Destination Reputation in Online Media: Covered Topics and Perceived Online Dominant Opinion

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  • I would like to start presenting the context and motivation of this research.The context of this thesis sees from one side the tourist destination with its cultural identity and its attractions system, where tourism as an hedonic consumption experience take place. and at the other side, the business-commerce needs represented by the message projected by tourism players, who want to make money out of this.
  • in this context, wheremany senders project messages and many receives like prospective travelers perceived those messageswe can not consider the role of the web, in particular with the eWOM,which thanks to social media platforms allow people to easily share content and take part on the creation of the messages around a destination.
  • Thus, online public opinions allow to co-create contents about a destinationand who is in charge to manage the promotion of a place can not hide anymore their responsibility to enhance the value of a territory.Online public opinions are creating challenges for the tourism industrywhich is intrinsically a reputation-dependent domain. In fact, the only way to determine whether a place is worth visiting is to visit it.
  • Influence of online messages is a concern in the place branding literature as well. Where the role of eWOM suggests an upcoming shift from an “architecture” brand perspectiveWhere the analysis of the messages, with the concept of monitoring, is usually the last phase of a place branding strategy
  • To a live context perspective, where the monitoring of the actual message presented online should be the first phase of any web marketing strategy.
  • But let’s see the theoretical background of this research which deals with the concept of WOM in terms of an informal transmission of opinions. Scholars have approached this phenomenon analyzing the components of the WOM and its social influence, in particular in the decision making process. Another stream of literature consider the message elaboration, the information processing of the online messages.
  • However, in this research which deals with the opinions shared among a group of people,There is a need of clarification on the terminology used. In particular, in the difference between image and reputation: Where for image is intended the mental representation (I think) association of attributes to an objectAnd reputation is intended the concept of “we tell”, so the opinion shared and verbalized among a group of people
  • Therefore, the way I have develop my research questions, followed the causal framework learned from organizational reputation studies, that sees as the elements to analyze as reputation: the belief and attitudes among a group of stakeholdersAnd the antecedents: so what might form the reputation,the experience with the object, in this case the second handExperiences represented by the online conversationsAnd finally the reputation consequences, an attitude behaviour change, in this case the confirmation-disconfirmation of prior belief, As suggested by the literature in the message reception and elaboration.
  • As the focus of this research is the online message cues, the research questions elaborated were towards the identification of
  • WHAT message to analyse, namely the thematic dimensions of tourism destinationAnd WHICH drivers of those message cues are influencing the perception of reputation in online media, and might generate a consequence Such as the confirmation or disconfirmation of prior belief about a tourism destination
  • However the needs of a clarification of the components of the reputation construct sees an investigation of the reputation in different disciplines. Startingwith the psychological perspective, reputation acts as an involuntary act for a sake of simplification, and it is a cognitive associations to an object which might drive the behavior of an invididual
  • Looking at the sociological perspective, it is possible to see the reputation as a social construct which acts as a collective agreement towards an object
  • The economic perspective sees the implication of this cognitive interpretation of the organization performance into consequences such as attitude and behavior change
  • it has been decided to investigate also the linguistic perspective in order to provide an unified definition of the construct.Thus, reputation can be decomposed in two main components: the puto part, meaning the individual part, the opinion held by a person towards an objectAnd the re part, the reiteration of the puto
  • Thus, considering the components identified in the different disciplines, the reputation construct can be operationalized in 5 main components: - the Opinion, which contains an evaluation (a sentiment, a feeling positive or negative), about an Object; - Stakeholder, who expresses an Opinion formed through different sources;- the relevant Object, which is the holder of the Stakeholder’s Opinion;- TheSocial dimension: the same Opinion (or similar opinions) are shared among a group of Stakeholders.- And the Long-Term: opinions shared in a society are somehow stable and evolve over time as a result of the evaluation of an Object by a group of Stakeholders.
