Gendered Impact of BRACs   Ultra Poor Program          Addis Ababa        9th January 2013
Outline Poverty situation in Bangladesh BRACs Ultra Poor Program: Challenging the  Frontiers of Poverty Reduction Study...
Poverty Situation in Bangladesh A country of 153m people 17% live in ultra poverty (BBS 2010) Ultra-poor are structural...
BRACs Ultra Poor Program: Challenging  the Frontiers of Poverty ReductionProgram Background: Even though Bangladesh is th...
BRACs Ultra Poor Program:Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty             ReductionObjectives of the Program Improve extr...
BRAC Defining Ultra Poor Children of school-going  age taking up paid work Households with <10  decimal of land. Who ea...
Selection processThree steps selection process• Participatory Rural Appraisal Method            - Social Mapping          ...
Programme Components•   Enterprise Development Training•   Asset Transfer•   Tailor made health care support•   Community ...
Graduation Perspectives• Graduating from ultra poor to a better economic  and social condition• Graduating into the mainst...
Research Objectives   What are the challenges faced by the poor    households to build financially secure livelihoods?  ...
Study design   To evaluate the ultra poor program we adopted Randomized    control trial design   Cluster Randomization ...
Study design
Methodology: The Data    Baseline survey was conducted in 2007 which was    followed up in 2009 and 2011   The original ...
Methodology: The Data   In 2011, under the GAAP project, a follow-up survey    based on the original RCT sample was condu...
Analytical Technique   Analysis was done comparing finally selected    households in the treatment area (i.e. those who  ...
Results and Discussions
Challenges faced by the male members      to build stable livelihoodsIndicators                                       Trea...
Challenges faced by the female   members to build stable livelihoodsIndicators                            Treatment Contro...
Main women’s engagement in IGA and         rights in taking decisionIndicators                         Treatmen Contro Dif...
Main women’s engagement in IGA and rights in taking                     decisionIndicators                           Treat...
Perception towards female targeted intervention                        Information                         Response (%)Sup...
Number of livestock owned by the main female and                        spouse                                 Number owne...
Number of agricultural productive assets owned by main                  female and spouse             Number owned by     ...
Number of agricultural productive assets owned by main              female and spouse, cont’d                             ...
Number of non-agricultural productive assets owned by               main female and spouse                                ...
Number of non-agricultural productive assets owned by            main female and spouse, cont’d                  Owned by ...
Number of consumer durables/other assets owned by               main female and spouse                                    ...
Amount of land owned by the main female and spouse                                       Owned by main    Owned by spouse ...
Control over income earned by main female and               purchases for main femaleIndicators                           ...
Decision making on household spending and saving by the                  main female and spouse                           ...
Preliminary conclusions: program impacts   Reduced reports of specific challenges to    livelihoods faced by male and fem...
Preliminary conclusions: program impacts   Livestock ownership: Increased females’ sole    ownership of cows and goats, a...
Preliminary conclusions: program impacts   Consumer durables: Increased several categories of    female, joint, and male ...
Wrap-up and question for discussion Positive impact on livelihoods Positive impact on women’s ownership (both  sole and ...
GAAP Partner Organizations
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BRAC GAAP Presentation January 2013

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Presentation given by BRAC at GAAP final technical workshop in Addis Ababa, January 2013

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BRAC GAAP Presentation January 2013

  1. 1. Gendered Impact of BRACs Ultra Poor Program Addis Ababa 9th January 2013
  2. 2. Outline Poverty situation in Bangladesh BRACs Ultra Poor Program: Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction Study objectives Study design Results Conclusion
  3. 3. Poverty Situation in Bangladesh A country of 153m people 17% live in ultra poverty (BBS 2010) Ultra-poor are structurally constrained from both the demand and supply sides BRAC established in 1972 in Bangladesh to empower the poor and women through various interventions Largest NGO in the world employing over 120,000 employees (annual budget: US$ 600 million)
  4. 4. BRACs Ultra Poor Program: Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty ReductionProgram Background: Even though Bangladesh is the birthplace of microfinance, ultra poor are often bypassed because of both demand and supply side factors The safety net programs of GoB mainly serve as protective approach rather than promotional approach
  5. 5. BRACs Ultra Poor Program:Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty ReductionObjectives of the Program Improve extreme poverty situation at the household level Assist the ultra poor hoseholds (HHs) getting access to the mainstream development programs.
  6. 6. BRAC Defining Ultra Poor Children of school-going age taking up paid work Households with <10 decimal of land. Who earn livelihood as beggar, day-labourer, domestic aid etc. Households with no productive assets. No adult male member in the household.
