REGIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE
AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION
AND FOOD SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA
Role of international collabora...
Scope of presentation
• International collaboration
• NARS, ICARDA and CIMMYT
• International Winter Wheat Improvement Pro...
Differentcereals producedin the CAC region
Crop Area (mil ha)
Production
(mil t) Yield (t/ha) Seed (mil t)
Barley 2.181 3....
Wheat vs. other cereals in CAC, 2011
17.4
3.2
20.6
84%
36.0
7.1
43.0
84%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Wheat Others Total W...
Area, production and yield (all cereals ), 2011
20.6 20.1
78.5
43.0 51.2
237.7
2.09
2.55
3.03
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0
50...
Climate Change and Major Crop
Production Constraints in Central Asia
WinterAutumn Spring
Drough
t
Wet
Heat
Dry
Wet
Dry
Mil...
What is being done to address constraints?
• Climate resilient crop germplasm
• Climate resilient crop management practice...
Climate resilient crop germplasm from
CG Centers
• >1000 new, improved germplasm introduced each year of
• Wheat
• Dryland...
Climate resilient resource management
practices – introduction and promotion
• Conservation agriculture
• Other resource c...
Capacity development
• English language training
• Short term training
• Long-term training (> 3 months)
• Involve student...
Internationalcollaborationwith CGIARon
germplasmexchangeand improvement
• Germplasm introduction
• Germplasm evaluation an...
Germplasmintroductionthoughinternational
collaboration(1995-2011)
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Numberofaccession
...
Crop varieties released through
international collaboration
• Winter Wheat - 23
• Spring wheat - 11
• Barley - 11
• Chickp...
Wheat yellow rust problem in Central Asia
Nota
2010, Tajikistan
Kroshka
2009, Uzbekistan
Krasnodar-99
2013, Tajikistan
Si...
YellowRustEpidemics– 2013, Tajikistan
SeedMultiplicationField
Natural epidemics of yellow rust in winter wheat
nurseries in Tajikistan, 2013
Natural and artificial epidemics of yellow rust in winter
wheat nurseries in Uzbekistan, 2013
New,improvedwheat varieties,resistantto
yellowrust – ready for deployment
Chumon
Wheat varieties that survived three
yellow rust epidemics (2009, 2010, 2013)
Hazrati Bashir
Gozgon
Wheat variety that escapes terminal
heat stress, also resistant to yellow rust
Hazrati Bashir
(Uzbekistan)
Suitable for au...
Climate resilient wheat varieties
Source: Yuldashev et al. 2013 (ongoing experiment)
3-24% reductions in grain yield due t...
Wheat variety more efficient to water
use, also tolerant to yellow rust
Variety
Irrigation
100% 75% 50%
Commercial
popular...
Seed multiplication of stripe rust
resistant varieties: 2013-2014
Variety Uzbekis
tan (ha)
Tajikistan
(ha)
Hazrati Bashir ...
Farmers’ Field Day – 4 June 2013
Wheat Seed Multiplication, Tajikistan
Salinity and frost tolerant wheat
Khorezm, Uzbekistan
17 of 150 germplasm: salinity and frost tolerant
CRP Dryland Systems: Khorezm site
(salinity, frost, and heat) - Uzbekistan
Salinity, frost, heat and drought tolerant
wheat
2013
Seed
multiplication
2014
2011: 120 Varieties
evaluated
2012
Dashoguz...
InternationalWinterWheatTravelingSeminar
20-15May 2013,Uzbekistan
Beat the heat by planting chickpea
prior to winter
Planted on 19 Dec, crop maturity in May
Autumn vs. spring planting
Wint...
Out-scaling cold tolerant chickpea in
Tajikistan (2010-2012)
Varieties: Sino, Hisor-32
Improvedbarley varieties for food
security – (drought and heat tolerant)
New Initiatives on crop improvement
• CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs)
• Dryland Systems
• WHEAT
• Dryland Cereals
• Grain L...
CRP WHEAT – outputsrelevant to the
Central Asia region
• More productive wheat varieties with package of traits:
• High yi...
Policy reforms needed
• Free movement of crop germplasm in the region
• Reduce the number of years from introduction to re...
Priorities identified by partners in
Central Asia for WHEAT CRP
Traits
Priority ranks
NARS IAR
Better Varieties 1 1
Diseas...
Central Asia highlightedin WHEAT CRP
Report 2013: outcome and impact
• Zero-till scale-out and -up in Kazakhstan
• WHEAT c...
Summary
• International collaboration in Central Asia
• Climate resilient, stress tolerant crop varieties ready for
deploy...
Acknowledgement
• National partners in Central Asia
• ICARDA
• CIMMYT
• IWWIP
• IFPRI – invitation and support for partici...
Acknowledgementto partnership
Thank you!
