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Gender and Climate Change Intro Presentation - Dhaka Gender Workshop

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  • 1. Enhancing Women’s Assets to Manage Risk under Climate Change: Potential for Group-Based Approaches Workshop on “Gender and Agriculture: A Focus on Bangladesh” Lakeshore Hotel, Gulshan, Dhaka June 18, 2014 http://womenandclimate.ifpri.info/ This work is supported by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany under the project ‘‘Enhancing Women’s Assets to Manage Risk under Climate Change: Potential for Group–Based Approaches,’’ and forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies Institutions and Markets (PIM).
  • 2. Background • Role of climate change for food security and poverty reduction recognized – Increasing international research efforts on the topic • “Gender and climate change” – Increasingly recognized as important concern – Frequent claims that women are disproportionately affected by climate change, but • limited evidence base and lack of understanding of WHY that is the case – Hence: Limited basis for sound policy recommendations • Insights from previous research – Climate change adaptation as risk management • Need to focus on role of assets and collective action • Research gap: Gender perspective
  • 3. Background • Role of climate change for food security and poverty reduction recognized – Increasing international research efforts on the topic • “Gender and climate change” – Increasingly recognized as important concern – Frequent claims that women are disproportionately affected by climate change, but • limited evidence base and lack of understanding of WHY that is the case – Hence: Limited basis for sound policy recommendations • Insights from previous research – Climate change adaptation as risk management • Need to focus on role of assets and collective action • Research gap: Gender perspective
  • 4. Background • Role of climate change for food security and poverty reduction recognized – Increasing international research efforts on the topic • “Gender and climate change” – Increasingly recognized as important concern – Frequent claims that women are disproportionately affected by climate change, but • limited evidence base and lack of understanding of WHY that is the case – Hence: Limited basis for sound policy recommendations • Insights from previous research – Climate change adaptation as risk management • Need to focus on role of assets and collective action • Research gap: Gender perspective
  • 5. Background • Role of climate change for food security and poverty reduction recognized – Increasing international research efforts on the topic • “Gender and climate change” – Increasingly recognized as important concern – Frequent claims that women are disproportionately affected by climate change, but • limited evidence base and lack of understanding of WHY that is the case – Hence: Limited basis for sound policy recommendations • Insights from previous research – Climate change adaptation as risk management • Need to focus on role of assets and collective action • Research gap: Gender perspective
  • 6. Bangladesh: Network Structure • Network highly centralized • Several different core actors: the most important of which are UNDP, Min. of Food and Disaster Management (MoFDM), and Min. of Envir. and Forests (MOEF) • Two distinct clusters: one dominated by research orgs, the other by donors, multilaterals, and govt actors Government Local Government Donor/Multi-lateral NGO Research Target Group  Advice  Funding
  • 7. Bangladesh: Target Groups • Target groups directly engaged with farmers and fishers on climate change adaptation: BCAS, CARE, BRAC, and Practical Action
  • 8. Bangladesh: Influence 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Influence • MoFDM,’s Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) coordinates adaptation activities • MoA through the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE)—is influential due to direct ties with farmers (advice and support) • Two key government bodies— LGED and BWDB—support climate change adaptation through the development of infrastructure and management of water resources, although governance issues are a concern
  • 9. Conclusions from NetMap exercise • Govt is serious about addressing climate change (e.g. establishment of Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund) • Many barriers remain: – lack of participation of small farmers/fishers in the policymaking process – lack of coordination of efforts/approaches – Private business interests take precedence • Recommendations for IFPRI: – Target both policymakers and communities/NGOs – Tap into research networks (e.g. Action Research on Community-based Adaptation Project (ARCAP), BCAS climate change development forum)
  • 10. Practitioner survey in 4 focus countries • What is the capacity of organizations in designing and implementing climate change adaptation activities in focus countries? • What is the level of capacity for and importance given by organizations to gender analysis related to climate change adoption activities? • What are the main barriers and constraints faced by organizations working on climate change issues?
