Example (in full): In Kenya the cash constraints of many female farmers prevented them from taking measures to improve the fertility of poor soils. Research on biomass transfers and extension systems that recognized women’s low literacy levels, however, led women (as well as men) to adopt the transfers, which resulted not only in higher yields but also in increased soil organic matter (Place et al. 2007).
2009 GHI: Correlation between countries with high levels of hunger and high levels of gender inequality Bangladesh Example: In Bangladesh, fish pond programs that were “gender blind” ended up reaching wealthier men, whereas fish pond and vegetable garden programs that targeted poor women empowered them and improved the long-term nutritional status of women and children as well as gender-asset equality more than untargeted programs (Hallman, Lewis, and Begum 2007; Kumar and Quisumbing 2009).
IF STATUS OF MEN AND WOMEN WERE EQUALIZED IN SOUTH ASIA, UNDERWEIGHT RATE AMONG CHILDREN < 3 Y WOULD DROP BY 13 PERCENTAGE POINTS, A REDUCTION OF 13.4 MILLION MALNOURISHED CHILDREN
When to address gender in Ag R&D? The process is often talked of as a “pipeline” (go through the steps)
The first change we need to make is to see that there are multiple actors at each stage in this process. CGIAR, NARES, private sector, and farmers themselves are all involved in each stage, in different ways, but we need to make these complementary.
Then we need to see these not as a “pipeline”, but as a cycle, with feedback loops And we need to put on a “gender lens” on each of these and see what differences that would make to the way we view each component
What would the agricultural R&D system look like if it were serving women as well as men, as producers and consumers?
In a sample of 47 low- and middle-income countries, an average of 22 percent of the agricultural researchers (covering the government, higher-education, and nonprofit sectors) are female. Across regions, average shares of female scientists range from 17 to 32 percent (Figure 2). The share of females was higher in the lower-degree qualification levels.
Identifying strategic priorities for gender-equitable agricultural research, e.g. foods contributing to diverse and nutritious diets, underlying gender inequalities in access to resources—in order to unleash the full productivity of millions of female agricultural producers. Fully integrating gender into the agricultural R&D system, from priority setting and the conducting of research to extension, adoption, and evaluation of outcomes. Transforming the enabling conditions, including institutional structures and policies, to allow gender-equitable agricultural research to flourish. Necessary partnerships
Support for Gender Integration in MPs, providing expert review of proposals and progress reports, including on-the-ground diagnostic visits where needed, and development of standardized indicators and best practice for impact analysis; Strategic Gender Research delivering original research directly responsive to the priorities of rural women and men, including methodology development for best practices in sex-disaggregated data collection, participatory research, synthesis across MPs, policy and other “big-picture” analyses such as recently done for FAO’s State of Food and Agriculture report on gender; Capacity Building for Gender-Responsive R&D to build up the MPs’ internal skills for gender analysis across all stages of R&D, and for nourishing the talent pool for agricultural R&D; Institutional Strengthening Services to support the leadership’s development of conducive policies, staffing profiles, organizational culture and norms; and Incentives to encourage innovation through a competitive small grants program to facilitate innovative ideas for gender-responsive R&D, plus a biannual prize to the R&D team that best demonstrates positive impacts for gender-equitable development; and Information Services providing a clearinghouse for gender-related publications and resources, working to publicize lessons innovations throughout the system.
This is women’s history month. Let’s make history in agricultural research and development! Thank you for joining in this enterprise
Ruth Meinzen-Dick Agnes Quisumbing Julia Behrman Patricia Biermayr-Jenzano Vicki Wilde Marco Noordeloos Catherine Ragasa Nienke Beintema Engendering Agricultural Research IFPRI/World Bank/IFAD Brown Bag Lunch April 29 2010
Women are disadvantaged in customary & statutory land tenure systems (Kevane 2004)
Women in S. Asia and SS Africa routinely have less access to extension than males (WB & IFPRI 2010)
In Malawi, 81% of men and 19% of women have contact with an ag. extension officer (Gilbert et al. 2002)
In Ghana, 11-2% of male headed HH and <2% of female headed HH have contact with an ag. Extension officer (WB & IFPRI 2010).
Pervasive misconceptions ‘women don’t farm’
Assumption extension will ‘trickle down’ from husband to wife
Reducing inequality in human capital, physical capital and inputs between male and female farmers in SS Africa has the potential to increase agricultural productivity by 10-20% (Alderman, Haddad and Udry 1996) Women are disadvantaged with respect to Technological resources Women throughout the globe have less access to essential agricultural resources including fertilizer, improved seed, pesticide etc. (Peterman et al. 2010) Social Capital Studies from Ghana, Ethiopia, India and Kenya find gender differences in participation and membership in CBOs (WB & IFPRI 2010, Davis & Negash 2007). In Ghana, male heads were typically members; only 2-5% of female spouses and 3-7% of women in female headed HH report membership.
Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? B. To increase agricultural sustainability
Women are the guardians of local knowledge on low impact, low cost climate change coping strategies
Example : Kenya, targeting female farmers & improved soil fertility
Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? C. To improve food security & nutrition
Women control household food distribution & are the guardians of household food security.
Increasing the resources women control has been shown to improve child health and nutrition (Quisumbing 2003).
Why pay attention to gender in agriculture? D. To reduce poverty through empowerment
Empowerment as “the expansion in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in context previously denied to them” (Kabeer 2000)
Link between high levels of hunger and gender inequality (GHI 2009)
Importance of empowering women through interventions. Example : targeting women in Bangladesh
Impact of Empowerment: Contributions of Women’s Status and Education to Child Malnutrition (1970-95) Page Source: Smith and Haddad 2000 Equalizing women status in SSA would malnutrition in children by 3 % (1.7 million children) Equalizing women status in S Asia would malnutrition in children by 13 % (13.4 million children)
Priority Setting Research & Development Extension Adoption Evaluation Gender in Agriculture R&D: The Old Perspective
Priority Setting Research & Development Extension Adoption Evaluation Gender in Agriculture R&D: A New Perspective Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR Farmers NARES CGIAR
Priority Setting Research & Development Extension Adoption Evaluation Gender in Agriculture R&D: A New Perspective
What different roles/stakes do women and men have in XXX?
How might the program affect them differently?
Will both men and women realistically be able to participate and to benefit? (time, assets etc.)
How might differential participation of men, women affect program activities and impact?
How could the program contribute to gender equity?
How might agricultural R&D look through a “ gender lens ”?
1.Involving women in all aspects of agricultural R&D
2. Going beyond production technology
Average female shares in professional staff by degree in 47 developing countries, 2001–08 (ASTI data published in Beintema 2006) Who conducts agricultural research? Only 1 in 4 researchers in Sub-Saharan Africa is female (Beintema and Di Marcantonio 2010)
What does this mean for a revitalized agricultural R&D system?
Conclusions and Way Forward
Achieving the vision of a gender-responsive agricultural system Commitment, Accountability, Institutional change Strategic research, Methods, Capacity strengthening, Partnerships Management, Donors Agricultural Research and Development Programs Platform on Gender in Agriculture