  7. 7. Selection processThree steps selection process• Participatory Rural Appraisal Method - Social Mapping - Wealth Ranking• Mini survey through questionnaire• Final selection through verification
  8. 8. Programme Components• Enterprise Development Training• Asset Transfer• Tailor made health care support• Community Mobilization Work
  9. 9. Graduation Perspectives• Graduating from ultra poor to a better economic and social condition• Graduating into the mainstream development programmes Coverage 1st Phase 2nd Phase 3rd Phase Total Coverage (Achieved) (Achieved) (On going) (achieved and planned) Year Year Year Year 2002-2006 2007-2011 2012-2016 2002-2016 1,00,000 2,70,300 2,50,000 6,20,300 Households Households Households Households
  10. 10. Research Objectives What are the challenges faced by the poor households to build financially secure livelihoods? What are the types of assets that the women are more likely to control? Does the program intervention increase women’s control over assets among participant households? Do women retain control of assets transferred to them, or does the asset transfer change patterns of asset control in more nuanced ways? What are the policy implications for other programs targeting asset transfers to women?
  11. 11. Study design To evaluate the ultra poor program we adopted Randomized control trial design Cluster Randomization at the branch office (a geographical location of about 4 km radius) level 40 branch offices: 20 control and 20 treated From each branch offices all villages/spots were surveyed All finally selected households and additional 10% from rest of the households
  12. 12. Study design
  13. 13. Methodology: The Data Baseline survey was conducted in 2007 which was followed up in 2009 and 2011 The original baseline survey was designed to investigate effect of the program on livelihoods Didnt include detailed information on gendered control of assets in the baseline and first follow up survey (2009) As RCT evaluation design was used, it is expected that at baseline there would be no or little difference between treatment and control groups.
  14. 14. Methodology: The Data In 2011, under the GAAP project, a follow-up survey based on the original RCT sample was conducted This included an additional module on gendered control of assets and men’s and women’s perceptions of barriers to improved livelihoods The idea was to investigate impact of the program using cross sectional data on the treated and control.
  15. 15. Analytical Technique Analysis was done comparing finally selected households in the treatment area (i.e. those who received assets) and control areas (those who were selected by the program but no asset was provided) We run cross section regression: Yi=a+bXi+eiWhere Yi is the outcome variable of interest, Xi is thebinary variable (1 for treatment and zero for control)Since cluster randomization was followed, standarderrors were estimated at the community level (no ofcommunities: 839)
  16. 16. Results and Discussions
  17. 17. Challenges faced by the male members to build stable livelihoodsIndicators Treatment Control DifferenceMales faced difficulties/challenges to build 97.5 97.7 -0.2stable livelihoods (%)Types of problem faced by males (%)Scarcity of adequate capital 32.8 40.6 -7.8**Inadequate work opportunity/season based 93.3 95.8 -2.5**workInability to do risky/too much hard work 24.8 20.9 3.9due to physical conditionScarcity of raw materials 1.1 4.6 -3.5***Do not get work due to scarcity of personal 7.7 23.5 -15.8***relationship with chairman/member/workprovider Note: ***Significant at 1% level, **significant at 5%
  18. 18. Challenges faced by the female members to build stable livelihoodsIndicators Treatment Control DifferenceFemales faced difficulties/challenges 97.2 96.0 1.2to build stable livelihoods (%)Types of problem faced by femalesInadequate work opportunity 83.0 88.0 -5.0***/season based work (%)Cannot go out in the evening even for 0.6 2.6 -2.0***urgent work due to the lack ofsecurity (%)Inadequate knowledge to build stable 2.3 7.8 -5.6***livelihoods (%)Employer willing to hire women but 34.5 43.2 -8.7***paying a lower wage (%) Note: ***Significant at 1% level
  19. 19. Main women’s engagement in IGA and rights in taking decisionIndicators Treatmen Contro Differenc t l eMain women work to earn Inside the home 27.2 14.6 12.6*** Outside the home 24.5 40.0 -15.5*** Both 48.3 45.4 2.9Usually decides how tospend money earned 97.2 96.5 0.7Decides to take the loanfrom NGO 97.3 97.1 0.2 Note: ***Significant at 1% level
  20. 20. Main women’s engagement in IGA and rights in taking decisionIndicators Treatment Control DifferenceUsually decide how to spendthe money from the NGO loan 96.8 94.5 2.3Decide to buy a dairy cow orbuffalo 96.1 94.1 2.0Decide to sell a dairy cow orbuffalo 94.4 93.9 0.5Decide to lease a dairy cow orbuffalo 94.4 86.2 8.3*Decide about dairymaintenance expenses (e.g.,buying feed, medicine etc.) 94.4 89.8 4.6 Note: *significant at 10% level
