Examining Online Brand Image Dimensions from Hotel
Managers’ and Customers’ Perspectives in relation to
Herzberg’s Two-Fac...
Research aims
• To explore the dimensions of online brand
image from a holistic point of view and to
investigate the onlin...
Agenda
• Literature review
– Brand Image and Online Brand Image
– Online Brand Image and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (195...
Brand Image
• Brand image is the idea that consumers buy brands not only for their
physical attributes and functions, but ...
Offline vs. Online Brand Image
The dimensions of brand image in the offline and online contexts are similar
(e.g., Park et...
Online brand image &
Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory (1959)
Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1959)

Online brand image

Herzberg...
Methodology
Exploratory research to find out which online brand attributes
determine online brand image
• Study 1: Semi-st...
Methodology
The interviewees: Customers who had experience in searching and booking a
hotel online
• Step 1: General quest...
Findings
The findings are delineated under two major dimensions:
1. Brand attributes

2. Online marketing
communication

E...
1. Online brand attributes
(1) Ease of use
“Websites should be easy to use. If it takes so much time for customers to
navi...
1. Online brand attributes
(2) Site Appearance
“When it comes to your visuals, it affects your image and your brand. You
n...
1. Online brand attributes
(4) Structure and Layout
 Structure and layout was not mentioned by hotel managers
“I can see ...
1. Online brand attributes
(5) Price
“We use Expedia and we offer a promotional price; yes it dilutes our brand image
but ...
2. Online marketing communication
(1) Search engines
“The Internet can make us more visible; you need to make sure that yo...
2. Online marketing communication
(2) Electronic word-of-mouth
“Online reviews impact our brand image, which is quite diff...
Methodology
Assigning online brand image attributes to Herzberg’s twofactors

Definitions
based on
literature

Motivationa...
Assigning attributes to Herzberg’s TwoFactors (1959)

Functional
benefits

Hygiene Factors

Motivational Factors

Ease of ...
Theoretical reflection
• Both managers and customers claimed that ease of use, content, site
appearance, price, search eng...
Managerial Implications
• Positive hotel brand image:
– Online brand attributes (website)
– Search engines and
– eWOM

• H...
THANK YOU
Q&A

ENTER 2014 Research Track

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Examining Online Brand Image Dimensions from Hotel Managers’ and Customers’ Perspectives in relation to Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

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Examining Online Brand Image Dimensions from Hotel Managers’ and Customers’ Perspectives in relation to Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