  • An investigation of the current research approaches to the analysis of the online messagesresulted in the classifications of the research approaches as follows:Stakeholder in online analysis is represented by the authors, website’ s ownerThe opinions themselves are represented by the judgments/ feelings expressed on the online conversation The relevant object, in this study applied to tourism, is represented by the tourism destination multidimensional topic categoriesThe social part is represented by the comparison among different sources The long term stable concept is represented by the longitudinal Study, mainly presented in professional tool
  • a lack of standard models and procedures in the analysis of the so-called reputation in online media, and the role of heavy delegation to technologyTogether with the possibility to find online instances of public opinions, like unstructured responses to survey, suggest a needs in the investigations of the message cues to analyze.
  • so How I solved the first research question?
  • A deductive approach has been adopted in order to create a contents classification framework that allow for the identification of the main topic expressed online and the related sentiment. The first step was an extensive literature review and structured interviews with the tourism domain experts with the objective to identify the general topic dimensions characteristic of a tourism destination. in particular the approach from the established reptrack model, a model devoted to the investigation of the reputation using pre-defined dimensions have been considered as it allows for systematic analysis and content analysis comparison among similar objects. Several online content analysis have been performed in order to identify which Reputation dimensions and drivers are mainly represented by found textsThen, a survey with the destination demand side,interviewing prospective tourists, leisure travelers in two airports has been done obtaining with 485 usable responses, with the objective to rank the topic dimension of the proposed classification modelLastly, a test with untrained users has been done in order to evaluate users’ agreements on recognizing the dominant opinionon social media pages. This step was intended to identify if there was a familiarity in the recognition of the dominant opinion within a page, and provide suggestions for the creation of the stimuli materials to use in the second research phase.
  • This effort resulted in this Online contents classification framework Composed by five main core dimensions, and the related drivers
  • Results from the survey, underlined in yellow show that five main drivers are considered as the most relevant in a decision making scenario by the demand viewpointThe starts indicated that the two drivers are also the topic which are mainly presented online when it comes to search for tourism-related information online.
  • Regarding the test with untrained users, where it has been asked to 28 users to evaluate the dominant topic and sentiment, an indicating also the page feature that captured their attention.Results show that majority of users agreed on the recognition of a prominent feeling expressed and topicTripAdvisor pages resulted in generation of more agreement and sentiment. The heat map analysis shows that titles, pictures, presence of a rank, and negative expressions seemed to capture users’ attention the most.
  • Regarding the second research questions: how I solved it?A quasi experiment design has been develop in order to test the role of reputation antecedents, namely:
  • Message charactestichs derived from the dual process theory regarding the message elaborationThe attitude of being an online reputation seeker Trust attitude towards social mediaAs the elements affecting the Perceived reputation online
  • In order to evaluate a consequences: namely a confirmation or disconfirmation on prior belief, Prior – after belief have been asked (opinion score about the same topic dimension): out of the actual belief, change is measured by repeating the same questions before and after exposure to the stimulus. To this end, an ad hoc question devoted to the investigation of the self-perceived change was added to the study in order to further investigate the self-perception about the online conversations viewed.
  • What I did: in order to ensure variability in traveler perception, eight different U.S. tourism destinations were selected with the aim to represent the main American tourism destinations. Eight separate but almost identical surveys (differing by the name of destination and related stimuli materials) wereconducted from July 23, 2012 to August 20, 2012. Out of 120.000 users, I have obtained a 3.4% of response rate, with 2,505usable responsesmeaning 313 usable responses per destination
  • 3 reminders have been sent, and the online questionnaire where structure with 4 sections:The first section, respondents were asked to indicate if they had visited the destination and asked about their prior belief about the 5 topic dimensionsif the destination offers good value for money, overall image of the destination, safety, weather and tradition at the destinationSection 2: subjects were exposed to a list of 20 links Stimuli materials = screenshots of original online conversations related to the given tourism destination. Select and view at least one link.Section 3: re-evaluation of the 5 topic dimensions + follow-up questions about the study constructsSection 4: demographic questions
  • The creation of the stimuli materials followed a specific content analysis criteria, used also for the content analysis performed previously in this study:a series of query on google have been performed.
