How project interventions can reduce the gender-asset gapINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTEINTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
The Gender andAgricultural Assets Project (GAAP) Objective: To reduce the gap between men’s and women’s control and ownership of assets, broadly defined, by evaluating how and how well agricultural development programs build women’s assets; Three-year project, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (mid 2010-2012); Jointly lead by IFPRI and ILRI , including 8 core project collaborators working in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia; Mix of qualitative and quantitative (Q2) expertise and evaluation methodologies; Dreaming big and thinking ahead: Might be the start of a new paradigm in agricultural development programming!
Project Team Agnes Quisumbing(IFPRI) Jemimah Njuki (ILRI) Nancy Johnson(ILRI) Ruth Meinzen-Dick (IFPRI) Dee Rubin (Cultural Practice LLP) Amber Peterman (IFPRI) Elizabeth Waithanji (ILRI) Julia Behrman (IFPRI) Shalini Roy (IFPRI) Ginette Minot (IFPRI) More information at: http://genderassets.wordpress.com 3
3 types of projects included in the portfolio1. Projects that transfer (or facilitate acquisition of) individual assets: • Landesa (India—Land); • BRAC-Targeting the Ultra Poor (Bangladesh—Livestock); • Land O’ Lakes (Mozambique—Dairy cows); • KickStart (Tanzania and Kenya—micro-irrigation pumps).2. Projects that build infrastructure and provide equipment to increase agricultural productivity and income: • CARE-Bangladesh (and its twin, EADD—training, group formation);3. Projects that develop improved crop varieties and agricultural practices: • Cereal Systems in South Asia (India—rice); • Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato (Uganda—new variety); • Helen Keller International (Burkina Faso—vegetables).
Asset Transfer Projects: Common Themes Understanding cultural concepts of ownership (what does it mean to own or control an asset?); Identifying and understanding gender- specific barriers to asset acquisition and control; Measuring impact of asset transfers on men’s and women’s assets and the gender asset gap; Methods of increasing women’s ownership of /control over key assets over time (even if asset transferred to her, no guarantee she MoneyMaker! Treadle has control; if asset transfer is not targeted, pump in Kenya examining if there are gender biases in asset acquisition and how to overcome these).
Unpacking the “Gender Box”Photo credit: Agnes Quisumbing 6
Why have a conceptual framework? Helps identify HOW: • Gendered asset distribution affects outcomes • Outcome of agricultural programs differs by gender • Building assets takes place in a way that is gendered Guides attention to key processes for evaluation Provides basis for comparison and learning across different case studies
Each component is genderedWomen’s JOINT Men’s Women and men have separate assets, activities, consumption, etc. Households also have some joint assets, activities, consumption, etc. Shading of each component as a reminder that we need to consider gender—separation and jointness in each
Context: Ecological, Social, Economic, Political factors, etc. Shocks Consumption Livelihood Assets Strategies Full Incomes Well-being Savings/ Investment Legend: Women Joint Men
♀ Livelihood Strategies ♂•What are the livelihood options available towomen and men?•What assets do those livelihoods require?•Are women (or men) precluded from goodlivelihoods by lack of assets?
♀ Shocks ♂•What are the major shocks that affectwomen, men, and households?•How do women, men respond to shocks?•What role do assets play in responding toshocks?
♀ Full Income♂• Includes cash and direct consumption• What affects the income women and menearn?• What affects the control of income withinthe household?
♀ Consumption ♂• Includes food and nonfood• How are women’s, men’s, and jointincome used for different types ofconsumption by different family members?• What affects decisions on consumption?(Does control of assets play a role?)
♀ Savings/Investment ♂• This feeds back to + or – assetaccumulation•How are women’s, men’s, and jointincome used for different types ofinvestment by different family members?• What affects decisions on investment?• Are there enough mechanisms for womento build assets?