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  • Attributes are those descriptive features that characterize a product or service, they are distinguished according to how they relate to product and service performance Benefits are the personal value consumer attach to the product or service attribute. There are three categories of benefits: functional benefit, experiential benefit and symbolic benefitFunctional benefit: one designed to satisfy externally generated consumptions such as toothpaste, hotel roomExperiential benefit: desires for product that provide sensory pleasure, variety or cognitive stimulation such as amusement parkSymbolic benefit: product that fulfil internally needs for self-enhancement, role position, group membership such as luxury car, luxury hotel (Park et al., 1896, Keller, 1993)
  • Customers form a brand image through a synthesis of all the signals (brand associations, customer previous experience, brand personality and marketing mix activities) communicated by the brand (Keller, 1993; Biel, 1992).
  • Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol that is used to identify good or serviceOnline brand image is how the customer perceive the brand in an online context. It is based on customer’s previous belief and influence by online performance (Kwon and Lennon, 2009)Brand identity represent the firm reality, it is steam from the company (Nandan, 2005). Actually it is a set of brand associations (composed of benefits, attitude, and attributes) but it is from the company side which should be match with the brand image (from customer side, it is how customer perceived it)Example of website quality attributes: fulfilment, reliability, customer service (eTail Quality items-Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003)Example of online store image attributes: online store usefulness, ease of use, store style in online context (Van der Heijiden and Verhagen, 2004)Online platform is the web-based platform that composed of search engines, social media.
  • I add another side with different colour, in case you want the red one match with logoHerzberg’s two-factor theory (1959), it is the motivator-hygiene factors in work place. It explains that there are a number of factors in the workplace that might bring about satisfaction (motivation factors) such as achievement, growth, but that those factors that make people satisfied at work might not be the same things that make them dissatisfied (hygiene factors) such as working conditions. Customers may follow a hierarchical sequence when they assess a brand. The customer may start with the rational (or functional) value first then progress to a higher level, the emotional value. It is similar to brand benefit , these theories suggest that customers may assess the functional factors (physical needs, extrinsic motivation) before moving on to the symbolic level of the brand (psychological needs, intrinsic motivation). In online context, online brand attributes such as ease of use provide functional benefit (hygiene factor). It need to perform well but it can not be considered as motivation factor that bring satisfaction. If website not perform in terms of ease of use well, it will bring dissatisfaction but not reach the high satisfaction level
  • (online brand attributes) that give customers functional benefit and allow them to book the hotel might not increase their positive brand image, while some Online brand attributes (i.e. brand personality) that can achieve symbolic and experiential needs might only lead to positive brand image once their functional needs are met. Brand benefits (symbolic, experiential, and functional benefits), two factor theory, and online brand attributes definitions are on the previous pagesEase of use: efficiency of site navigation, sufficient information offeredSecurity: reflect privacy when making transaction and security feature provided by the sitePersonalisation: tailor need and build customer relation in the online contextReliability : accuracy and on-time delivery of productCustomer care: responsiveness to customer problem and enquiry at the site
  • Three-step procedure with nineteen hotel customers in UK starting with semi-structured interviews, followed by an online hotel booking scenario and, finally, conducting visual hotel website image testing. This experiment was aimed to investigate how hotel customer perception of a brand is affected by online platform. Hotel selection, first aims to select both international chain hotels and domestic branded hotel in UK and Thailand. The selection is based on the accessibility that hotels provide. The interview guideline can be seen in attached file, aims to get general idea on how hotel marketing managers manage their brand in online context. How their online marketing strategy work? How they deal with social media?Website image testing is to test how customers perceived the image, and how brand identity match with brand imagePlease see attached file (Words-scenario based and customer interview protocol files)
  • Three-step procedure with nineteen hotel customers in UK starting with semi-structured interviews, followed by an online hotel booking scenario and, finally, conducting visual hotel website image testing. This experiment was aimed to investigate how hotel customer perception of a brand is affected by online platform. Hotel selection, first aims to select both international chain hotels and domestic branded hotel in UK and Thailand. The selection is based on the accessibility that hotels provide. The interview guideline can be seen in attached file, aims to get general idea on how hotel marketing managers manage their brand in online context. How their online marketing strategy work? How they deal with social media?Please see attached files ls provide more information what you exactly did in each step in the noteshow did you select the customers? what activities?who did you askwhat did you ask?which scenarios did you use?how did the website image testing worketc.--> just in case there are questions I need to know every detail
  • The first main theme is online brand attributes; there are five sub-categories: ease of use, content, structure and layout, site appearance, and price. The second themes is online marketing communication: search engines and electronic word-of-mouth
  • If a hotel website is not easy to use, it will dilute the hotel’s brand image but it does not strongly confirm that it will influence positive online brand image.
  • Managers’ comments showed that they used quality and good image to attract customers, while customers preferred to see consistent image, and colour that represent hotel brand.
  • Managers realized the importance of providing standardize image and content following to hotel brand identity but fail to respond to what customers want in terms of content
  • The findings corroborated with the previous studies that website should have consistent layout, good use of frame and the company logo present on each page to enhance branding (Santos, 2003). It further revealed that the structure, layout and pictures on a website impact on the customers’ perception of a hotel.
  • it shows that online travel agency (OTA) are taking control over hotel distribution and it consequently impacts the perception of hotel brand in customers’ minds. It dilutes brand value and their positive belief about hotel brands because customers often associate low price with low quality.
  • search engine optimization not only helps to increase brand visibility but also influences customer perception on hotel brand when they believe that the first few hotels that come up on the first search engine results page good and reliable hotels
  • search engine optimization not only helps to increase brand visibility but also influences customer perception on hotel brand when they believe that the first few hotels that come up on the first search engine results page good and reliable hotels
  • ease of use, content, structure and layout and search engine optimization are hygiene factors that impact on customer perception but do not influence positive online brand image. Both categories (site appearance and electronic word-of-mouth) impact on customer perception and determine online positive brand image from both managers and customers’ perspective. Price appears to have both a positive and negative effect from both manager and customer view. Functional benefit: one designed to satisfy externally generated consumptions such as toothpaste, hotel roomExperiential benefit: desires for product that provide sensory pleasure, variety or cognitive stimulation such as amusement parkSymbolic benefit: product that fulfil internally needs for self-enhancement, role position, group membership such as luxury car, luxury hotel (Park et al., 1896, Keller, 1993)
  • The semi-structured interview findings revealed seven sub-themes of online brand attributes and online marketing communication (e.g. (1) ease of use, (2) content (3) structure and layout, (4) site appearance, (5) price and (6) search engine optimization, and (7) electronic word-of-month (eWOM)) that impact on customer perceptions when they navigate online (hygiene factor) but only site appearance, price and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) would appear to influence positive online brand (motivation factors).
  • Examining Online Brand Image Dimensions from Hotel Managers’ and Customers’ Perspectives in relation to Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

