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    • 1. Mainstreaming Livestock Value Chains Bringing the research to bear on Impact Assessment, Policy Analysis and Advocacy for development 5-6 November 2013, Accra, Ghana
    • 2. Outline 1. Welcome 2. Introductions 3. Livestock in development 4. Policy analysis and advocacy for livestock 5. Goals of conference 6. Input so far 7. Outline for the conference
    • 3. Livestock in development: challenges in policy advocacy and the role of economic analysis Derek Baker 5-6 November 2013, Accra, Ghana
    • 4. Livestock in developing countries Over 600 million of the World’s poor depend on livestock About 95% of these live in extreme poverty Some 150 million livestock keepers are landless Thornton et al. 2002 Meat, milk eggs, and fish: a reliable source of high-quality, readily-absorbed protein and micronutrients Livestock perform multiple functions in developing countries
    • 5. Demand and markets Demand: increasing in the developing world The 4 billion people living on less than $10 a day constitute a food market of US$ 2.9 trillion per year. (Hammond et al 2007). Rosegrant et al. 2009 Based original figure by IFPR/John McDermott 2012.
    • 6. The changing livestock environment The changing nature of livestock systems W. Africa 1966 – pastoral system W. Africa 2004 – crop-livestock system Mixed systems in developing countries produce ca. 50% of the World’s cereals Courtesy of B. Gerard
    • 7. Policy and livestock • Secondary to crops: staples and industrial • Long production cycles • Not tied to land or capital assets • Multiple uses/services/meanings • Role in risk management • Non-linear production relationships • Specific gender aspects • Links to resources and environment
    • 8. PIM, the CRPs, and livestock PIM Contributions  Policy analysis  Methodological development ILRI PIM operations  Livestock specifications for models (spec. IMPACT3)  Preparation of Hh and VC survey instruments  Communications within the Value Chain
    • 9. Goals of conference 1. To establish strong and functional linkages between livestock value chain and impact analysis on the one hand, and sectoral, general equilibrium, and other economic modeling on the other. 2. To identify and advocate pro-poor livestock policy as it emerges from existing analysis.
    • 10. Input so far… who are we? Trainer, 8 Conference participants (%) Advocate, 16 Civil Society, 12 Researcher, 60 (50% response rate) Development partner, 28 Implementer, 1 6 Enabler, 8 Policy Maker, 4 Extension, 8 Lecturer, 4 Facilitator, 12 “Livestock has a lot to offer as a generator of development outcomes” Disagree 0% (0) Somewhat agree Strongly agree N/A 4% (1) 96% (25) 0% (0)
    • 11. Input so far … our assessment of stated problems 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Available information and analysis is all about households, and not informative about the livestock sector of the economy. Available information and analysis is all about the higher-level economy, and not informative about households. Available analysis is able to be understood only by specialists which created the analysis. There is too much emphasis on technical matters and not enough about profitability and incomes. There is too much emphasis on equity and fairness and not enough on efficiency. No-one knows what the returns to a government investment in livestock are. Ministries of Agriculture favour crop-related inerventions because the analytical evidence base is stronger than for livestock. Policy makers can undertand the link between households and economies better for crop production than for livestock. Formulation of policies that enable pro-poor livestock development interventions is insufficient. Implementation of policies that enable pro-poor livestock development interventions is insufficient. Evaluation of policies that enable pro-poor livestock development interventions is insufficient. Not a problem A problem, but not a severe one A severe problem don't know
    • 12. Input so far … other problems we see concerning realizing livestock’s contribution to development outcomes • Market linkages • Commitment, strategic engagement of stakeholders • Credit for small farmers: not at par with crop loans; tailored to livestock producers’ needs • Animal disease surveillance • Structure for producer organization. • Policy focus by government • Preparedness for climate change • Livestock data • Livestock/environment interactions • Infrastructure • Training and education • Livestock services
    • 13. Arriving at 10 problems… 1 There is a gap between household analysis and models of the higher-level economy 2 Livestock analysis has too much focus on productivity and not enough on profitability and incomes 3 No-one knows what the returns to a government investment in livestock are 4 Policymakers are less informed about livestock than about crops 5 All stages of the policy cycle are poorly informed about livestock 6 Livestock's market linkages and producer organisations lack commitment and sustainability 7 Available credit is not suited to livestock producers 8 Livestock data and information are unsuited to its uses by public and private sector 9 There is too little consideration given to livestock/environment interactions 10 Training and education is lacking for livestock producers
    • 14. Goals of conference 1. To establish strong and functional linkages between livestock value chain and impact analysis on the one hand, and sectoral, general equilibrium, and other economic modeling on the other. 2. To identify and advocate pro-poor livestock policy as it emerges from existing analysis.

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