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Day 2, Session 4: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition through Agricultural Growth

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Day 2, Session 4 of the Nigeria Strategy Support Program's 2012 Research Conference

Day 2, Session 4 of the Nigeria Strategy Support Program's 2012 Research Conference


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  • Wealth is the value of all natural, physical and financial assets owned by a household, reduced by its liabilitiesCapturing wealth is not easily done directly
  • This study is done in collaboration with OAU, NRCRI and Delhi School of EconomicsReferenceOparinde, A., A. Banerji, E. Birol, P. Ilona, S. Bamire and G.Asumugha, 2012. “Consumer Acceptance of Biofortified (Yellow) Cassava in Imo and Oyo States, Nigeria: Preliminary Findings”, Unpublished project report
  • ReferenceMeenakshi J.V., J. Nancy, V. Manyong, H. De Groote, J. Javelosa, D. Yanggen, F. Naher, J. Garcia, C. Gonzales, and E. Meng. 2010. “How Cost-Effective is Biofortification in Combating Micronutrient Malnutrition? An ex ante Assessment.” World Development 38(1): 64–75.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Thematic study on consumption, food insecurity and vulnerability Oluyemisi Kuku, Astrid Mathiassen, Amit Wadhwa, Lucy Myles and Akeem Ajibola NSSP National Conference 2012: “Informing Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda with policy analysis and research evidence” Abuja, Nigeria – November 13-14, 2012INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 2. Introduction A Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA). Attempt to develop broad-based national indicators on food security and vulnerability of various segments of a population across regions. Joint report with WFP Data: Living Standards Measurement Study- Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). • National bureau of statistics (NBS) and the World Bank. • Approx. 5000 respondents who are interviewed every two years. • This analysis relies on post-harvest data
    • 3. Key Findings Food insecurity and poverty are intricately linked The poorest livelihoods are found in agriculture Households that engage in agriculture and other activities fare better than those in agriculture alone The vulnerable and food insecure are mostly found in rural areas and the North West and North East regions of Nigeria High food prices are a major constraint to vulnerable households Poor households engage in extreme coping strategies to deal with food shortages
    • 4. What is food security? “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” – World Food Summit, 1996
    • 5. Dimensions of food security Food Security Availability Access Utilization • Domestic production • Household production • Care and feeding • Commercial imports • Financial resources to practices purchase food • Food preparation • Reserves and food aid • Food prices and • Intra-household markets distribution • Existence of • Biological utilization of formal/informal social food consumed safety nets Stability
    • 6. DEMOGRAPHICSINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 7. Household characteristics Household head (%) Basic literacy(%) male household head spouseZone North central 89 56 33 North east 97 50 29 North West 98 62 45 South East 71 61 68 South South 77 72 75 South West 79 73 73Sector Urban 82 78 72 Rural 86 55 42
    • 8. On average about half of the householdmembers are dependents (children or elderly) 6 51female 24 age 60+ 9 8 age 15-59 age 6-14 8 age 2-5 45 age 0-2male 26 10 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 percent
    • 9. DEFINITION OF CONCEPTSINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 10. Food Consumption Score The Food Consumption Score (FCS) is a composite score based on dietary diversity, food frequency and the relative nutritional importance of different food groups The FCS serves as a proxy for current food security The FCS is calculated by observing the frequency by which households consume various food items over a seven day recall period Each food item is put into a category and the categories are given a weight based on its relative nutritional value The FCS was developed and extensively used by WFP in food security assessments
    • 11. Food Consumption Groups Food consumption groups are created from the FCS based on standard thresholds A FCS of 21 is a minimum. A FCS below 21 assumes a household does NOT to eat at least staple foods and vegetables on a daily basis and is thus considered to have a poor diet. A FCS between 21 and 35 reflects borderline food consumption. A FCS of 35 assumes daily consumption of staple and vegetables complemented by consumption of oil and pulses 4 days per week. Food consumption group Standard threshold Poor food consumption 0 – 21 Borderline food consumption 21.5 - 35 Acceptable food consumption >35.5
    • 12. Wealth Index:A proxy indicator of household level wealth The wealth index is a composite index which attempts to measure wealth without relying on income and expenditure data The index is created by using a form of data reduction analysis called Principle Component Analysis (PCA) A number of variables are used collectively to describe the wealth of a household. In Nigeria, 16 variables were used to construct the wealth index After creating the index, the households are ranked and placed in quintiles to describe wealth groups within the population Assets Households amenities • TV • Improved walls / roof / floor • Mobile phone • Improved drinking water • Iron / sewing machine • Improved sanitation • Refrigerator / stove • Electricity • Electricity generator • Cooking fuel • Car • Sofa / chairs / table
    • 13. Livelihood groups Due to the lack of proper income data we rely on time use data to assign household livelihood groups. Household members reports time spent in income generating activities. Total time spent in each activity is added for all household members. We assign the household to a livelihood group according to the proportion of time spent in the income generating activities.