    1. 1. Examining Online Brand Image Dimensions from Hotel Managers’ and Customers’ Perspectives in relation to Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Duangthida Nunthapirat (Amy), Andrew Lockwood, Brigitte Stangl, and Hesham Al-Sabbahy School of Hospitality and Tourism Management University of Surrey, UK. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 1
    2. 2. Research aims • To explore the dimensions of online brand image from a holistic point of view and to investigate the online brand attributes that determine online brand image • To explore online brand attributes in relation to Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (1959) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 2
    3. 3. Agenda • Literature review – Brand Image and Online Brand Image – Online Brand Image and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (1959) • Qualitative approach: Semi-structured interviews with – Hotel marketing managers – Hotel customers • Results & theoretical discussion • Managerial implications ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 3
    4. 4. Brand Image • Brand image is the idea that consumers buy brands not only for their physical attributes and functions, but also because of the meanings connected with the brands (Levy & Glick, 1973) • Brand image can be considered as the combined effect of brand associations (attributes, benefits and attitude), brand personality and marketing communications held in the consumer’s memory (Aaker, 1997; Biel, 1992; Keller, 1993; Park et al., 1986). ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 4
    5. 5. Offline vs. Online Brand Image The dimensions of brand image in the offline and online contexts are similar (e.g., Park et al, 1986; Aaker1997; Keller, 1993; Coupland et al., 2003; Morgan et al., 2003; de Chernatony and Christodoulides, 2004; Da Silva and Syed Alwi, 2008) Online Brand Attributes Brand Associations Customer Experience Brand Personality Offline Brand Image Integration Online Brand Image Market Communication Brand Personality Customer Experience eWOM Integration between offline and online brand image is essential (Kwon and Lennon, 2009) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 5
    6. 6. Online brand image & Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory (1959) Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1959) Online brand image Herzberg’s (1959), and Park et al.’s (1986) theories deal with human motivation and needs and what is required to meet those needs. • Hygiene factors prevent employee dissatisfaction • Motivational factors make people satisfied The customer may start with the rational (or functional) value first then progress to a higher level, the emotional value • Hygiene factors: Salary and working condition • Motivational factors: achievement and growth • Hygiene factors: Online brand attributes such as navigation and ease of use • Motivational factors: brand personality (Christodoullides and de Chernatony, 2004) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 7
    7. 7. Methodology Exploratory research to find out which online brand attributes determine online brand image • Study 1: Semi-structured interviews with marketing managers from nine-branded hotels • Study 2: Semi-structured interviews with hotel customers Step 1 Interview before activities Step 2 Scenario-based activity Step 3 Website image testing ENTER 2014 Research Track Step 4 Interviews after activities Slide Number 9
    8. 8. Methodology The interviewees: Customers who had experience in searching and booking a hotel online • Step 1: General questions related to customers’ previous hotel information search experience • Step 2: Scenario-based activity: Search for a hotel in Thailand Step 4: Questions concerning search experience • Step 3: Five hotel website images were shown with logo covered  Step 4: Questions about their opinions on these 5 images ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 10
    9. 9. Findings The findings are delineated under two major dimensions: 1. Brand attributes 2. Online marketing communication Ease of use Search engines Content eWOM Structure and layout Site appearance Price ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 11
    10. 10. 1. Online brand attributes (1) Ease of use “Websites should be easy to use. If it takes so much time for customers to navigate online, they will feel upset about it and it will impact on our hotel brand image (M2).” “I don’t think there is an excuse for having a poor website. Don’t make it too hard to get somewhere; don’t make me go to a lot of screens. If I want to go to page 3, I should get that quickly (C2).” • Related to website design (Song and Zahedi, 2005) • Online image (Da Silva and Syed Alwi, 2008) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 12