Role of international collaboration towards improving crop productivity in the context of climate change and food security...
Role of international collaboration towards improving crop productivity in the context of climate change and food security...
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Role of international collaboration towards improving crop productivity in the context of climate change and food security in Central Asia – an overview

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"Role of international collaboration towards improving crop productivity in the context of climate change and food security in Central Asia – an overview" presented by Ram C. Sharma and Jozef Turok at Regional Research Conference “Agricultural Transformation and Food Security in Central Asia”, April 8-9, 2014, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

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Role of international collaboration towards improving crop productivity in the context of climate change and food security in Central Asia – an overview

  1. 1. REGIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION AND FOOD SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA Role of international collaboration towards improving crop productivityin the context of climate change and food securityin Central Asia – an overview Ram C. Sharma and Jozef Turok International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Tashkent, Uzbekistan 9 April 2014, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
  2. 2. Scope of presentation • International collaboration • NARS, ICARDA and CIMMYT • International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (ICARDA, CIMMYT, Turkey) • Successful outputs related to food security, also relevant to climate change • Policy reforms needed for efficient development and delivery of new varieties to the farmers
  3. 3. Differentcereals producedin the CAC region Crop Area (mil ha) Production (mil t) Yield (t/ha) Seed (mil t) Barley 2.181 3.968 1.820 0.374 Buckwheat 0.067 0.038 0.562 0.003 Cereal, nes 0.143 0.170 1.186 0.000 Maize 0.390 1.798 4.616 0.036 Millet 0.042 0.051 1.227 0.002 Mixed grain Oats 0.151 0.271 1.794 0.022 Rice 0.198 0.711 3.589 0.030 Rye 0.025 0.041 1.672 0.020 Sorghum 0.004 0.015 4.175 0.000 Triticale Wheat 17.361 35.969 2.072 3.220 Total 20.561 43.033 2.093 3.707
  4. 4. Wheat vs. other cereals in CAC, 2011 17.4 3.2 20.6 84% 36.0 7.1 43.0 84% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Wheat Others Total Wheat (%) Area(milha),Production(mil t) Area (mil ha) Production (mil t)
  5. 5. Area, production and yield (all cereals ), 2011 20.6 20.1 78.5 43.0 51.2 237.7 2.09 2.55 3.03 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 CAC West Asia Eastern Europe Yield(t/ha) Area(mil.ha),Production(mil.t) Area (mil. ha) Production (mil. t) Yield (t/ha)
  6. 6. Climate Change and Major Crop Production Constraints in Central Asia WinterAutumn Spring Drough t Wet Heat Dry Wet Dry Mild Wet Dry Salinity
  7. 7. What is being done to address constraints? • Climate resilient crop germplasm • Climate resilient crop management practices • Partnership for efficient delivery • Climate resilient policy (needed)
  8. 8. Climate resilient crop germplasm from CG Centers • >1000 new, improved germplasm introduced each year of • Wheat • Dryland cereals (barley, millets and others) • Food legumes (chickpea, lentil, faba bean, grasspea) • Rice • Maize • Potato • Specific climate resilient traits in new germplasm • High yield and improved quality • Tolerance to abiotic stress – drought, heat, salinity • Tolerance to biotic stresses – diseases and pests
  9. 9. Climate resilient resource management practices – introduction and promotion • Conservation agriculture • Other resource conservation practices • Efficient water and nutrient management practices • Sustainable land management practices • Knowledge management
  10. 10. Capacity development • English language training • Short term training • Long-term training (> 3 months) • Involve students (undergraduate and graduate) • Farmers’ training • Seed producers training • Observations tours (all actors) • Participation in regional and international conferences • Gender considerations • Focus on youth (young researchers ) • Limited infrastructure development
  11. 11. Internationalcollaborationwith CGIARon germplasmexchangeand improvement • Germplasm introduction • Germplasm evaluation and release of new varieties • Capacity development
  12. 12. Germplasmintroductionthoughinternational collaboration(1995-2011) 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Numberofaccession Total Bread wheat Durum wheat Barley Chickpea Lentil Fababean Grasspea
  13. 13. Crop varieties released through international collaboration • Winter Wheat - 23 • Spring wheat - 11 • Barley - 11 • Chickpea - 14 • Lentil - 5 • Grasspea - 1 • Trriticale 2 • Total 67
