Evaluating extension reforms implications for nigeria

  • 266 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
266
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Need for innovative extension approaches that reach farmers

Transcript

  • 1. Tuesday, July 30, 2013 Evaluating Extension Reforms – Implications for Nigeria Dr. Suresh Babu International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C July 16, 2013
  • 2. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Introduction • How do we inform policy makers about the evidence on the best policy path they can take to reform agricultural extension in their country? • How can we do this using extension policies? • Focused on Seed and Fertilizer policies • Country level status; description of the Extension system, issues, constraints and challenges identified • Evaluation of the extension system performance Page 2
  • 3. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE What issues addressed? • Common issues to all countries – how to increase the efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability of the extension systems • What factors contribute to the improved efficiency of the extension systems? • What factors contribute the effectiveness of the extension systems? • What are the institutional innovations observed in the current extension system? • What opportunities exists to improve the system efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability? Page 3
  • 4. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE What issues addressed so far? • What factors improve the structure, conduct and performance of the extension systems? • What are the current policies that make the delivery system inefficient, ineffective and unsustainable? • What policy processes are needed to achieve the expected policy outcomes? • What are the knowledge gaps? Page 4
  • 5. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE What is the emerging Analytical Framework? Broad political, macroeconomic framework for economic growth objectives Nature of the country context; geography, size of agricultural economy, agricultural transformation goals Agro ecology cropping patterns, natural resource constraints, Country Specific extension program Interventions Policy, institutional and market interventions needed to increase productivity and sustainability Reforms needed for Increase the Technology change Analysis of extension program interventions Analysis of Changes at the farm, market and institutional levels Analysis of extension programs for Farm level impact Page 5
  • 6. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Public sector MAIN extension arm in India (Using India as an example because it is similar to Nigeria) State Department of Agriculture • Present in all states, up to Block, Panchayat • Staff numbers low; weak research link; top-down, linear • Perform non-extension duties & implement schemes ICAR – Krishi Vigyan Kendra • Present in all districts, multi-disciplinary team • Linear; staff low; partnerships/linkage rare; local coverage ICAR –State Agricultural University • Lab to land, frontline extension in few adopted villages or near location = farmer reach limited • Info rarely reflects local needs = centralised agendas • Weak partnerships and links in ICAR and also with Dept of Ag
  • 7. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Where do Indian farmers get their info? (Using India as an example because it is similar to Nigeria) % farmers for each info source (NSSO, 2005) Not accessed any source Other progressive farmers Input dealer Radio TV Newspaper Extension worker KVK Private agency/NGO
  • 8. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Innovations in public sector extension – the 10th and 11th 5 year plans (Using India as an example because it is similar to Nigeria) • Support to State Extension Programs for Extension Reforms (SSEPER) = Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) • Agriclinics and Agribusiness scheme • Kisan Call Centres • Soil Testing Programs
  • 9. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE ATMA (Using India as an example because it is similar to Nigeria) Organizational structure during pilot and national up-scale Revised structure 2010
  • 10. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Nigeria Case: Key objectives • To develop a framework for assessing extension system reform by identifying general goals, the strategies devised to meet them, and indicators that can measure the success of the reforms. • To determine the type and extent of extension system reforms in Nigeria as well as the environment that stimulated these reforms and the conditions that made reform measures successful or not. • To identify the causal factors and influences in the reform process that determined the success (or failure) of Nigeria’s reforms. • To identify the necessary conditions for successful reform from which other countries can learn from in order to enhance their own extension system and inform their reform efforts. Page 10
  • 11. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Key Questions • Challenges of Extension • Reform Objectives • Reform Measures • Reform Strategies • Reform Indicators and performance assessments Page 11
  • 12. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Relevance • Number of relevant questions within national survey • Survey farmers: how often were they asked what their needs are • Proportion of relevant information (compared to proportion of needs identified) • Develop score cards to assess the relevance of the extension program delivery Page 12
  • 13. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Efficiency and Effectiveness Indicators • Effectiveness: ability to achieve stated extension goals. • Efficiency: Achieving maximum possible performance for any given expenditure of resources. • Extension workers Check public records • Farmer surveys: Existence of options to obtain information? • Number of extension worker training programs • Use of score cards to see the effectiveness and efficiency of program delivery Page 13
  • 14. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Impact and Sustainability • Existence of local oversight committees • Number of services provided by private companies • Number of local organizations actively involved in extension system • Number of trainees in system • Frequency or, and turnout at public consultations Page 14
  • 15. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Issues for Policy Options • A fuller understanding of the historical trends, and enabling environment and the policy process • An evaluation of the outcomes and success of the reformed agricultural extension system • An assessment of the reform process, from policy to program, and from program to action that identifies all actors and players • An assessment of the necessary and sufficient conditions to improve the relevance, effectiveness, and operational sustainability of the Nigerian extension system • An analysis of the factors affecting extension policy reforms and the needed refinements Page 15
  • 16. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE DISCUSSIONS? Page 16