  21. 21. Perception towards female targeted intervention Information Response (%)Support program’s strategy of providing assets to females Yes 97.35 No 2.65If yes, then why? Women can do this work being inside their house 44.24 Women are quite eligible for taking care of such assets 38.62 Women try to improve through proper utilization of the received assets 17.14If no, then why? Men can better take care of the assets 64.41 Women may sold the assets and use the money for unproductive purpose 13.56 Women lack adequate expertise for this work 22.03
  22. 22. Number of livestock owned by the main female and spouse Number owned by Number owned by main female and Number owned byNo. of main female alone spouse jointly spouse aloneassets Treat Cntrl Diff Treat Cntrl Diff Treat Cntrl DiffCow 0.849 0.126 0.723*** 0.140 0.039 0.101*** 0.137 0.066 0.071***Goat 0.360 0.225 0.135** 0.054 0.029 0.025*** 0.238 0.259 -0.020Chicken 2.013 1.116 0.898*** 0.153 0.099 0.054 0.290 0.093 0.196***Pigeon 0.022 0.029 -0.006 0.006 0 0.006 0.453 0.083 0.369Others 1.000 1.167 -0.167 0.000 1.333 -1.333 Note: ***Significant at 1% level
  23. 23. Number of agricultural productive assets owned by main female and spouse Number owned by Number owned by main Number owned by the main female alone female and spouse jointly spouse aloneAgricultural asset Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl DiffPowerpump 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.018 0.003 0.015***Axe 0.101 0.094 0.007 0.082 0.073 0.008 0.711 0.575 0.137***Tractor 0 0 0 0 0.059 0 0.059Threshingmachine 0 0 0 0 0.160 0.105 0.055Plough 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.857 0.526 0.331MowingMachine 0.418 0.586 -0.169*** 0.204 0.272 -0.068* 0.679 0.543 0.135** Note: ***Significant at 1% , **significant at 5%, *significant at 10%
  24. 24. Number of agricultural productive assets owned by main female and spouse, cont’d Number owned by Number owned by the Number owned by main main female and spouse aloneAgricultura female alone spouse jointlyl asset Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl DiffDeep tube-well 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.005 0 0.005 0.325 0.143 0.182Cow-shed 0.221 0.145 0.076*** 0.092 0.046 0.046*** 0.463 0.229 0.234***Ladder 0.006 0.006 0.001 0.002 0.005 -0.003 0.598 0.368 0.229*Chopperwith haft 0.293 0.358 -0.065** 0.130 0.122 0.007 0.461 0.230 0.232***Storedcrops inhome (kg) 1.614 0.720 0.895* 1.054 2.124 -1.070* 32.198 27.646 4.552Spraymachine 0.004 0.007 -0.002 0.000 0.001 -0.001 0.12 0 0.12* Note: ***Significant at 1% , **significant at 5%, *significant at 10%
  25. 25. Number of non-agricultural productive assets owned by main female and spouse Number owned by the Number owned by Number owned by main spouse alone main female alone female and spouse jointlyNon-agriproductive Treaassets Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff t Ctrl DiffBicycle 0.004 0.004 0.000 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.123 0.102 0.021Motorcycle 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000*** 0.034 0.000 0.034CNG/Taxi 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 0.063 0.000 0.063Mobile phone 0.030 0.032 -0.002 0.016 0.012 0.004 0.466 0.277 0.189***Sewingmachine 0.001 0.004 -0.003 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.129 0.029 0.100Computer 0.000 0.000 0.000*** 0.000 0.000 0.000*** 0.000 0.000 0.000***Basket (crafts) 0.408 0.726 -0.318*** 0.121 0.296 -0.176*** 0.385 0.166 0.219***Shop/smallbusiness 0.005 0.004 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.507 0.396 0.111 Note: ***Significant at 1% level
  26. 26. Number of non-agricultural productive assets owned by main female and spouse, cont’d Owned by main female Owned by main female and Owned by the spouse Non-agri alone spouse jointly alone productive assets Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl DiffTrees (at least100 taka) 0.955 0.554 0.401 0.583 0.215 0.369*** 4.851 2.054 2.797Cash Taka 1,262 328 934*** 159 54 105** 41 120 -79**Boat 0.001 0.002 -0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.655 0.308 0.347**Fishing net 0.006 0.017 -0.011 0.002 0.001 0.001 1.017 0.667 0.351**Rickshaw/van 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.682 0.630 0.052Huskingequipment 0.006 0.011 -0.005 0.001 0.004 -0.002 0.129 0.031 0.098Small cottagematerials 0.063 0.006 0.058*** 0.010 0.001 0.009 0.103 0.043 0.059 Note: ***Significant at 1% and **significant at 5% level
