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CCAFS Dhaka Gender Workshop Presentation

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  • 1. Gendered Differences in Climate Change Adaptation Presented by: Chiara Kovarik, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Research with: Quinn Bernier, Elizabeth Bryan, Eric Haglund, Patti Kristjanson, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Carlos Quiros, Claudia Ringler, Mariana Rufino, Sylvia Silvestri, Jennifer Twyman Survey leaders: Edidah Ampaire, Joash Mango, Yacine Ndourba, Md. Zahidul Hassan June 18, 2014
  • 2. Background • Climate change is a growing concern for rural smallholder farmers, and, based on research on gendered asset ownership and household division of labor, it is believed that women will be especially affected • Much attention has focused on the ways that smallholder farmers are adapting to climate change, but little research has addressed intra- household differences in adaptation strategies—and how that differs between men and women IFPRI Images
  • 3. Background • Climate change is a growing concern for rural smallholder farmers, and, based on research on gendered asset ownership and household division of labor, it is believed that women will be especially affected • Much attention has focused on the ways that smallholder farmers are adapting to climate change, but little research has addressed intra- household differences in adaptation strategies—and how that differs between men and women IFPRI Images
  • 4. Research Questions • How might men and women in rural areas be (differentially) affected by long-run climate change and short-term climate shocks? • What are the characteristics and causes of gender differentials in vulnerability/resilience to weather-related risk (e.g. assets, information, empowerment in decision-making, rights, etc.)? • What are the adaptation options, strategies, and approaches (individual, household, or collective) that are available to and preferred by men and women? • Do men and women have different perceptions of climate change and climate risk? How do perceptions of climate change, climate risk, and personal values shape adaptation decisions and approaches?
  • 5. Topics Covered • 13 modules, collecting information on: • Preferences and use of agricultural and climate information • Access to credit • Decision-making • Group membership • Risk management • Adaptation strategies/practices • Climate smart practices • Perceptions of climate change and impacts (both positive and negative) • Human values and cognitive processes that contribute to climate change decisions IFPRI Images
  • 6. Preliminary Results from Bangladesh • Both sites in Bangladesh • Are individuals aware of specific climate smart interventions? And if so, have they adopted them? • Do individuals have information on changes in climate? Do they use that information? Where does it come from? • What shocks do respondents perceive? • What adaptations have individuals made? If they haven’t made changes, what are the reasons they haven’t? IFPRI Images
  • 7. Awareness of climate smart interventions Table shows percentage aware of specific climate smart interventions. Men Women Significant Agroforestry 55.6 42.2 +++ Terraces 30.4 30.5 Water harvesting 26.3 17.8 +++ Irrigation 98.1 97.6 Zai Pits 6.5 1.5 +++ Crop Residue 58.1 52.9 Composting 80.9 71.5 +++ +++ means significant at the 1% level
  • 8. Adoption of climate smart interventions • Among those aware, percentage adopting climate smart interventions in the past year Men Women Significant Agroforestry 8.2 4.6 Terraces 19.5 22.4 Water harvesting 24.5 11.0 ++ Irrigation 63.0 54.0 +++ Zai Pits 8.3 16.7 Crop Residue 42.1 41.5 Composting 37.9 39.2 ++ means significant at the 5% level. +++ means significant at the 1% level
  • 9. Have information Men Women Significant Forecast of drought, flood or extreme event 59.0 74.4 +++ Forecast of the start of rains 49.3 67.1 +++ Seasonal weather forecast 24.3 9.3 +++ Short term forecast 24.0 26.3 Long term forecast 4.0 0.7 +++ +++ means significant at the 1% level
  • 10. Use information Men Women Significant Forecast of drought, flood or extreme event 10.8 14.4 Forecast of the start of rains 9.2 9.3 Seasonal weather forecast 5.9 1.0 +++ Short term forecast 4.3 2.7 Long term forecast 1.1 0 ++ means significant at the 5% level. +++ means significant at the 1% level Of those that have information on a certain topic, percentage that use it.
  • 11. Information sources Men Women Significant Government extension 30.8 6.1 +++ NGOs 14.1 10.0 + Community meetings 2.4 0.5 ++ Farmer organizations, coops, CBOs 1.6 0.98 Religious groups 0.54 0 Agri-service providers, seed companies 4.6 0.49 +++ Family members 13.8 5.1 +++ + means significant at the 10% level, ++ means significant at the 5% level. +++ means significant at the 1% level
  • 12. Climate Shocks/Climate Changes Men Women Observed climate change 94.2 97.4 Likelihood that change will continue 75.9 84.2 Observed temperature change 60.7 67.1 Observed rain change 79.8 85.1 Observed drought change 35.1 19.4 Observed flood change 14.4 22.1 Increased salinity groundwater 3.1 1.4
  • 13. Top 5 adaptations made Adaptation #1 Adaptation #2 Adaptation #3 Adaptation #4 Adaptation #5 Men Decrease land under production Change crop variety Increase land under production Change crop type Change of fertilizer application Women Decrease land under production Change crop variety Decrease number of livestock Change crop type Increase land under production
  • 14. Reason not to make changes Reason #1 Reason #2 Reason #3 Reason #4 Men Don’t know what to do Don’t see the need to make changes Not enough money to implement changes Not enough information on climate change? Women Don’t know what to do Don’t see the need to make changes Not enough money to implement changes Think that the practice/chan ge might fail
  • 15. Ideas for Further Analysis • What biophysical, regional, and social factors influence adaptation? How do things like production system, group membership, information sources, and personal values/beliefs come into play? • What can practitioners and policymakers learn from how men and women adapt? • Descriptive analysis of sources of extension, by gender • How do different adaptation choices and preferences of men and women affect future well-being (agricultural productivity, empowerment, assets, income, risk management, etc.)? • Does joint decision-making increase household resilience to climate change? Does it lead to greater investment in land improvements and technologies? • Assessment of the strength of relationships between gendered control over assets and perceptions of climate change, testing the hypothesis that assets can protect against shocks, as well as facilitate investment in the land.
  • 16. Thank you! Any questions? Please email Chiara Kovarik at c.kovarik@cgiar.org