  • [name of the destination] + [topic category keywords] as in the exampleConsidering the first 3 pages of google results. Coders associate the sentiment emerged from the pages. The intercoder reliability resulted high.
  • Thus, as from this table the distribution of the sentiment L= Low: majority of sentiment expressed on the URLs is negative H= High: majority of sentiment expressed on the URLs is positiveShow how detroit was the one with mainly negative mentions, instead of san francisco.
  • Looking at the demographiccharacteristics of the respondents it is possible to see that the respondents were mainly female
  • Cronbach’s alpha was found to be satisfactory, with an overall average of higher than 0.7. with the only exception of perceived reputation having a Coefficient alpha of 0.664, which is only marginally acceptable.
  • The test of the hypothesized model has been performed using M-Plus.This figure summarizes the hypothesized model and measurement model. All depicted coefficients are standardized.The overall goodness-of-fit measures were found to be within acceptable cutoff measures additionally, all of the regression coefficients were significant at α = 0.05. In summary, there is a satisfying model fit.The results support most of the hypothesized relationships, and out of the 13 hypotheses one was insignificant.the main drivers to online destination reputation are message persuasiveness and strength and whether those messages are congruent with the opinions of others. However, message sidedness, that is, the perception of a polarity or the presence of a majority of negative or positive comments, is weakly significant, suggesting that sentiment polarity among online conversations is not a main issue in the perception of destinations. Interestingly, the results also show that the ability to recognize a dominant opinion is driven by an attitude of being a “reputation seeker” (i.e., the attitude toward reputation in online media), suggesting an overall tendency of the respondents to be familiar with the concept of reputation and an overall attitude to search online for the opinion of other users regarding a destination. Another interesting finding is the importance trust plays in online conversations and, therefore, destination reputation. In particular, trust appears to lead to an attitude of being a reputation seeker, suggesting that the more people rely on online conversations, the more they search for the dominant opinion expressed. Additionally, when analyzing the perception of a dominant opinion, the issue of trust proved to be weak. This result suggests that the role of those who post online is not one of the main issues affecting the process of understanding a dominant opinion. Regarding the relationship between perceived reputation in social media and the actual belief change, results show the relationship is not significant, suggesting that the quasi-experiment was not powerful in the demonstration of an actual consequence of the reputation construct. However, when looking at the relationship between the perceived reputation and the perceived belief change, the situation drastically changes, showing a negative significant value. Results show how the perceived recognition of an online dominant opinion tends to reinforce prior belief. A positive weak significant relationship has been also detected between the actual belief change and perceived change, suggesting that the more the social media generated an effect, the more it should be perceived.
  • - Popular destinations: Las Vegas; New Orleans; Orlando; San Francesco; Seattle- Less popular destinations: Detroit; Kansas; PhoenixIt was possible to perform a multi-group analysis in MPlus as the grouping option allowed us identify the variable in the data set that contains the information about group belonging.Regarding the group of web users who declared to have not visited the destination, findings indicated that belief significantly increased (at p <.05).The majority of the five topic dimensions pre- and post-stimuli exposure assessments showed increased ratings. summaries the results between the groups (popular vs. less popular destination), showing that the web users who have not visited the destination when they evaluated contents about less popular destinations they were more keen to trust social media in their recognition of a dominant opinion about a destination. Looking at the differences between the grouping model and overall model,the consistency among the perceived change and the actual change on prior belief resulted as not significant for those who were exposed to less popular destinations.Finally, an interesting result is given by the role of message sidedness in this grouping analysis: web users who have not visited the destinations seemed to not consider the polarity of the messages expressed online in their perception of a dominant opinion. Indeed, the relationship between message sidedness and perceived dominant opinion resulted as not significant for both groups, meaning the group that has been exposed to popular destinations and the group that has been exposed to less popular ones.