  14. 14. Wheat yellow rust problem in Central Asia Nota 2010, Tajikistan Kroshka 2009, Uzbekistan Krasnodar-99 2013, Tajikistan Six yellow rust epidemics since 1999 1999, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2013
  15. 15. YellowRustEpidemics– 2013, Tajikistan SeedMultiplicationField
  16. 16. Natural epidemics of yellow rust in winter wheat nurseries in Tajikistan, 2013
  17. 17. Natural and artificial epidemics of yellow rust in winter wheat nurseries in Uzbekistan, 2013
  18. 18. New,improvedwheat varieties,resistantto yellowrust – ready for deployment Chumon
  19. 19. Wheat varieties that survived three yellow rust epidemics (2009, 2010, 2013) Hazrati Bashir Gozgon
  20. 20. Wheat variety that escapes terminal heat stress, also resistant to yellow rust Hazrati Bashir (Uzbekistan) Suitable for autumn and spring planting Lower grain reductions than other varieties when planted Late in autumn and in spring
  21. 21. Climate resilient wheat varieties Source: Yuldashev et al. 2013 (ongoing experiment) 3-24% reductions in grain yield due to late planting
  22. 22. Wheat variety more efficient to water use, also tolerant to yellow rust Variety Irrigation 100% 75% 50% Commercial popular 100% yield 57% yield 32% yield Elomon 100% yield 82% yield 56% yield Elomon Uzbekistan Chumon (Tajikistan) Resistant to yellow rust during 2010, 2013 epidemics Resistant to leaf rust Resistant to tan spot
  23. 23. Seed multiplication of stripe rust resistant varieties: 2013-2014 Variety Uzbekis tan (ha) Tajikistan (ha) Hazrati Bashir 100 Elomon 150 Gozgon 100 Bunyodkor 200 Yaksart (a cross with IWWIP line in Uzbekistan) 500 Chumon 7 Alex 558 Ormon 435 Total 1050 1000 CRP WHEAT – Partnership grant
  24. 24. Farmers’ Field Day – 4 June 2013 Wheat Seed Multiplication, Tajikistan
  25. 25. Salinity and frost tolerant wheat Khorezm, Uzbekistan 17 of 150 germplasm: salinity and frost tolerant
  26. 26. CRP Dryland Systems: Khorezm site (salinity, frost, and heat) - Uzbekistan
  27. 27. Salinity, frost, heat and drought tolerant wheat 2013 Seed multiplication 2014 2011: 120 Varieties evaluated 2012 Dashoguz Turkmenistan
  28. 28. InternationalWinterWheatTravelingSeminar 20-15May 2013,Uzbekistan
  29. 29. Beat the heat by planting chickpea prior to winter Planted on 19 Dec, crop maturity in May Autumn vs. spring planting Winter-kill of susceptible lines
  30. 30. Out-scaling cold tolerant chickpea in Tajikistan (2010-2012) Varieties: Sino, Hisor-32
  31. 31. Improvedbarley varieties for food security – (drought and heat tolerant)
  32. 32. New Initiatives on crop improvement • CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs) • Dryland Systems • WHEAT • Dryland Cereals • Grain Legumes •
  33. 33. CRP WHEAT – outputsrelevant to the Central Asia region • More productive wheat varieties with package of traits: • High yield • Improved quality (end-use, market) • Improved input-use efficiency • Stress tolerance • Abiotic – drought, heat, salinity, frost, cold • Biotic – yellow rust, leaf rust, Septoria, tan spot, Fusarium, Sunn Pest, Russian Wheat Aphid, Hessian fly • Seed sector improvement • Conservation agriculture and other resource conserving technologies • Capacity development
  34. 34. Policy reforms needed • Free movement of crop germplasm in the region • Reduce the number of years from introduction to release of variety to the farmers : (reduce from 9 to 5 years) • Farmers’ participation in selection of new varieties • Harmonize varietal release and seed policy for the region • Promote replacement of low yielding, disease susceptible varieties with high yielding, disease resistant varieties • Diversify and intensification of cropping system • Technologically, each country in Central Asia could produce enough wheat for home consumption, but with right policy
  35. 35. Priorities identified by partners in Central Asia for WHEAT CRP Traits Priority ranks NARS IAR Better Varieties 1 1 Disease and pests resistance 2 2 Dought and heat tolerance 2 2 More and better Seed 2 3 Capacity development 2 2
  36. 36. Central Asia highlightedin WHEAT CRP Report 2013: outcome and impact • Zero-till scale-out and -up in Kazakhstan • WHEAT competitive partner grant for Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (where wheat crops have suffered three major yellow rust outbreaks in the last five years), multiplied seed of resistant varieties on state farms and farmers’ fields, and in 2014/15 more than 20,000 ha of winter wheat will be planted to prevent future damage from yellow rust
  37. 37. Summary • International collaboration in Central Asia • Climate resilient, stress tolerant crop varieties ready for deployment • Opportunities in CRP WHEAT for Central Asia • Policy reforms need
  38. 38. Acknowledgement • National partners in Central Asia • ICARDA • CIMMYT • IWWIP • IFPRI – invitation and support for participation
  39. 39. Acknowledgementto partnership
  40. 40. Thank you!

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