    • 14. Description of livelihood profiles Livelihood group DefinitionSubsistence farmer, fisherman orhunter only All time use in subsistence activities onlyMixed crop or cash crops only All time use in agricultural activities onlyMainly agriculture with other More than 50 percent of time in agriculture, with otheractivities activities More than 50 percent of time use as an industryMainly industrial laborer employeeMainly small business (craftsman) Mainly self employed artisans and craftsmen Mainly managing a business, involved in sales, and otherMainly business/commerce larger commercial activitiesMainly livestock/poultry More than 50 percent of time use in animal husbandry Salaried workers in public or private sector withMainly professionals professional qualifications. More than 50 percent of time use in provision of servicesMainly service laborers that require no rigorous qualificationAgricultural & non agricultural Carries out a variety of livelihood activities in agriculturemixed activities and other sectors Carries out a variety of activities in the non-agriculturalNon agricultural mixed activities sector.
    • 15. Percent of total households in each livelihood group 25 20 21.4 15 15.2Percent 13.3 12.3 10 11.3 7.7 5 5.0 3.8 4.3 4.0 1.6 0
    • 16. FOOD SECURITY ANDVULNERABILITY INDICATORSINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 17. WHICH GROUPS ARE MOSTVULNERABLE?INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 18. Geographic distribution of wealth 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% North Central 25.5 25.6 21.1 19.1 8.7 North East 36.2 30.4 17.8 10.9 North West 38.2 30.5 18.4 9.2Region South East 8.9 16.3 26.4 25.4 23.1 South South 6.4 13.4 21.0 27.7 31.5 South West 9.4 9.8 17.4 25.5 37.9 Urban 7.7 20.4 30.1 39.4Sector Rural 31.5 28.1 19.8 13.3 7.2 poorest poorer moderate wealthier wealthiest
    • 19. Percent of population in the two poorestwealth quintiles – by region 80 60 67 64 50 40Percent 20 22 19 16 0 • A greater proportion of households are poor in the northern regions
    • 20. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 21. Livelihood groups by rural/urban divide Percent of households urban rural 30.1 17.33 15.75 15.27 10.08 9.04 8.64 8.24 6.14 6.48 4.03 1.2 Wealthy livelihood groups• Poor livelihoods are more prevalent in rural areas
    • 22. Vulnerability: High food expenditures Food expenditure share >75% by region 80% 73% 60% 64% 62% 48% 50% 40% 39% 41% 20% 27% 29% 0% Urban Rural National North East North Central North West South West South South South East Sector Zone
    • 23. Vulnerability: High Food expenditures Food expenditure>75% : By livelihood group 80% 78% 72% 60% 68% 63% 55% 40% 41% 41% 37% 36% 20% 30% 21% 0%
    • 24. FOOD DEFICITS ANDCOPING STRATEGIESINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 25. Food Sources by geographic area 100% 4% 5% 16% 18% 17% 14% 24% 26% 28% 80%Share of food expenditure 60% 73% 72% 66% 66% 67% 70% Own production 62% 58% 59% 40% Purchased 20% Away from home 15% 20% 12% 14% 11% 16% 14% 13% 19% 0% North west South west Urban South east National Rural North east North central South south Sector Zone
    • 26. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 27. Mean number of days per week food itemis consumed at home Rural 6.6 2.9 5.0 3.4 2.4 5.4Sector Urban 6.4 3.1 4.9 4.3 2.5 5.3 cereals and tubers South West 6.3 2.9 4.5 4.2 4.8 pulses vegetables South South 6.7 2.8 4.9 5.0 5.7 fruit South East 6.1 2.3 4.1 3.8 4.9 meat and fishRegion milk North West 6.7 2.9 5.5 2.3 3.4 5.9 sugar North East 6.7 3.8 5.4 3.1 3.8 5.5 oil North Central 6.5 3.0 5.1 3.9 2.6 5.7 National 6.5 2.9 4.9 3.7 2.5 5.4 0 10 20 30 Days