  • the main outcome of this research is the operationalization of the reputation construct comprising three elements representing the individual level of reputation (PUTO), and the re level (reiteration of the puto level).The focus of the thesis in the operationalization of the relevant object: the topic components of a tourism destination and the perception of a dominant opinion from a group online, resulted
  • In a content classification framework. This work contributes to the field of content analysis in tourism by introducing a top-down deductive approach — that is, a definition of a pre-established content classification framework, which allows for the systematic analysis of destination reputation dimensions in online media, and also allows for further comparison among similar objects, such as tourism destinationsMoreover the rank provided by this study allowed to potentially weight the topic presented online according to the declared relevance for the decision making by the demand side.
  • The other main contribution of this research is about the drivers affecting the perception of a dominant opinion. argument’s strength, and message consistency have been identify as the message components affecting mainly the recognition of a dominant opinion. However, there is a needs to identify what are the features reflecting these constructs. Suggesting from the user test with the heat map analysis put also the basis for a further investigation in this direction. Moreover, the interesting results of the weak role of sidedness, and trust and a further investigation of the experience with the destination and/or type of destination, allow to put the basis in further research in this direction. McGarty et al., 2002). . Conform to the same view (Noelle-Neumann, 1974). Time issue (Walther, 1992). Signaling (users agreement)
  • So finally: Whathavewelearned?familiarity with the reputation construct and looked at the online dominant opinionThis dominant opinion is sensitive to an attitude of people to be reputation seekers, their experience with the destination, and the type of destination in terms of popularity. The online presence of clear statements which are consistent among each other reinforce the perception of a dominant opinion, and ultimately tend to confirm the prior belief. However, the less we know about a place the more we are keen to disconfirm our knowledge about a place.
  • Future research are foreseen and very much connected each other:
  • knowing the reputation of a tourism destination in online media provides an opportunity to measure the diligence of people who are responsible for managing the accessibility of a place as a tourism destination. opportunity for everyone to contribute to ensuring the constant monitoring of the reputation of the destination. Learning about a destination from overwhelming online messages might reflect a distorted promotion or inefficient use of resourcesOccasion to discover, small attractions or weak aspects of a place to emerge in online conversationsSocial control, bad management of the cultural heritage at a destination
  • knowing the reputation of a tourism destination in online media provides an opportunity to measure the diligence of people who are responsible for managing the accessibility of a place as a tourism destination. opportunity for everyone to contribute to ensuring the constant monitoring of the reputation of the destination. Learning about a destination from overwhelming online messages might reflect a distorted promotion or inefficient use of resourcesOccasion to discover, small attractions or weak aspects of a place to emerge in online conversationsSocial control, bad management of the cultural heritage at a destination

Transcript

  • 1. Destination Reputation in Online Media: Covered Topics and Perceived Online Dominant Opinion Ph.D. Dissertation Elena Marchiori Supervisor: prof. Lorenzo Cantoni webatelier.net Lab, Faculty of Communication Sciences Università della Svizzera italiana, University of Lugano - Switzerland
