Smart Tourism Destinations


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  • The rapid increase of urban population worldwide has triggered intricate challenges for cities around the world. As cities become increasingly competitive and complex, ICT will make cities more accessible and enjoyable for both residents and visitors, for example is through the formation of Smart City. With this in mind, the new era of ICT has also opened a wealth of new tools for the tourism industry. The development of Smart City could also encourage the formation of Smart Tourism Destinations aiming to enrich tourist experiences and enhance destinations competitiveness.
  • He defined IoT as a network that connect anything in anytime and anyplace.
  • Instrumentation denotes that city activities are measurable by sensors that scattered around the city; interconnection means that every bit of a city are connected through ICT network both wired and wireless; and intelligence refers to predictive applications that have the ability to generate more accurate decisions.
  • Boyd Cohen has developed Smart City Wheel as a tool to support the development of Smart Cities strategies as well as tracking their progress. Within this wheel, Cohen (2012) has defined few indicators for each of the smartness dimensions.
  • Successful destinations can be structured as the 6 As of tourism destinations:
  • Cloud Computing services are designed to provide convenient way to access solid web platform and data storage through certain network. The use of Cloud Computing is going to reduce fixed costs and shift them into variable costs based on the necessities (Etro, 2009). IoT could support smart destinations in terms of providing information and analysis as well as automation and control (Chui, Löffler, & Roberts, 2010). For example, chips embedded to entrance ticket to control visitor number. End-User Internet Service System, which refers to number of applications at various levels supported by combination of Cloud Computing and IoT.
  • A range of smart services can be seen on Table 1 which shows how 6As Destination Components and Smart Tourism Destination Dimensions as derivate from Smart City Dimensions could be combined and possibly generate tourism applications with each of its utility function to be implemented in Smart Tourism Destinations.
  • Broadly foreseeable changes caused by smartness immersion triggers different outcome for each stakeholders as summarised below.
  • The flagship of the transformation to Smart Tourism Destinations is destination-wide access to real-time information. To achieve this, tourism authorities should ensure that any information should be made openly available. There are two main information sources: (1) information coming from the city that involves sensors and city elements; and (2) information coming from the citizens as digital footprint from their social media activities (Bakici, Almirall, & Wareham, 2013). Users could use this information to identify problems as well as customised potential solutions to overcome those problems.
    To maintain rapid growth of technology, destination is best to use Living Labs as their tools for learning which provide benefits like product improvements but also foster innovation and give insights for future markets by engage with group of users to capture market and involve them iteratively through a co-creation process.
    Further, Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is essential when running a Smart Tourism Destinations initiative. PPP fosters efficiency, support creativity and induce innovation to flourish (Heeley, 2011). Private companies can offer innovative design, project management skills and risk management expertise.
  • Smart Tourism Destinations is not politically neutral. Attributing a higher score to specific settings which attract higher private investments imposes a certain approach towards distinguishing between what is desirable and what is not and sometimes charts are being used to reflect city’s achievement. Charts are politicians’ favourite, since their simple schematics and apparent objectivity can be used to justify political rationales. Danger behind this view is that the development policies be based on a single model, applicable everywhere and linked only to the application of technological solutions with limited local adaptation.
    Privacy Intrusion: Intelligent systems capture information about users, i.e physical location of tourists which is a potential threat to privacy. Many techniques have been proposed to protect privacy, namely noise addition, micro-aggregation, rank swapping, rounding; aiming to distort data in order to avoid the linkage of private information with individual respondents
  • Smart Tourism Destinations cored in massive tourism resource data centre, supported by Internet of Things and Cloud Computing, focused on enhancing tourists experience
  • Smart Tourism Destinations

    1. 1. Smart Tourism Destinations Dimitrios Buhalis and Aditya Amaranggana eTourism Lab Bournemouth University United Kingdom ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 1
    2. 2. Agenda • Introduction • Theoretical Background – Internet of Things – Smart City Characteristics – Tourism Destination • Smart Tourism Destinations • Conclusion ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 2
    3. 3. Introduction • Rapid increase of urban population worldwide • ICT make cities more accessible and enjoyable for both residents and visitors • The development of Smart City could also encourage the formation of Smart Tourism Destinations Research Objective: Identifying opportunities and challenges as well as conceptualising a framework 2014 Research Track toward Smart Tourism Destinations. ENTER Slide Number 3
    4. 4. Theoretical Background ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 4
    5. 5. Internet of Things Firstly coined by Kevin Ashton (MIT) in 1999 The idea behind the IoT is to generate automatic real-time interactions among real world object that connect to the Internet which consequently also reduce the gap between real world and digital realm (Erb, 2011). ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 5
    6. 6. • IBM defined Smart City as a city that make their system instrumented, interconnected and intelligent • Smart Cities have the ability to give intelligent response to various kinds of needs that happen within the same time interval. • Citizen involvement in the co-creation process of products or services. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 6
    7. 7. Smart City Wheel By Boyd Cohen (2012) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 7
    8. 8. By Buhalis (2000) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 8
    9. 9. Smart Tourism Destinations take advantage of… ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 9
    10. 10. 3 Vital Forms of ICT for Smart Tourism Destinations The ultimate aims are to enhance tourism experience, improve the effectiveness of resource management, maximising both destination competitiveness and demonstrate sustainability. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 10
    11. 11. Tourism Applications in Smart Tourism Destinations No. Tourism Apps Utility Function Destination Components Smart Tourism Destinations Dimensions 1. Augmented reality Interpretation Attractions Smart People, Smart Mobility 2. Vehicle tracking Planning Accessibility Smart Living, Smart Mobility 3. Hotel energy predictor Sustainability Amenities Smart Environment 4. Multi-languages travel guide app which also offers available packages Guidance Available Packages Smart People, Smart Mobility 5. NFC tags and QR codes to access information about nearby points of interest Proximity Marketing Activities Smart Mobility 6. Tourist Complaints Management System Feedback Ancillaries Smart Living ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 11
    12. 12. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 12
    13. 13. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 13
    14. 14. Smart Tourism Destinations Impact No. Stakeholders Characteristics of Outcome 1. Tourism Organisations 2. Governments - Coordinates information and makes it easily accessible for users to access real-time information - Engage with local communities, tourists and government in cocreating tourism experience - Organisational agility, speed decision making and responsive to customers’ needs based on just-in-time insights - Precision targeting and personalised service - Regulate data privacy - Establish Public-Private Partnership 3. Local Residents/ Local Communities 4. Tourists 5. Environment - Constantly connected Sufficiently creative and empowered Technology savvy Citizen Journalism - Well-connected and well-informed - Active critics and buzz marketers - Demand highly personalised service - Innovation ecosystem ENTER 2014 Research Track - Sensor networks throughout the environment Slide Number 14
    15. 15. Smart Tourism Destinations Framework Open Data Movement Living Lab Methodology ENTER 2014 Research Track Public-Private Partnership Slide Number 15
    16. 16. Challenges • Not politically neutral • Little room for the technologically illiterate and the poor • Privacy intrusion ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 16
    17. 17. Conclusion The priorities of Smart Tourism Destinations construction are 1.To enhance tourists’ experience 2.To provide more intelligent information platform 3.To facilitate efficient allocation of tourism resources; and 4.To integrates tourism suppliers at both micro and macro level aiming to ensure benefit is well distributed to local society. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 17
    18. 18. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 18