    • 28. Food consumption categories bywealth quintileWealthiest 13.0 84.8 poorWealthier 14.3 82.2 borderline acceptable Moderate 12.4 82.1 Poorer 15.3 79.7 Poorest 20.4 71.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
    • 29. Causes of food shortages 29.5 High food prices 35.8 4.8 Financial hardship 21.0 7.9 Other reasons 16.1 16.0Lack of farm inputs 3.9 13.8 Rural Small land size 5.0 Urban 9.9 Drought 4.7 6.8 Crop pest damage 2.2 2.6 Civil unrest/riots 5.6 0 10 20 30 40
    • 30. Most frequent coping strategies fordealing with food shortages302520 Go a whole day without food15 Reduce number of10 meals eaten in a day 5 Rely on less preferred foods 0• Poorer households use more severe coping strategies
    • 31. Conclusion Key message: • Rural/urban differences • Regional differences • Poverty concentrated in the agricultural sector Analysis is ongoing – the full report is forthcoming
    • 32. THANK YOUINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    • 33. NSSP Report 11The role of Nigerian agriculture in West African Food Security Dr. R.O. Babatunde University of Ilorin, NigeriaNSSP 2012 National Conference, 13-14 November, 2012, Rockview Hotel Royale, Wuse 2, Abuja, Nigeria.
    • 34. NSSP Report 11This study was commissioned by IFPRI to:  Identifies Nigeria’s potentials and comparative advantage in the production of main agricultural commodities within the sub-region  Assess the implication of Nigeria’s agricultural production and the potential of its export in enhancing food security in the WA sub-region  Identify the key drivers of food security in WA and the role of NigeriaApproach:  Review and analysis of secondary information obtained from ECOWAS, FAOSTAT, CBN and NBS  Specific evidences in different countries
    • 35. NSSP Report 11 Outline Background • State of food security and agricultural production in West Africa • Significance of Nigeria’s economy in West Africa sub-region Nigeria’s agricultural potentials • Agricultural resources in Nigeria • Key agricultural commodities and their production level Drivers of food security in West Africa and the role of Nigeria • Agriculture • Intra-regional trade in agricultural commodities • Agricultural research and development • Peace and security • Technology transfer Conclusion and policy issues
    • 36. NSSP Report 11 West Africa – socioeconomic characteristics • 15 countries with a total population of 317 million people (2012 estimation) • Population density ranges from 168/km2 in the forest to 3/km2 in the sahel • Population growth rate is 2.6% per annum in 2000-2005, expected to grow at 1.2% in 2045-2050 (OECD, 2009) • Population of WA is expected to exceed 400 million by 2020 and 500 million between 2030 and 2050 • Urban population in WA is 45% and expected to reach 70% in 2050 • Annual urbanization rate of approximately 4% (USAID, 2010)
    • 37. NSSP Report 11 West Africa – socioeconomic characteristics • Land area of WA is 5,113,000 km2 (2.4 times the size of India and 1.8 times the size of 27 EU countries) • Nigeria account for 50% of the population of WA