  • 2. Cultural identity  tension  Commerce Tourism hedonic consumption experience Govers and Go, 2005, 2009 Xiang and Gretzel, 2009 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 3. Cultural identity  tension  Commerce eWOM Govers and Go, 2005, 2009 Xiang and Gretzel, 2009 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 4. Online public opinions are creating challenges for the tourism industry Gretzel, 2006; Tussyadiah, et al, 2011; Xiang and Gretzel, 2009; Yang et al. 2008 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 5. Rethinking Place Branding strategies eWOM – Social Media shift from an “architecture” brand perspective… Morgan et al. 2003, 2004; Go and Govers, 2009; Xiang and Gretzel, 2009 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 6. … to a “live context perspective” Morgan et al. 2003, 2004; Go and Govers, 2009; Xiang and Gretzel, 2009 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 7. eWOM social influence Public opinions Arndt, 1967; Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955; Blackwell et al., 2001; Gruen et al., 2006; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004; Chen and Xie, 2008; Sharma et al., 2012; Blackwell et al., 2001; Zhou and Moy, 2007 and message elaboration • Agenda setting theory (McCombs et al., 1972; Weaver et al., 1981; Noelle-Neumann, 1974; Ho and McLeod, 2008) • Social information processing (Walther, 1992; 2009; Antheunis et al., 2010) • Signaling theory (Connelly et al., 2011) • Dual process theory (Deutsch and Gerard, 1955; Chaiken and Trope, 1999; Cheung et al., 2009) context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 8. image reputation context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 9. Research Objectives Organization reputation studies context theoretical antecedents  reputation  consequences questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 10. Research Objectives Organization reputation studies Second-hand experiences (online conversations) Belief Attitudes Confirmation/ disconfirmation of prior belief antecedents  reputation  consequences ??? Online message cues Message elaboration Dual process theory Media effects studies context theoretical questions ??? classification ??? perceptions findings future
  • 11. Research Objectives Organization reputation studies Second-hand experiences (online conversations) Belief Attitudes Confirmation/ disconfirmation of prior belief antecedents  reputation  consequences ??? Online message cues Message elaboration Dual process theory Media effects studies ??? ??? WHICH WHAT Thematic dimensions of tourism destination context theoretical questions classification drivers influencing the perception of reputation in online media perceptions findings future
  • 12. Psychological • simplification • cognitive associations to an object • might drive the behavior Bergler, 1948; Jackman, 1990 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 13. Psychological Sociological • collective agreement • social construct • give a degree of legitimacy to an actor Lang & Lang, 1988; Camic, 1992 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 14. Psychological Sociological Economic • cognitive interpretation of the organization performance Shapiro, 1983; Allen, 1984; Weigelt & Camerer, 1988 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 15. Psychological Sociological Economic Linguistic reputation is a de-verbal noun, derived from the latin verb: RE (prefix) = iteration of something- evaluative dimension PUTO (verb) = opinion vs. exact information puto puto re- context theoretical questions puto puto classification puto puto perceptions findings future
  • 16. Re 4. social/group of people 5. long-term/stable Puto 1. opinion 3. relevant object 2. stakeholder a. multidimensional experience b. set of reference values/standards context theoretical questions c. direct / mediated classification perceptions findings future
  • 17. Information provided by different sources Longitudinal Study De Ascaniis, Greco Morasso (2011); Inversini, Cantoni (2009) (professional tools) Re 4. social/group of people 5. long-term/stable Puto 1. opinion 3. relevant object 2. stakeholder Authors, website’ s owner a. multidimensional experience b. set of reference values/standards Arsal et al. (2008); Mich, Kiyavitskaya (2011); Zhu, Lai (2009); Chiappa (2011); Burgess et al. (2009) c. direct / mediated Judgments/ feelings expressed on the online conversation Tourism destination multidimensional categories Dickinger et al. (2011); Go, Govers (2005); Tussyadiah, Fesenmaier (2009); Choi et al. (2007); Pan et al. (2007); Ip et al. (2011); Scharl et al. (2008) Dickinger et al. (2011); Go, Govers (2005); Choi et al. (2007); Pan et al. (2007); Ip et al. (2011); Scharl et al. (2008); Govers, Go (2005); Tussyadiah, Fesenmaier (2009) context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 18. Online