An adaptation of the Women
Empowerment in Agriculture Index
from a Five to a Six domain Metric
Elizabeth Waithanji
ILRI
1st Adaptation – Domains / Dimensions
Six Domain adaptation

Five Domain WEAI (Alkire et al., 2013)
DOMAIN /
DIMENSION
1

...
Reasons for 1st Adaptation
• Pilot study intending to integrate rights and
economic development interventions
• Establish ...
Pilot study where Adapted WEAI Used
• Study called “Evaluating the Impacts of Livestock
Micro-credit and Value Chain Progr...
EADD Hub Model
Source EADD

FARMERS

OTHER RELATED MEs
HARDWARE SUPPLIERS

CHILLING HUB

VILLAGE BANKS

FIELD DAYS

TESTIN...
2nd Adaptation – Cut off points for Adequacy
Five Domain WEAI (Alkire et al., 2013)

Attainment of Empowerment
When adequa...
Reasons for 2nd Adaptation
• A sixth domain health with two indicators and
a third indicator to the leadership domain
were...
Results using six dimension adaptation (5
dimension values in parenthesis)
Project

Component

Indigenous
Malindi
chicken ...
Similarities and differences between
5DE WEAI and its 6DE adaptation results
• The sixth domain, health, demonstrated
magn...
Conclusion
• Adding a sixth domain enables researchers to measure
empowerment in terms of economic advancement and
rights
...
Adaptation challenge
• Calculating WEAI, whether 5DE or 6DE is difficult
and complex [because it involves typing long
synt...
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Session 2b - Waithanji - An adaptation of the women empowerment in agriculture index from a five to a six domain metric

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Presentation by Elizabeth Waithanji (ILRI) at "A Learning Event for the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index," held November 21, 2013 in Washington DC.

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Session 2b - Waithanji - An adaptation of the women empowerment in agriculture index from a five to a six domain metric

  1. 1. An adaptation of the Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index from a Five to a Six domain Metric Elizabeth Waithanji ILRI
  2. 2. 1st Adaptation – Domains / Dimensions Six Domain adaptation Five Domain WEAI (Alkire et al., 2013) DOMAIN / DIMENSION 1 2 INDICATORS Production Input in productive decisions Autonomy in production Resources 1 Ownership of assets Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets Access to and decisions on credit Control over use of income 2 3 4 3 Income 4 Leadership Group membership Speaking in public 5 5 Time Workload Leisure 6* DOMAIN / INDICATORS DIMENSION Production Input in productive decisions Autonomy in production Resources Ownership of assets Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets Access to and decisions on credit Income Control over use of income Leadership Group membership Speaking in public Ownership of an identity card Time Workload Leisure Autonomy in making appropriate Health decisions on reproductive health Attitudes towards gender based violence 2
  3. 3. Reasons for 1st Adaptation • Pilot study intending to integrate rights and economic development interventions • Establish a tool to measure impacts in terms of economic development and rights • Hypothesis to be tested by study “Combining women’s economic opportunities and women’s rights could have the potential to lead to broader women’s empowerment” 3
  4. 4. Pilot study where Adapted WEAI Used • Study called “Evaluating the Impacts of Livestock Micro-credit and Value Chain Programs on Women’s Empowerment” • Project in study included – Kenya Agriculture Research Institute (KARI) indigenous chicken project (a baseline prior to sale of chickens to resettled internally displaced people and indigenous communities) – Juhudi Kilimo an agriculture and livestock microcredit intervention – East Africa Dairy Development (EADD) project – a dairy project intervention that enhances participation of dairy farmer groups using the “hub Model” 4
  5. 5. EADD Hub Model Source EADD FARMERS OTHER RELATED MEs HARDWARE SUPPLIERS CHILLING HUB VILLAGE BANKS FIELD DAYS TESTING AI & EXTENSION FEED SUPPLY TRANSPORTERS 5
  6. 6. 2nd Adaptation – Cut off points for Adequacy Five Domain WEAI (Alkire et al., 2013) Attainment of Empowerment When adequate in 4 out of 5 domains The combination of weighted indicators add up to 80% or more Each domain has a weight of 1/5 (one fifth) “Joint “ (decisionmaking and ownership) are considered to signify adequacy Six Domain adaptation Attainment of Empowerment When adequate in 4 out of 6 domains The combination of weighted indicators add up to 67% or more Each domain has a weight of 1/6 (one sixth) “Joint “ (decisionmaking and ownership) are considered not to signify adequacy 6
  7. 7. Reasons for 2nd Adaptation • A sixth domain health with two indicators and a third indicator to the leadership domain were added and needed to be factored-in in the calculation of the index • Decision not to recognize “joint” ownership and decisionmaking to signify empowerment lowered the adequacy scores such that everyone became inadequate if cut of were left at 80% 7
  8. 8. Results using six dimension adaptation (5 dimension values in parenthesis) Project Component Indigenous Malindi chicken value Naivasha chain (KARI) Dairy value chain Selling milk to dairy (EADD) Selling milk through other modes Micro-credit Taken loans program (Juhudi Not taken Kilimo) loans 6DE GPI WEAI (All Women) 0.72 (0.91) 0.87 (0.97) 0.74 (0.92) 0.82 (0.95) 0.93 (0.99) 0.83 (0.95) WEAI (WMMM only) 0.70 (0.90) 0.79 (0.94) 0.62 (0.90) 0.82 (0.95) 0.64 (0.91) 0.64 (0.89) 0.60 (0.87) 0.83 (0.97) 0.62 (0.89) 0.62 (0.86) 0.73 (0.93) 0.86 (0.97) 0.74 (0.94) 0.70 (0.92) 0.87 (0.96) 0.71 (0.92) 0.70 (0.92) 0.71 (0.91) 8
  9. 9. Similarities and differences between 5DE WEAI and its 6DE adaptation results • The sixth domain, health, demonstrated magnitudes of adequacy and inadequacy like the other domains – e.g. if (wo)men were empowered in the health domain they were empowered in the other domains, the converse was true too … • Overall, the same patterns of empowerment emerged when both 5DE and 6DE tools were used, but the values obtained when 5DE was used were much higher 9
  10. 10. Conclusion • Adding a sixth domain enables researchers to measure empowerment in terms of economic advancement and rights • It will be possible to establish if interventions using rights and economic empowerment interventions have a greater impact on empowerment than those using one or other intervention • 5DE WEAI has higher values than its 6DE adaptation. Everyone appeared empowered when 5DE WEAI was used, hence the need to adapt the tool to context 10
  11. 11. Adaptation challenge • Calculating WEAI, whether 5DE or 6DE is difficult and complex [because it involves typing long syntaxes] making the calculation very “technician” dependent – gender scientist who are mainly qualitative lose control of process • Establishing adequacy cut off points, especially the percentage value (80% or 67%) requires some toggling back and forth giving it an element of subjectivity – this has been criticized (brutally) by mainstream economists 11

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