    • 38. NSSP Report 11 West Africa – economy • One of the least developed regions in the World, mostly agro-based economies with agriculture contributing 35% of regional GDP and over 15% of export earnings • Average regional GDP of $391 billion, growing at 5.89% annually for the last 10 years (USAID, 2010) • Average GNI per capita of $1,198 in 2011 based on 2005 PPP • Human development index (HDI) ranges from 0.295 in Niger to 0.568 in Cape Verde (average HDI is 0.403) (UNDP, 2012) • Life expectancy ranges from 47.8 years in Sierra Leone to 74.2 years in Cape Verde (average life expectancy at birth is 56.3 years)
    • 39. NSSP Report 11 West Africa – agriculture and food security • About 60% of the population is involve in agriculture, but the region as a whole import 20% of its food need • Agricultural land make up about 49.7% of the total land area with the highest in Nigeria (81.8%) and lowest in Cape Verde (21.8%) • The region has about 9 million hectare of irrigable land (OECD, 2009) • WA has one of the lowest yields in the World and only 30% of growth in agric production is through productivity increases • Main staple food crops include sorghum, millet, cassava, yam, plantains, maize (maize and livestock being the most traded) (USAID, 2010)
    • 40. NSSP Report 11 Profile of West African countriesCountries Population Food supply Food insecurity Stunting Poverty (millions) (kcal/cap/day) (% of pop) (% of children) (% of pop)Benin 9.4 2,510 12 44.7 39.0Burkina Faso 17.5 2,670 8 35.1 46.4Cape Verde 0.5 2,550 11 NA 26.6Cote d’Ivoire 20.6 2,510 14 39.0 42.7Gambia 1.8 2,350 19 27.6 58.0Ghana 25.5 2,850 5 28.6 28.5Guinea 10.5 2,530 16 39.3 53.0Guinea-Bissau 1.6 2,288 22 28.1 64.7Liberia 4.2 2,160 32 39.4 63.8Mali 16.3 2,580 12 38.5 47.4Niger 16.6 2,310 16 54.8 59.5Nigeria 166.6 2,710 6 41.0 54.7Senegal 13.1 2,320 19 20.1 50.8Sierra Leone 6.1 2,130 35 37.4 66.4Togo 6.3 2,150 30 26.9 61.7West Africa 317 2,441.2 17.1 40.5 50.8Ref. year 2012 2006/07 2008 2010 2009Source: UNDP, 2012 Africa Human Development Report
    • 41. NSSP Report 11 In summary ………..  Dietary energy supply (DES) has increased in WA from about 2,000 kcal/capita/day in 1980s to 2,440 kcal/capita/day in 2007 • The increase is more in the coastal zone than in the sahelian zone • Protein availability also increase from 45g to 50g per capita/day • Diet quality and diversity has not improve proportionally • Child malnutrition has actually increase (UNDP, 2012)  Prevalence of undernourishment also declines from 22.1% of the population in 2004/05 to 17.1% in 2008 (UNDP, 2012) • In SSA the prevalence has fallen from 27.2% to 26.5% • Region may not reach the MDG target if prevailing trends persist  Despite improvement, challenges still persist • Conflict in northern Mali • Flooding in Nigeria, Benin has affected more than 1.5 million people • Desert locust in Niger and Mali
    • 42. NSSP Report 11 Significant of Nigeria’s economy in West Africa sub-region  Largest economy in WA and second largest in Africa • Account for approximately 53% of the population and over 50% of the regional gross domestic product (GDS, 2010)  Largest producer of major agricultural products in the region • Responsible for 50-60% of total regional cereals production (GDS, 2010)  Largest oil producer, followed by Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal and Ghana • Nigeria accounts for 86% of total WA oil production (OECD, 2009) • Largest combined oil and gas reserves in WA and Africa  Provides fuel, electricity and gas to countries in the sub-region • About 80% of fuel consume in Benin is from Nigeria (IMF, 2012) • Supply gas to Ghana • Supply electricity to Niger • 5% of Nigeria oil is exported to WA countries (OECD, 2009)