contents analysis: the measurement issue Offline survey and data presented online produce similar results (Dickinger et al., 2011) ? However: - not standard models and procedures - contents online is time consuming - heavy delegation to technology - confusion with: - consumer brand advocacy - reported consumer experiences - different type of influence (Mandelli, 2011) context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 19. Research Objectives Organization reputation studies Second-hand experiences (online conversations) Belief Attitudes Confirmation/ disconfirmation of prior belief antecedents  reputation  consequences ??? Online message cues Message elaboration Dual process theory Media effects studies ??? HOW context theoretical questions ??? WHICH WHAT Thematic dimensions of tourism destination classification drivers influencing the perception of reputation in online media perceptions findings future
  • 20. Steps to create a contents classification framework 1. Extensive literature review adaptation of a RepTrak model/Rep Quotient model structured interviews with the tourism domain experts 2. Online content analysis case studies (n° 4) 3. Survey with the destination demand side (prospective tourists – leisure travelers: 485 usable responses) in order to rank the topic dimensions of the proposed model 4. Test with untrained users in order to evaluate users’ agreements on recognizing the dominant topic, and the dominant feeling expressed on social media pages context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 21. Online contents classification framework Core Dimensions Drivers Products and Services (Subcategories: ) Accommodation Food & Beverage Site Attractions Events Entertainment Transportation Infrastructure Other 1 Destination offers a satisfying tourism product Avgpositio n 5.56 2 [D] offers a pleasant atmosphere 8.73 3 [D] offers products and services that are good value 4.49 Society Governance Environment Performance context 10.14 4 [D] presents accurate information of their products and services 5 [D] offers interesting local culture and traditions 6 [D] has hospitable residents 7 Tourism industry and organizations cooperate and interact 8 [D] presents innovative and/or improved products and services 9 [D] has a high eco-awareness 10 [D] has a favorable weather 11 [D] offers a safe environment 12 [D] presents an accurate image 13[D] meets my expectations 14 [D] offers a satisfying tourism experience theoretical questions classification perceptions 8.62 8.74 12.02 12.03 12.64 7.96 6.78 9.27 9.11 6.93 findings future
  • 22. Online contents classification framework Core Dimensions Drivers Products and Services (Subcategories: ) Accommodation Food & Beverage Site Attractions Events Entertainment Transportation Infrastructure Other 1 Destination offers a satisfying tourism product Avg. position 5.56 2 [D] offers a pleasant atmosphere 8.73 3 [D] offers products and services that are good value 4.49 Society Governance Environment Performance context 10.14 4 [D] presents accurate information of their products and services 5 [D] offers interesting local culture and traditions 6 [D] has hospitable residents 7 Tourism industry and organizations cooperate and interact 8 [D] presents innovative and/or improved products and services 9 [D] has a high eco-awareness 10 [D] has a favorable weather 11 [D] offers a safe environment 12 [D] presents an accurate image 13[D] meets my expectations 14 [D] offers a satisfying tourism experience theoretical questions classification perceptions 8.62 8.74 12.02 12.03 12.64 7.96 6.78 9.27 9.11 6.93 findings future
  • 23. Dominant topic recognition – untrained users agreement test facebook context theoretical travbuddy - blog tripadvisor questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 24. Research Objectives Organization reputation studies Second-hand experiences (online conversations) Belief Attitudes Confirmation/ disconfirmation of prior belief antecedents  reputation  consequences ??? Online message cues Message elaboration Dual process theory Media effects studies ??? WHAT Thematic dimensions of tourism destination context theoretical questions classification ??? WHICH HOW perceptions drivers influencing the perception of reputation in online media findings future