  27. 27. Number of consumer durables/other assets owned by main female and spouse Owned by the spouse Owned by main female Owned by main female andConsumer alone alone spouse jointlydurables/Otherassets Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl DiffChair/table/sofa 0.208 0.174 0.035 0.166 0.174 -0.008 0.911 0.548 0.363***Living room 0.444 0.531 -0.088** 0.249 0.231 0.018 0.869 0.580 0.289***Almirah 0.191 0.156 0.035* 0.052 0.070 -0.019* 0.416 0.202 0.215***Television 0.004 0.001 0.003* 0.005 0.001 0.004** 0.280 0.206 0.074Tube-well 0.147 0.092 0.054*** 0.058 0.071 -0.013 0.483 0.367 0.116***Latrine 0.254 0.100 0.154*** 0.087 0.064 0.023** 0.372 0.316 0.057*Gold jewelry 1.353 1.720 -0.368 0.007 0.013 -0.007 0.109 0.008 0.100***Silver jewelry 5.249 7.522 -2.273* 0.000 0.353 -0.353 0.025 0.430 -0.405 Note: ***Significant at 1% , **significant at 5%, *significant at 10%
  28. 28. Amount of land owned by the main female and spouse Owned by main Owned by spouse Owned by main female and spouse female alone jointlyLand type Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl DiffHomestead land 0.669 0.559 0.109 0.062 0.032 0.030 2.155 1.642 0.513***Cultivatedland 0.322 0.186 0.136 0.006 0.003 0.003 12.142 6.019 6.123***Pond 0.007 0.001 0.006 0.004 0 0.004 2.377 0.167 2.210***Uncultivated land 0 0 0.222 0.400 -0.178Garden 0.001 0.013 -0.012* 0.200 0.293 -0.093Others 1.5 0 1.5 3.000 9.000 -6.000 Note: ***Significant at 1% level
  29. 29. Control over income earned by main female and purchases for main femaleIndicators Treat Ctrl DiffWhat do you do with the money you earn? Give it all to my husband / other family 31.09 29.22 1.87** member Give some to husband / other member 44.58 44.22 0.36 Keep all 24.32 26.56 -2.24***Do main female control the money neededto buy… Clothes for herself? 30.88 33.44 -2.56*** Medicines for herself? 28.78 31.6 -2.82*** Cosmetics for herself? 34.6 37.13 -2.53*** Note: ***Significant at 1% and **significant at 5% level
  30. 30. Decision making on household spending and saving by the main female and spouse Main female & SpouseWho decides Main female spousehow… Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl Diff Treat Ctrl DiffTo spend moneyearned by mainfemale 26.39 27.76 -1.37* 63.34 61.05 2.29*** 5.24 5.42 -0.18Much to save 6.32 5.54 0.78** 18.54 20.11 -1.57*** 67.34 66.25 1.09To spend moneyon food 17.13 18.61-1.48*** 41.24 40.6 0.64 31.48 30.53 0.95To spend moneyon housing 16.88 18.28 -1.40** 42.99 42.53 0.46 29.74 28.81 0.93To spend moneyon health care 17.01 18.38 -1.37** 44.07 44.02 0.05 28.47 27 1.47** Note: ***Significant at 1% , **significant at 5%, *significant at 10%
  31. 31. Preliminary conclusions: program impacts Reduced reports of specific challenges to livelihoods faced by male and female household members Shifted main females’ work from outside work to work within the homestead, because the transferred asset can be cared for at home. Regarding dairy cows/buffalo, increased main female’s participation in decisions regarding leasing, but not in other matters (buying, selling, maintenance expenses) Most program participants support program’s strategy of providing assets to females, though some disagree.
  32. 32. Preliminary conclusions: program impacts Livestock ownership: Increased females’ sole ownership of cows and goats, as well as joint ownership with spouse, and (for cows) ownership by males. Also increased sole ownership by females and males of chickens. Agricultural assets: for some types, increased male ownership and decreased female ownership (as expected, given gender division of labor in agriculture); for others, increased female, joint, and male ownership. Non-agricultural productive assets: for some types, increased male ownership (boat, fishing net); for other types, increased female ownership – sole (cash) and joint (cash, trees)
  33. 33. Preliminary conclusions: program impacts Consumer durables: Increased several categories of female, joint, and male ownership Land: Increased male ownership, no impact on female or joint ownership Main female’s control over her earnings/purchases: Decreased female keeping all money she earns, increased giving all money to spouse, decreased control over purchases of clothes/medicines/cosmetics for herself Household decision-making: Decreased females’ sole decisions on how much to save/spend in all categories (own earnings, food, housing, healthcare), increased joint decisions on spending female’s earnings, increased male’s sole decisions on how much to save and how much to spend on health care
  34. 34. Wrap-up and question for discussion Positive impact on livelihoods Positive impact on women’s ownership (both sole and joint) of many assets, especially livestock, BUT negative impact on women’s sole decision making
  35. 35. GAAP Partner Organizations

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