    • 43. NSSP Report 11 Agricultural potentials of Nigeria  Agricultural land area of 79 million hectares • 32 million hectares under cultivation • 30% of arable land in WA is found in Nigeria (GDS, 2010) • 3.14 million hectares of potential irrigable land (Ruma, 2009) • 5-8 million hectares of fadama  Adequate supply of water • 267 billion cubic meters of surface water (Ruma, 2009) • 57.9 billion cubic meters of underground water (Ruma, 2009) • Annual rainfall ranging from 300mm to 4,000mm
    • 44. NSSP Report 11 Agricultural potentials of Nigeria  Availability of labour • Population of 166 million (2012 estimates) • Close to 70% of the population engage in agriculture  Availability and supply of other inputs • 30,000 tractors available in the country • To be increased by 10,000 tractors per annum (Ruma, 2009) • 70% of tractors in WA countries are in Nigeria (GDS, 2010) • One extension agent per 10,000 farmers (Ruma, 2009) • Average fertilizer demand of 3 million tons per year • Establishment of 774 agro service centres (1 stop shop for farmers) • 4% of bank credit lending go to agric sector (2007)
    • 45. NSSP Report 11 Current agricultural production level in Nigeria  Output of major staple crops has continue to increase • Total output and index of production of staples have continue to increase Commodities Output in 1000 tons Percent change 1990 2006 Maize 5768 11005 90.7 Millet 5136 7845 52.7 Sorghum 4185 11239 168.5 Rice 2500 4169 66.7 Wheat 554 15 -97.2 Beans 1354 4739 250 Cassava 19043 38254 100.8 Yam 13624 30188 121.5 Cocoyam 731 2633 260.1 Plantain 1215 1317 83.9 Source: CBN Statistical Bulletin, 2007
    • 46. NSSP Report 11 Total output of major staple agricultural commodities in Nigeria, 1970-2006 160000Output of agricultural commodities (1000 tonnes) 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 Year Source: FAOSTAT
    • 47. NSSP Report 11 Index of production of staples, livestock and fishery in Nigeria (1999 = 100) 300 250 Index of staples, livestock and fishery output 200 150 100 50 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year STAPLES LIVESTOCK FISHERYSource: FAOSTAT
    • 48. NSSP Report 11 Current agricultural production level in Nigeria  Area under cultivation and productivity of major staple crops has increase Commodities Area under cultivation Yield (t/ha) Total output (1000 ha) (1000 tons) Maize 4,460 1.59 7,091 Rice 2,131 1.97 4,200 Cassava 3,261 15.0 48,915 Wheat 150 1.09 163 Millet - 1.3 7,700 Tomato 305 8 2,440 Sugar Cane 296 17.9 5322Source: FMAWR, 2009
    • 49. NSSP Report 11 Drivers of food security in West Africa and the role of Nigeria Agriculture  Relative share of Nigeria’s agricultural production in the ECOWAS sub-region and implication for food security • Largest producer of staple crops in WA (GDS, 2010) • Largest producer of Cassava in the World and second largest producer of Sweet Potatoes (Eboh et al., 2004) • Account for 51% of total food supply in WA (FAOSTAT) • Root and tuber output was 89 million tons in 2008 (69% of WA total) • Account for 53% of Maize, 48% of Rice, 69% of Millet and 58% of Cowpea regional production (GDS, 2010) • Livestock production in Nigeria is 36% of total for the region  Total food output in Nigeria and WA followed similar trend • Nigerian agriculture is a major component of regional agriculture? • Food output in Nigeria is one of the drivers of WA food security?