  • 25. Research Model Argument strength H3a H3b Attitude of being an online reputation seeker H3c context theoretical Message sidedness H2b Message consistency H2c H1 H4a Antecedents H2a H4b Trust attitude towards social media Perceived reputation in social media Online Public Opinions facets: exposure to online contents questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 26. Research Model Belief T1 H5c Argument strength H3a H3b Attitude of being an online reputation seeker H3c context theoretical Message sidedness H2b Message consistency H2c H1 H4a Antecedents H2a H4b Trust attitude towards social media Online Public Opinions facets: exposure to online contents questions classification Perceived reputation in social media H5a H5d H5b After exposure knowledge perceptions Belief T2 Perceived Belief Change Consequences findings future
  • 27. Data collection Online survey with Americans internet users gathered from vacationfun.com July 23, 2012 to August 20, 2012 Pilot panel: 10,000 users Usable: 310 Final panel: kansas detroit 8 groups x 15,000 users = 120,000 users -------------------Total responses: 4,115 Usable responses: 2,505 3.4% response rate 313 usable responses per destination context theoretical questions las vegas new orleans classification orlando phoenix perceptions san francisco findings seattle future
  • 28. Online questionnaire Section 1: name of a tourism destination: had visited? prior belief about the 5 topic dimensions? Section 2: subjects were exposed to a list of 20 links Stimuli materials = screenshots of original online conversations related to the given tourism destination. Select and view at least one link. Section 3: re-evaluation of the 5 topic dimensions + follow-up questions about the study constructs Section 4: demographic questions context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 29. Online questionnaire: creation of the stimuli materials [name of the destination] + [topic category keywords] Detroit Kansas City Las Vegas New Orleans Orlando Phoenix San Francisco Seattle context theoretical questions Good value for money. costs + accommodation + tips Culture. culture + tips Overall image. trip + experience + tips Weather. Keywords used: trip + weather + tips Safety. Keywords used: safety + tips classification perceptions findings future
  • 30. Online questionnaire: creation of the stimuli materials [name of the destination] + [topic category keywords] Detroit Kansas City Las Vegas New Orleans Orlando Phoenix San Francisco Seattle Good value for money. costs + accommodation + tips Culture. culture + tips Overall image. trip + experience + tips Weather. Keywords used: trip + weather + tips Safety. Keywords used: safety + tips +- context theoretical questions classification sentiment polarity 5-point Likert perceptions findings future
  • 31. Online questionnaire: creation of the stimuli materials From the URLs analysis: the four highest ranked URLs per each of the five topic dimensions have been selected as stimuli materials Detroit Kansas Las Vegas New Orleans Orlando Phoenix San Francisco Seattle Money L H L H H H H H Culture H H H H H L H H Image L L H H H H H H Weather L H L L L H H L Safety L L L L H H H H L= Low: majority of sentiment expressed on the URLs is negative H= High: majority of sentiment expressed on the URLs is positive context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 32. Demographic characteristics of the respondents Male Female 20 years and below 21-25 26-30 31-40 41-50 51 - 60 61 years and older 0.50% 1.70% 3.90% 11.70% 22.20% 32.70% 27.20% Less than $20,000 $20,000-$29,999 $30,000-$39,999 $40,000-$49,999 $50,000-$74,999 $75,000-$99,999 $100,000-$149,999 $150,000-$199,999 $200,000 or more Do not wish to comment Less than high school High school Some college, not completed Completed college Post graduate work Do not wish to comment 0.50% 9.20% 24.80% 34.70% 29.60% 1.30% Novice Intermediate User Advanced User Expert Use of UGC Not use of UGC context 32% 68% theoretical questions classification perceptions 4.30% 6.00% 6.20% 9.40% 18.90% 16.00% 14.00% 4.30% 3.00% 18.00% 3.50% 34.60% 43.60% 18.30% 79.60% 20.04% findings future
  • 33. Popular destinations: Las Vegas; New Orleans; Orlando; San Francesco; Seattle Less popular destinations: Detroit; Kansas; Phoenix Stimuli viewed 1 22.1% 2–5 49.4% 6 – 10 23.0% > 10 5.5% Topic selected: overall image value for money culture-tradition safety weather context theoretical Time spent 0 to 5 min. 6 to 10 min. 11 to 20 min. 21 to 30 min. 31 to 1 h. 1.01 h. and plus questions classification perceptions 7% 36.2% 39.1% 8.5% 4.7% 4.5% findings future