  • 11. • Clarity of mission and mandate on climate change • Policy or strategy on climate change • Adequacy of resources (physical and financial) • Human resources • Staff motivation • Organization and management systems • Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) • External enabling environment • Gender responsiveness • Collective action and group-based approaches Indicators used to access organizational capacity
  • 12. Importance vs. practice (gender-disaggregated data) Perceived importance vs actual practice Bangladesh (14)* Ethiopia (26) Kenya (36) Mali (11) Do not collect, analyze, or report gender- disaggregated data 25 76 72 59 Collect, analyze, or report data on women, men, girls, and boys in household 41 14 19 15 Collect, analyze, or report data on female-headed households and male- headed households 34 11 9 26
  • 13. • Attention to gender issues is perceived by practitioners as important during the design and planning stage of climate change-related activities • But gender issues receive much less attention during implementation and even less during M&E. • Gender-disaggregated data collection, monitoring, and reporting are rarely done as part of their organizations’ climate change– related activities. Key Messages I/II
  • 14. • To improve outcomes, need organizational capacity strengthening for local organizations working in and providing services to rural communities • .. and for promoting a culture of impact and M&E within these organizations • Important training needs in climate change management and in gender and social analysis. Key Messages II/II
  • 15. Microinsurance Experiments: Hypotheses 1. Do men and women prefer different kind of insurance products? Do they have different risk preferences? 2. Do farmers prefer to buy insurance against more frequent bad events or bad events that are less frequent? (e.g. major floods that occur every 2-3 years or the really devastating ones that happen every 10 years or so) 3. How does the willingness to buy such insurance vary with price? (joint work with University of Oxford and MTID)
  • 16. Microinsurance Experiments: Method – Field experiments playing insurance purchase games with farmers in rural Bangladesh in two districts, Manikganj and Bogra. – 60 sessions in 20 villages; 20 all men, 20 all women, 20 mixed – Each session has 12-15 participants and 3 games – Show-up fee 50 Taka and earnings in the game were paid out (average expected earning 300 Taka) – Sessions were randomly selected to get insurance either at an actuarially fair price or a subsidized price – Order of the games were randomized across sessions
  • 17. Microinsurance Experiments: Sample • On average respondents are 38 years old, 50 percent men with 4.6 years of schooling live in households of 5 members. • Main occupation- self-employed in agriculture (44%) or housework (47%). More than 92% grow paddy in both seasons. • Own on average 90 decimals of land. • Face a multitude of agricultural risks- pests(37%), lack of rain(17%), too much rain/flood(14/12%), deficient irrigation water. • Some familiarity with insurance- 16% ever bought life insurance
  • 18. Overall results • Extremely high take-up rates reflect that behavior in experimental settings may be different from real life decision making, but can indicate relative demand for insurance products • No significant difference between men and women on the probability of buying any insurance. – However, men buy a larger number of units as compared to women • More risk averse individuals bought fewer units of insurance – Scope for better design which can reduce basis risk • Fewer units were bought when price was higher • Gendered results: – For women, but not men, wealth was an important determinant of number of units purchased – Women who were more financially literate purchased fewer units when offered at the actuarially unfair price
  • 19. Next two presentations • Impacts of climatic and other shocks on men’s and women’s assets • Men’s and women’s knowledge and practice of climate change adaptation techniques • For more, see http://womenandclimate.ifpri.info/
  • 20. Page 20 Publications Published • P1 Goh, A.H.X. 2012. A literature review of the gender-differentiated impacts of climate change on women’s and men’s assets and well- being in developing countries. CAPRi Working Paper No. 106 http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/capriwp106.pdf • 2 Bryan, E. and J. Behrman. 2013. Community-based adaptation to climate change: A Theoretical Framework, Overview of Key Issues and Discussion of Gender Differentiated Priorities and Participation. CAPRi Working Paper No. 109. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/capriwp109.pdf • P3 Ragasa, C., Y. Sun, E. Bryan, C. Abate, A. Alemu and M. Namori Keita. 2013. Organizational and institutional issues in climate change adaptation and risk management. Insights from practitioners’ survey in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya and Mali. IFPRI Discussion Paper 1279. Washington DC: IFPRI. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01279.pdf • P4 Davis, P, S. Ali. 2013. Exploring local perceptions of climate-change impact and adaptation in rural Bangladesh • http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01322.pdf
  • 21. Page 21 Publications Completed, but not yet published • C1 Aberman, N., R. Birner, E. Haglund, M. Ngigi, S. Ali, B. Okoba, D. Kone and T. Alemu. 2013. Understanding the policy landscape for climate change adaptation: a cross-country comparison using the Net-Map method. Unpublished report. • C2 Dillon, A. 2013. Gender, Farm Assets, and the Role of Climate Variability on Production Possibilities. Presented at 2012 CAPRi workshop. • C3 Beaman, L. and A. Dillon. 2013. Diffusion of Agricultural Technologies within Social Networks: Evidence from Composting in Mali. • C4 Donnelly, A. 2013. Potential for Group-Based Approaches to Enhance Security Assets for Women to Manage Risks under Climate Change: A PRA in Ethiopia. • C5 Quisumbing, A.R. and N. Kumar. 2013. Do More Secure Land Rights for Women Encourage Conservation? The Medium-term Impacts of the Ethiopian Land Certification. • C6 Quisumbing, A and N. Kumar. 2013. Do Shocks Affect Men’s and Women’s Assets Differently? Evidence from Bangladesh and Uganda. • C7 Kumar, N. Microinsurance Decisions: Evidence from Bangladesh.
  • 22. Page 22 Publications In progress • I1 Alemu, T. and H. Elias. Shocks and household asset dynamics in rural Ethiopia • I2 Ngigi, M. and others Gender, assets and climate risk management in Kenya • I3 Jolowicz, S. Rehabilitating Communal Assets in Rural Ethiopia - Governance Challenges and the Role of Women" • I4 Rakib, M. Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture and Livestock – the Case of Bangladesh • I5 Rakib, M. Gender Differentiated Asset Dynamics in Bangladesh [[to be added, gendered climate change shocks/asset impacts]] • I6 Ngigi, M. Farmers’ motives for adapting to climate-smart practices in Kenya using means-end analysis
  • 23. Page 23 Publications • I7 Ngigi, M. The role of gender and social capital in the intensity of adaptation to climate change in Kenya • I8 Ngigi, M. Impact of shocks on household assets accumulation and poverty traps in Kenya • I9 Gender, Risk Preferences and Adaptation to climate change: Experimental evidence from Ethiopia, Helen Berga, Tekie Alemu and others • I10 Aberman, N. Assessing the governance of community-based adaptation: mapping gender-focused initiatives in rural Kenya • I11 Aberman, N. Women’s engagement in climate change adaptation: Perceptions of power and knowledge in Western Kenya http://womenandclimate.ifpri.info/