnicity…) Page 8
  • Why are we looking at gender and collective action? Group formation, g p dynamics p , group y and power relations are crosscut by gender • Gender roles influence access, use, control, and benefits of resources • G d diff Gender-differentiated roles within ti t d l ithi groups • Women often invisible, yet key users invisible • Many gender-related programs p premised on collective action Page 9
  • 3 Entry Points for a Gendered Analysis of Collective Action  M ti ti Motivations f engaging in collective for i i ll ti action  Effectiveness of groups  Impact on Gender Equity p q y Page 10
  • Context Action Arena The Analytical Framework Context Action Arena Physical/ Technical Actors Patterns of Patterns of (Preferences) Interaction Interaction Socio-economic Motivation incl. property rights Action Social •• Collective Collective and organizational Resources Bargaining •• Individual Individual Bargaining environment Power Legal and Rules governance Outcomes O t Outcomes O t Page 11
  • Initial Conditions: Gender Differentiated…  Asset Endowments • The six capitals—Natural, Physical, Financial, Human, Social, Political • Property rights (bundles of rights)  Vulnerability to Shocks • W Women often bear the burden of crisis ft b th b d f i i situations (e.g. structural adjustment policies)  Norms Legal Structures and Power Norms, Structures, Relations • Gender relations, gender roles ,g • Governance systems Page 12
  • Actors  Individuals (men or women), or collective entities, including mixed or single sexed single-sexed community groups, NGOs and government.  Internal or external actors  Change agents can influence other actors Action Arena Actors Action Social Resources Bargaining Page 13 Rules
  • Action Resources  Assets: Physical, Financial, Natural, y , , , Social, Political  Human Capital p • Not only education and health • Information and the ability to process it y • Cognitive schemata and mind sets • Social prestige and habitus Action Arena • Time Actors • Decision-making behavior Action Social Resources Bargaining Rules Page 14
  • Rules  Rules affect which action resources are important  Depend on the subject of analysis  Written and unwritten Action Arena A ti A Actors Action Social Resources Bargaining Page 15 Rules
  • Bargaining Power  The actor’s ability to engage in social bargaining in a given context based on one’s action resources and the rules  Varies by: • Type of interaction or transaction (multiple levels and id titi ) ( lti l l l d identities) • Fallback options (asset endowments, legal and normative framework) A ti A Action Arena • Prior bargaining experiences Actors Motivation Social Action Bargaining Bargaining Resources Power Rules Page 16
  • Motivations  The actor’s willingness to engage in actor s the bargaining process based on his/her preferences, action resources, and the rules  The perceived bargaining power also influences the actor’s motivations. Action Arena A ti A Actors Motivation Social Action Bargaining Bargaining Resources Power Rules Page 17
  • So What? Key Questions to Ask  Do women and men have different preferences?  How do their asset endowments differ?  How does gender determine an actor’s ability to use his or her asset endowments?  Do the rules strategically favor men vs. women? How?  H How d women and men perceive th d do d i the degree t to which collective action will fit their preferences?  What is the subject of the bargaining?  How can external institutions affect the bargaining position of the poor? Page 18
  • Effectiveness of CA What difference does gender make in achieving th objectives of th group? hi i the bj ti f the ?  Criteria to measure effectiveness (conflicts, income, satisfaction of being a member, compliance) • Whose criteria—internal or external? • Short term or long term?  How can gender composition affect effectiveness? • Composition of groups • Roles within groups • Rules affect ability to participate effectively Page 19
  • Effectiveness of CA--Hypotheses CA Hypotheses  If women and men are both involved (e.g. ( g as users of resource), important to have both participate in CA  More gender segregation, inequality  higher transaction costs of including both men and women, may t k l d take longer t to establish  Tapping into different action resources of men and women can contribute to effectiveness of groups Page 20
  • So What: Key Questions on Effectiveness  How could gender analysis help make collective action more effective?  What stakes do men and women have in outcomes?  Wh t roles do women and men play i What l d d l in management of resource and of group (formal, informal)?  What action resources are critical? How are they distributed between men, women?  How do explicit, implicit rules affect ability of men, women to participate?  How does participation of men, women in decision-making affect compliance, cooperation in activities? Page 21
  • Impacts on Gender Relations  Measures of impact (both qualitative and quantitative): • distribution of income; social and political inclusion; time savings; vulnerability to shocks, etc. ,  Levels of impact: • Gender relations within the household • Gender relations within the group • Group within the community • Community vis-à-vis the outside Page 22
  • Key Questions to Ask on Impact  What types of impact can be observed? How can these be measured? Are they always empowering, and to whom?  Which factors within the initial context and action arena facilitate or hinder impact on gender equity?  How can (poor) women and men increase their ability to bargain? Through collective action?  What are some strategies for using collective action to stimulate gender-equitable change processes (e.g. increasing women’s action resources, resources changing the rule set)?  Are their tradeoffs between effectiveness for a bounded goal and impact in terms of gender equity? Page 23
  • What is the Value of this Framework?  Helps external institutions identify entry points  Clarifies linkages to certain outcomes we observe in the world  Provides a dynamic way of analyzing CA through a gender lens (institutions + rules + actors create gendered patterns of interaction) Page 24