  • 34. Descriptive and reliability statistics for constructs in the model Mean ARG_1 ARG_2 ARG_3 ARG_4 SIDED_1 SIDED_2 SIDED_3 CONS_1 CONS_2 CONS_3 CONS_4 P_REP_1 P_REP_2 P_REP_3 P_CHANGE1 P_CHANGE2r P_CHANGE3r AT_REP1 AT_REP2 AT_REP3 AT_REP4 AT_REP5 AT_REP6 context Std. Dev. 3.79 3.66 3.65 3.83 3.77 3.78 3.75 3.6 3.63 3.66 3.60 3.88 3.61 3.64 2.71 2.24 2.22 4.08 4.02 3.96 4.12 3.98 3.94 .791 .838 .841 .821 .922 .900 .873 .778 .775 .770 .780 .722 .814 .785 1.051 .834 .844 .721 .782 .765 .766 .771 .771 theoretical Coefficient Alpha 0.891 0.727 0.891 0.664 Mean TRUST_1 TRUST_2 TRUST_3 TRUST_4 BT1_MONEY BT1_CULTURE BT1_IMAGE BT1_SATEFY BT1_WEATHER BT2_MONEY BT2_CULTURE BT2_IMAGE BT2_SATEFY BT2_WEATHER Std. Dev. 3.68 3.73 3.60 3.59 3.26 3.74 3.22 3.32 3.55 3.51 3.84 3.31 3.49 3.82 .779 .832 .820 .942 .881 1.100 1.078 1.104 1.054 .955 1.071 1.090 1.115 1.053 Coefficient Alpha 0.808 0.794 0.842 0.702 0.878 questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 35. Research Model results Belief T1 R2 : .277 Argument strength .527 .365 R2 : .338 Attitude of being an online reputation seeker .470 .726 .457 R2 : .133 Message sidedness .068 R2 : .221 Message consistency R2 : .694 .330 .220 .581 Trust attitude towards social media Perceived reputation in social media n.s. .044 - .502 .055 Belief T2 Perceived Belief Change R2 : .254 CFI=0.912, TLI=0.900, χ2/df ≤ 2.5, RMSEA=0.067, SRMR=0.097 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 36. Hypothesis H1 P_REP AT_REP H2a P_REP ARG H2b P_REP  SIDED H2c P_REP  CONS H3a ARG  AT_REP H3b SIDED  AT_REP H3c CONS  AT_REP H4a AT_REP TRUST H4b P_REP  TRUST H5a BT2  BT1 H5b P_CHANGE  BT2 H6a BT2  P_REP H6b P_CHANGE  P_REP Group 1 = popular 2 = less popular 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Path Estimate 0.283 0.167 0.439 0.506 n.s. n.s. 0.335 0.305 0.516 0.511 0.331 0.376 0.450 0.472 0.588 0.584 n.s. 0.109** 0.709 0.732 0.073** n.s. n.s. n.s -0.497 -0.524 Filter: only with who have not visited the destinations Grouping among popular (Las Vegas; New Orleans; Orlando; San Francesco; Seattle) Not popular destination Detroit; Kansas; Phoenix ** = significant > 05 context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 37. Findings Perception of a dominant opinion Operationalization of the reputation construct Re - 4. social/group of people 5. long-term/stable Puto 1. opinion 3. relevant object 2. stakeholder a. multidimensional experience b. set of reference values/standards context theoretical questions classification c. direct / mediated perceptions findings future
  • 38. Operationalization of the reputation construct 2. satisfying tourism experience 1. good value for the money products & services Tourism destination topic dimensions performance +5. local cultures and traditions governance society environment 3.safe environment 4. favorable weather context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 39. Findings Perception of a dominant opinion Features? - Role of the experience with the destination - Type of destinations - illusory correlation paradigm - conform to the same view - time issue context theoretical questions Identification of the online messages cues more: argument’s strength, and message consistency; less: sidedness, and trust confirmation of prior belief classification perceptions findings future
  • 40. Conclusions attitude / antecedents reputation seekers familiarity with the reputation construct looked at the online dominant opinion experience with the destination and type of destination positive effects of online message cues online features context theoretical questions classification source of information for the confirmation of prior beliefs consequences perceptions findings future
  • 41. Future research Model extension Indicators for monitoring • Construct refinement • Keywords • Sample • Real navigation • Role of type of destinations • Message cues and • Impact on feature cues decision-making • Automatic tools • Reputation risk management • Long term analysis context theoretical questions Management issue classification perceptions Different contexts • Mobile • Issue of reputation power in online media findings future
  • 42. Practical implications listening and learning about a destination from overwhelming online messages occasion to discover & social control context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future
  • 43. Thank you! elena.marchiori@usi.ch context theoretical questions classification perceptions findings future