    • 50. NSSP Report 11West African countries that rank first in average yield, output and cultivated area ofselected food crops, 1980-2002Crops Average yield Production output Cultivated areaBeans Mauritania Cote d’Ivoire GuineaBanana Cape Verde Benin TogoCassava Nigeria Nigeria NigeriaRice Nigeria Nigeria NigeriaYam Nigeria Benin NigeriaMillet Nigeria Nigeria NigerMaize Gambia Nigeria NigeriaGroundnut Gambia Nigeria NigeriaSorghum Nigeria Nigeria NigeriaPlantain Ghana Nigeria Cote d’IvoireSource: Computed from FAOSTAT
    • 51. NSSP Report 11 Total food output in Nigeria and West Africa, 1970-2007 400000 350000Total food output (1000 tonnes) 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 NIGERIA Year WEST AFRICA Source: FAOSTAT
    • 52. NSSP Report 11 Agriculture  Contribution of Nigeria’s agricultural production to regional food security • During the 2005 food crisis, Nigeria supplies 60-70% of Niger’s grain import (Diao, 2010), which help to improve food availability in the country • 80-100 % of markets in Niger are supplied dry grains from Nigeria every week (FEWSNET, 2010) • Food produce from Nigeria are exported and sold in markets in Benin, Mali and Ghana (GDS, 2010) • Nigeria herself is a net importer of food such as rice, wheat, meat sugar, milk • Many of the countries in WA obtain part of their food import from Nigeria • Larger proportion of this food import are smuggled and unaccounted for, example include grain, garri and yam (GDS, 2010) • There is re-exportation of food from Nigeria to WA countries, which has contributed to food availability in those countries, e.g. Benin, Ghana (GDS, 2010)
    • 53. NSSP Report 11 Agriculture  Role of Nigeria in ECOWAS regional agricultural policy (ECOWAP) • Nigeria supported the establishment of ECOWAP as a regional policy framework for agriculture and food security in 2005 • ECOWAP proposes a common agricultural policy in WA countries • Aims to improve productivity and competitiveness of agriculture in WA • Implement trade regimes within the region and between the region and outsider • Nigeria facilitated the signing of ECOWAP/CAADP agreement in 2009, when the country is holding the chairmanship of ECOWAS • Nigeria facilitated the decision by ECOWAS to establish the regional programme for food security (RPFS) as a component of ECOWAP • Based on the success of the Nigeria’s special programmes for food security (SPFS) (Ruma, 2009)
    • 54. NSSP Report 11  Drivers of food security in West Africa and the role of Nigeria Intra-regional trade  Role of Nigeria in intra-regional trade in agricultural commodities • Promote intra-regional trade in ECOWAS countries • 5% of Nigeria export is to WA countries and 2% of import is from WA countries • Important for cross-border trade in agricultural commodities (GTZ, 2010) • Participate in more than 60% of intra-regional trade involving mostly agricultural commodities • Level of intra-regional trade is still low with export and import within the region making up 8.4 and 16.7% respectively of the total value of regional export and import • Adopted trade liberalization in 2004 • Facilitate access to agricultural commodities through the cross-border trade (GDS, 2010) • Net supplier of millet, sorghum, maize to Niger, Chad and Cameroun (GDS, 2010)
    • 55. NSSP Report 11 Intra-regional trade  Role of Nigeria in regional trade integration • Major supporter of the ECOWAS common currency • Reduced her protectionist trade policy and adopted the ECOWAS common external tariff (CET) regime • Instrumental to the negotiation of economic partnership agreement (EPA) with the EU in 2007 (GDS, 2010) • Nigeria Banks providing financial services in WA countries e.g. Ghana, Liberia
    • 56. NSSP Report 11  Drivers of food security in West Africa and the role of Nigeria Agricultural research and development  Role of Nigeria in regional agricultural research and development • Promotion of agricultural R&D • Has the largest R&D in WA in terms of investment and number of researchers • Investment in R&D doubled from 12 million naira in 2000 to 24 million naira in 2008 (Flaherty et al., 2010) • Nigeria has some of the best agricultural universities and research institutes in the WA region • Between 2000 and 2008, research capacity increased from 1,300 to more than 2,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers • Agricultural R&D in Nigeria is primarily funded by government and donor • Mainly focus on crops and livestock improvement, with cassava and poultry being the most heavily researched components (Flaherty et al., 2010)
