Gender And Collective Action


Published on

A Conceptual Framework for Analysis

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Gender And Collective Action

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty Gender and Collective Action: AC Conceptual F t l Framework f A l i k for Analysis Ruth Meinzen Dick Lauren Pandolfelli, Meinzen-Dick, Pandolfelli Stephan Dohrn, Jessica Athens CGIAR System-Wide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights
  2. 2. Devolving resource management to user groups Page 2
  3. 3. Devolving resource management to user groups Page 3
  4. 4. Page 4
  5. 5. Overview  Collective Action (CA) and Gender  Why Are We Looking at Motivation, Effectiveness, Effectiveness and Impact?  The Analytical Framework  Motivations f engaging in CA: The for C Action Arena  Effectiveness of CA: Outcomes  Impacts of CA on Gender Relations p  Conclusions Page 5
  6. 6. Collective Action  “Action taken by a group (either Action directly or on its behalf through an organization) in pursuit of members’ members perceived shared interest” (Marshall 998) 1998).  Includes forming and enforcing rules for use (or non-use) of resources  Voluntary (not paid or forced) Page 6
  7. 7. Importance of Collective Action  Management of natural resources • Irrigation, watersheds, rangelands, fisheries esp. under devolution  Facilitates joint investment by small farmers  Dissemination of technologies  Marketing  Group empowerment  Protecting property rights  Development policies premised on CA • e.g. microfinance, CDD, women’s self-help groups Page 7
  8. 8. Defining Gender  Socially constructed roles associated with being male or female  Roles vary among cultures and over time  S Sources of gender roles include: f • Institutional arrangements • Legal and governance structures • Socio cultural attitudes • Religion  Differences within categories of men and women (class, race, ethnicity…) Page 8
  9. 9. Why are we looking at gender and collective action? Group formation, g p dynamics p , group y and power relations are crosscut by gender • Gender roles influence access, use, control, and benefits of resources • G d diff Gender-differentiated roles within ti t d l ithi groups • Women often invisible, yet key users invisible • Many gender-related programs p premised on collective action Page 9
  10. 10. 3 Entry Points for a Gendered Analysis of Collective Action  M ti ti Motivations f engaging in collective for i i ll ti action  Effectiveness of groups  Impact on Gender Equity p q y Page 10
  11. 11. Context Action Arena The Analytical Framework Context Action Arena Physical/ Technical Actors Patterns of Patterns of (Preferences) Interaction Interaction Socio-economic Motivation incl. property rights Action Social •• Collective Collective and organizational Resources Bargaining •• Individual Individual Bargaining environment Power Legal and Rules governance Outcomes O t Outcomes O t Page 11
  12. 12. Initial Conditions: Gender Differentiated…  Asset Endowments • The six capitals—Natural, Physical, Financial, Human, Social, Political • Property rights (bundles of rights)  Vulnerability to Shocks • W Women often bear the burden of crisis ft b th b d f i i situations (e.g. structural adjustment policies)  Norms Legal Structures and Power Norms, Structures, Relations • Gender relations, gender roles ,g • Governance systems Page 12
  13. 13. Actors  Individuals (men or women), or collective entities, including mixed or single sexed single-sexed community groups, NGOs and government.  Internal or external actors  Change agents can influence other actors Action Arena Actors Action Social Resources Bargaining Page 13 Rules
  14. 14. Action Resources  Assets: Physical, Financial, Natural, y , , , Social, Political  Human Capital p • Not only education and health • Information and the ability to process it y • Cognitive schemata and mind sets • Social prestige and habitus Action Arena • Time Actors • Decision-making behavior Action Social Resources Bargaining Rules Page 14
  15. 15. Rules  Rules affect which action resources are important  Depend on the subject of analysis  Written and unwritten Action Arena A ti A Actors Action Social Resources Bargaining Page 15 Rules
  16. 16. Bargaining Power  The actor’s ability to engage in social bargaining in a given context based on one’s action resources and the rules  Varies by: • Type of interaction or transaction (multiple levels and id titi ) ( lti l l l d identities) • Fallback options (asset endowments, legal and normative framework) A ti A Action Arena • Prior bargaining experiences Actors Motivation Social Action Bargaining Bargaining Resources Power Rules Page 16
  17. 17. Motivations  The actor’s willingness to engage in actor s the bargaining process based on his/her preferences, action resources, and the rules  The perceived bargaining power also influences the actor’s motivations. Action Arena A ti A Actors Motivation Social Action Bargaining Bargaining Resources Power Rules Page 17
  18. 18. So What? Key Questions to Ask  Do women and men have different preferences?  How do their asset endowments differ?  How does gender determine an actor’s ability to use his or her asset endowments?  Do the rules strategically favor men vs. women? How?  H How d women and men perceive th d do d i the degree t to which collective action will fit their preferences?  What is the subject of the bargaining?  How can external institutions affect the bargaining position of the poor? Page 18
  19. 19. Effectiveness of CA What difference does gender make in achieving th objectives of th group? hi i the bj ti f the ?  Criteria to measure effectiveness (conflicts, income, satisfaction of being a member, compliance) • Whose criteria—internal or external? • Short term or long term?  How can gender composition affect effectiveness? • Composition of groups • Roles within groups • Rules affect ability to participate effectively Page 19
  20. 20. Effectiveness of CA--Hypotheses CA Hypotheses  If women and men are both involved (e.g. ( g as users of resource), important to have both participate in CA  More gender segregation, inequality  higher transaction costs of including both men and women, may t k l d take longer t to establish  Tapping into different action resources of men and women can contribute to effectiveness of groups Page 20
  21. 21. So What: Key Questions on Effectiveness  How could gender analysis help make collective action more effective?  What stakes do men and women have in outcomes?  Wh t roles do women and men play i What l d d l in management of resource and of group (formal, informal)?  What action resources are critical? How are they distributed between men, women?  How do explicit, implicit rules affect ability of men, women to participate?  How does participation of men, women in decision-making affect compliance, cooperation in activities? Page 21
  22. 22. Impacts on Gender Relations  Measures of impact (both qualitative and quantitative): • distribution of income; social and political inclusion; time savings; vulnerability to shocks, etc. ,  Levels of impact: • Gender relations within the household • Gender relations within the group • Group within the community • Community vis-à-vis the outside Page 22
  23. 23. Key Questions to Ask on Impact  What types of impact can be observed? How can these be measured? Are they always empowering, and to whom?  Which factors within the initial context and action arena facilitate or hinder impact on gender equity?  How can (poor) women and men increase their ability to bargain? Through collective action?  What are some strategies for using collective action to stimulate gender-equitable change processes (e.g. increasing women’s action resources, resources changing the rule set)?  Are their tradeoffs between effectiveness for a bounded goal and impact in terms of gender equity? Page 23
  24. 24. What is the Value of this Framework?  Helps external institutions identify entry points  Clarifies linkages to certain outcomes we observe in the world  Provides a dynamic way of analyzing CA through a gender lens (institutions + rules + actors create gendered patterns of interaction) Page 24