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Asti @ caadp pp

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This presentation was delivered by Gert-Jan Stads, Senior Program Manager for ASTI in Durban as part of the 10th CAADP Partnership Platform Meeting

This presentation was delivered by Gert-Jan Stads, Senior Program Manager for ASTI in Durban as part of the 10th CAADP Partnership Platform Meeting

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  • 1. The current state of agricultural R&D investment and capacity: A valuable benchmark to gauge future S3A progress Gert-Jan Stads and Nienke Beintema International Food Policy Research Institute Presentation at the Science Agenda parallel session at the 10th CAADP PP Durban | March 19, 2014
  • 2. S3A Context • “S3A is based on the belief that science is too important to be continually outsourced to international investors” • “African countries must make domestic investments in science for agriculture” • “Every country requires a basic science capacity as an essential part of an agricultural led social and economic transformation” Knowledge on the current status of agricultural R&D investment and capacity is needed to monitor S3A progress in the future
  • 3. Good news: public spending and capacity increased 0 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 18,000 0 300 600 900 1,200 1,500 1,800 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 TotalnumberofFTEresearchers Million2005PPPdollars Spending Researchers 2000 2011 Increase Spending (million PPP$) 1,208 1,692 +40% Researchers (FTEs) 9,470 14,230 +50%
  • 4. 2 9 21 27 41 43 45 63 66 82 89 98 104 112 115 117 123 124 131 132 134 151 156 162 177 180 193 218 233 274 307 314 354 424 607 746 815 939 1151 1877 2688 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Seychelles Guinea-Bissau CapeVerde Swaziland Lesotho Gabon Liberia Mauritania Gambia,The SierraLeone Namibia Niger Congo,Rep. Senegal Togo Eritrea Chad Botswana Coted'Ivoire Burundi CentralAfrican… Mauritius Benin Malawi Zimbabwe Rwanda Madagascar BurkinaFaso Zambia Guinea Mali Mozambique Uganda Congo,Dem.Rep. Ghana SouthAfrica Tanzania Sudan Kenya Ethiopia Nigeria TotalFTEresearchers Big NARS, small NARS 2011 (40-country sample) < 100 FTEs: 12 countries > 500 FTEs: 7 countries
  • 5. Increase in researcher quantity, not quality • Recent capacity growth mostly driven by increasing numbers of MSc and BSc researchers • 10 out of 24 countries reported declines in the absolute number of PhD holders during 2008–2011 26-country sample 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 TotalFTEresearchers PhD MSc BSc MSc holders PhD holders BSc holders
  • 6. PhDs approaching retirement age in many countries • In 17 of 36 countries, more than half the PhD holders are older than 50; problem more pronounced in West Africa • In contrast, growing numbers of young scientists elsewhere • Urgent need to recruit and train next generation of scientists 2011 (36-country sample) 0 20 40 60 80 100 CapeVerde(19) GuineaBissau(0) Burundi(24) Mauritania(16) Mozambique(26) Rwanda(22) Zimbabwe(22) BurkinaFaso(105) Malawi(32) Gabon(9) Senegal(79) Ethiopia(170) Uganda(110) Mauritius(21) Botswana(24) Gambia(6) Sudan(330) Tanzania(164) CAR(2) Nigeria-NARIs(287) Kenya(368) Chad(21) Benin(84) Ghana(228) Namibia(12) CongoDR(56) Madagascar(78) Togo(36) Liberia(5) CongoRep(33) SierraLeone(14) Eritrea(13) Swaziland(12) Lesotho(4) Mali(100) Guinea(42) ShareofPHDholders(%)
  • 7. 0.2 0.3 0.7 1.2 1.8 2.1 2.7 4.3 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.7 5.7 6.6 7.6 7.7 8.4 8.9 9.6 13.0 16.2 17.5 20.7 24.8 25.4 26.0 26.2 27.2 33.6 34.3 35.9 37.8 43.1 68.1 69.6 81.4 106.8 188.1 237.2 393.9 0 100 200 300 400 Guinea-Bissau Seychelles Gabon Eritrea Lesotho CapeVerde CentralAfrican… Guinea Swaziland Liberia Congo,Rep. Gambia,The SierraLeone Zimbabwe Niger Togo Madagascar Burundi Mauritania Zambia Chad Congo,Dem.Rep. Botswana Mozambique Senegal BurkinaFaso Mauritius Benin Rwanda Mali Malawi Sudan Coted'Ivoire Namibia Ghana Ethiopia Tanzania Uganda Kenya SouthAfrica Nigeria Million2005PPPdollars A few big spenders, many small ones 2011 (40-country sample) < 10 million PPP $: 20 countries > 100 million PPP $: 4 countries
  • 8. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Guinea-Bissau Gabon CAR Congo,DR Niger Madagascar Guinea SierraLeone Ethiopia Sudan Zambia Eritrea Nigeria Mozambique BurkinaFaso Togo Liberia Côted'Ivoire Tanzania Burundi Mali Benin Lesotho Rwanda Ghana Mauritania Senegal Chad Congo,Rep. Gambia,The Malawi CapeVerde Kenya Uganda Swaziland SouthAfrica Botswana Namibia Mauritius Average Share(%) Most countries fail to meet investment targets Target (UN/NEPAD): Allocation of at least 1% of GDP to R&D • On average, 0.51% of AgGDP in SSA was spent on public agricultural R&D in 2011 • SSA’s intensity ratio has declined since 2008 due to relatively stronger growth in AgGDP than in agricultural R&D spending • Caution when analyzing intensity ratios! 2011
  • 9. Spending growth: not everywhere and not fast enough Target (UN expert group): 5% annual spending growth over the next decade • 2000–2011 marked by spending decline or stagnation in about half of the 30 countries with time series data • Since 2008, however, more and more countries have experienced positive growth. -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Eritrea Guinea Gabon Togo Zambia Gambia,The SouthAfrica BurkinaFaso Côted'Ivoire Madagascar Ethiopia Mauritius Mali Senegal Botswana Mauritania Malawi Namibia Kenya Sudan Ghana Nigeria Burundi Benin Congo,Rep. Uganda Tanzania Average Annualgrowthrate(%) Main drivers of region-wide growth in spending, 2000–2011 +2.7%
  • 10. Governments fund salaries, donors the rest 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Ghana Ethiopia Tanzania Uganda Mali Burkina Faso Salaries Operating and program costs Capital investments 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Ghana Ethiopia Tanzania Uganda Mali Burkina Faso Government Donors and development banks Commodity levies Own resources Other Cost categories Funding sources 2011
  • 11. Donors are a major source of funding volatility • Annual agricultural R&D spending in SSA has been considerably more volatile than in other developing regions • Donor/development bank funding is generally short-term and ad-hoc (and 3 times more volatile than government funding) • Therefore, volatility is more pronounced in donor-dependent low-income countries Tanzania Burkina Faso 0 20 40 60 80 100 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 0 10 20 30 40 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011
  • 12. Concluding remarks • Encouraging signs that many African countries are moving in the right direction (albeit slowly): – Increasing government and donor funding – Recruitment bans being lifted; improved salaries and benefit packages; retirement age increases – Importance of agricultural R&D is increasingly recognized (S3A, CAADP, G8, G20, UN post-2015 Development Agenda, WAAPP/EAAPP) • Nonetheless, much more is needed to tackle the various challenges facing African agricultural R&D • ASTI indicators provide a valuable benchmark for monitoring future S3A progress
  • 13. Thank you