    • 57. NSSP Report 11  Drivers of food security in West Africa and the role of Nigeria Peace and security  Role of Nigeria in regional peace and security • Maintenance of peace and security in the region • Leading contributor to ECOMOG intervention force to monitor ceasefire in conflict- stricken countries (GDS, 2010) • Provide support for the establishment of AU parliament and the court of justice • Maintain bilateral agreement for maritime and border security e.g. with Benin • Resolution of conflicts in the region • Mediate and facilitate conflict resolution in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Cote d’Ivoire • Participate in UN peace keeping operation even beyond WA region e.g. in Sudan, Chad, Somalia, Angola and Congo (Okunnu, 2010)
    • 58. NSSP Report 11  Drivers of food security in West Africa and the role of Nigeria Technology transfer  Role of Nigeria in technology transfer • Deployment of Technical Aid Corps • Agricultural experts are deployed to countries in WA to assist in capacity building for improve agricultural production
    • 59. NSSP Report 11 Conclusion  At the regional level, agriculture, trade, peace and security, R&D and technology are the main drivers of food security and in these sectors, Nigeria has the greatest potential to contribute to increase food security  Agriculture will guarantee food availability  Intra-regional trade can enhances food accessibility  Agricultural R&D can improves yield and increase food availability  Peace and security can ensure stability of food supplies  Implication is that Nigeria’s agricultural production has the greatest potentials to contribute to food security through intra-regional trade in agricultural commodities  Largest producer and marketer of agricultural commodities in WA
    • 60. NSSP Report 11What should be done………..  Support Nigeria’s effort to increase the production of key agricultural commodities such as cereals, root and tuber where the country has comparative advantage • Development of smallholder agriculture • Intensify agricultural R&D to improve yield • Investment in rural infrastructure and storage facilities • Input subsidies for farmers  Strengthen regional integration in trade especially in agricultural commodities • Remove barriers to trade and ensure free movement of goods and people • Harmonization of tariffs to the ECOWAS common external tariff • Single currency should be pursued more vigorously like in the EU
    • 61. NSSP Report 11Thank you for your attention
    • 62. Making micronutrients accessible in Nigeria through biofortification of staple crops Paul Ilona, Country Manager - Nigeria
    • 63. Background• The Copenhagen Consensus – 2008 reviewed and identified the best ways to solve the world’s biggest problems• Of the top 10 solutions 5 are focussed on reducing malnutrition• Biofortification is one of such interventions. It ranked 5th along with supplementation (1st) and Fortification (2nd) This is an acknowledgement of a problem that is so widespread, needing more than one set of solutions or interventions to make impact.
    • 64. What constitutes malnutrition? Inadequate intake of food nutrients required by the body cells to function properly:Macronutrients• Carbohydrate• Protein• FatMicronutrients• Vitamins (A, B, C etc)• Minerals (Fe, Zn etc)
    • 65. Malnutrition: a contributory cause of half of under-five deaths in Nigeria• Malnutrition and nutrition related diseases continue to be problems of 2% public health importance in Nigeria Neonatal 10% 3% 24% Malaria• Nutrition should be considered a 11% Malnutrition Pneumonia critical component of National development which cuts across many Diarrhoea sectors 53% Measles 13% 20% Others• Malnutrition slows economic growth 17% HIV/AIDS and perpetuates poverty through Injuries direct losses in productivity from poor physical status; indirect losses from poor cognitive function and deficits in Wasting and vitamin A deficiency schooling; and losses owing to increase substantially the risk of dying from the listed conditions. increased health care costs.
    • 66. Status of micronutrient deficiency in NigeriaVitamin A Deficiency (VAD) Iodine deficiency (IDD)- 23% among children < 5 yrs - 13% among children < 5 yrs - 10% among pregnant women- 13% among mothers - 13% among nursing mothers- 19% among pregnant womenIron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) Zinc Deficiency- 34% among u-5 children - 20% among u-5 children- 24% among mothers - 28% among mothers- 48% among pregnant women - 44% among pregnant women
    • 67. Status of Malnutrition in Nigeria by region
    • 68. Why the attention on Vit A? Importance Consequences• Vision (night, day, colour) • Blindness• Epithelial cell integrity • Preventable illness against infections • Stunted growth• Immune response • Lower cognitive ability• Red Blood Cell Production • Reduced ability to work• Skeletal growth • Loss in GDP• Embryogenesis and fetal • Premature death development A weak and malnourished labour force will contribute less to ATA in Nigeria
    • 69. Strategies employed to fight deficiency Commercial Fortification
    • 70. What is biofortification?Biofortification is the process of breeding food crops that are richin bioavailable micronutrients such as vitamin A, Iron and Zinc
    • 71. Targeted crops to deliver micronutrients Target Micro-N Target Release date Target CountryRice Zinc 2013 Bangladesh / IndiaWheat Zinc 2013 India / PakistanMillet Iron 2012 IndiaBean Iron 2012 Rwanda / DRCMaize Vit A 2012 Zambia / NigeriaCassava Vit A 2011 Nigeria / DRCSweet P Vit A 2007 Uganda / Moz / Nig?
    • 72. Will Biofortification Work? • Can breeding increase nutrient levels enough to improve human nutrition? • Will the extra nutrients be bioavailable at sufficient levels to improve micronutrient status? • Will farmers adopt and consumers buy/eat in sufficient quantities?
    • 73. Progress in meeting targetsThree Vit A cassava varieties were released in Nig in 2011 (1) UMUCASS 36 (2) UMUCASS 37 (3) UMUCASS 38 7 – 8 u/g of TCC
    • 74. Progress in meeting targets 7 – 8 u/g of TCCVitamin A maize released in July 2012
    • 75. Next wave of imp. Vit A Cas varieties and target levels 2015 ??? TMS 2013 07/0593, NR 07/0220 TMS 01/1368, TMS 2011 01/1412, TMS 01/1371 2008 TMS 96/1089A<2007 TMS 30572 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Total carotene content (ug/g) FW
    • 76. Bioavailability of vitamin A in cassavaComparatively higher than in other crops (average of 3-5 units = 1 retinol) 90 80 70 60 Retention (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Boiled Fried Gari Fufu
    • 77. Consumer acceptance study• This study investigated consumer acceptance of biofortified gari from two yellow cassava varieties (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1371) vs local varieties in Oyo and Imo states• Consumer acceptance investigated in terms of – Sensory (organoleptic) evaluation – Economic valuation (willingness to pay)• Some consumers accepted yellow cassava varieties only after receiving information on their nutritional benefits while others accepted these varieties even without any information – Information was received as a simulated radio message in local languages. – This message explained the importance of Vitamin A for family health and that yellow cassava contained Vitamin A
    • 78. Ex ante cost-effectiveness study• This study estimated the costs and potential benefits of biofortification of cassava with vitamin A in Nigeria• Benefits of biofortification were estimated in terms of the reduction in Disability Adjust Life Years (DALY) burden of vitamin A deficiency• Cost per DALY averted as a result of biofortification of cassava with Vitamin A in Nigeria range from $8 in optimistic scenario to $137 in pessimistic scenario• According to the World Bank (World Development Report, 1993), public health interventions costing less than $196 per DALY averted (in 2004 dollars) are highly cost effective.• Therefore even in the pessimistic scenario, biofortification is a cost-effective public health intervention for combatting vitamin A deficiency in Nigeria
    • 79. Multiplication and dissemination of stems Over 500 ha planted in 2012100,000 households to receive planting materials in 2013
    • 80. Advocacy
    • 81. Conclusion• Rural health is very important if agriculture is to continue to contribute to GDP• Agriculture is fundamental for good health through the production of more nutritious foods• Biofortification will make agriculture deliver necessary nutrients naturally through the foods we eat, more cost efficiently and sustainably• Therefore agriculture and health policies should not be treated in isolation• Relevant policies in agriculture, health and perhaps education should be analysed to create synergies