    11. 11. 1. Online brand attributes (2) Site Appearance “When it comes to your visuals, it affects your image and your brand. You need to make sure that you are on top of everything, because every single touch point can affect your brand perception” (M4). “The colour on the website is purple which coordinates with the brand image that we can see everywhere. Every time I think of this brand, it is purple - even inside the room, it has been decorated in purple colour” (C18). • Influences attitude towards experience (Santos, 2003; Venkatesh and Agarwal, 2006) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 13
    12. 12. 1. Online brand attributes (4) Structure and Layout  Structure and layout was not mentioned by hotel managers “I can see that image because it’s consistent; you are bombarded with it; the hotel could draw the logo because it’s a consistent sort of image. When you look at the page, it’s not even the words, it’s not even anything else; it is a kind of picture, layout page, colour that use to present its corporate message every page, you get a certain feel to it” (C8). “This website has a white background; it does not provide any information on the first page, and you need to flip to the next page. This looks like an upper-class hotel, something which is quite elegant (C4). • Consistent layout, good use of frames, company logo on each page to enhance branding (Santos, 2003) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 15
    13. 13. 1. Online brand attributes (5) Price “We use Expedia and we offer a promotional price; yes it dilutes our brand image but unfortunately for us the strength of the brand with Expedia is quite a bit stronger than using internal communication. I agree that it dilutes our brand and it takes people away but in another way it allows you to be found” (M1). “Really, this brand (hotel A), I am quite surprised as actually I would expect it to be more expensive. Maybe they don’t want to appeal so much up-market. It’s interesting as well; you’ve got here rooms from £69 but actually I would not associate that price with this (hotel A). I would expect you would pay more than £100 for staying in it” (C19). • Price is an indicator of quality and consequently impacts on brand image (Cretu and Brodie, 2007) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 16
    14. 14. 2. Online marketing communication (1) Search engines “The Internet can make us more visible; you need to make sure that you are well presented in the internet; … how you are found in the internet through SEO is very important. It is critical because people do not actually look through to page 2, 3, and 4 of their search. They will not look any further from the first page” (M6). “When I search for a hotel, I will use Google and I believe that first three pages on the search engine are up-to-date and reliable” (C15). • Search engines contain branding elements such as symbols, logos, names (Jansen et al., 2007) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 17
    15. 15. 2. Online marketing communication (2) Electronic word-of-mouth “Online reviews impact our brand image, which is quite difficult to handle. Where’s the reliability and credibility of information? Customers see different comments from different websites and they can compare. We have built long term offline brand image so online negative comment might impact a bit” (M1) “I think customer review is very important to me; sometimes a brand is big but the customer review is poor. The comment said “the room is too old, even though it’s big chain hotel; I just really don’t want to stay there” (C2). • Create empathy and emotional involvement (Ye et al., 2009) • Reviews impact on decision making (O’Conner, 2010) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 18
    16. 16. Methodology Assigning online brand image attributes to Herzberg’s twofactors Definitions based on literature Motivational or Hygiene factor ENTER 2014 Research Track Statements from customers and managers Slide Number 19
    17. 17. Assigning attributes to Herzberg’s TwoFactors (1959) Functional benefits Hygiene Factors Motivational Factors Ease of use Content Structure and layout SEO Symbolic benefits (emotion) Site appearance eWOM Price ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 20
    18. 18. Theoretical reflection • Both managers and customers claimed that ease of use, content, site appearance, price, search engines and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) impact their perception of a hotel brand. • Structure and layout were not mentioned by hotel marketing managers but were noted by hotel customers. • Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory (1959): – Hygiene factors (functional value): Ease of use, content, structure and layout, and search engine optimization – Motivational factors (emotional value): Site appearance and electronic word-of-mouth – Functional and/or emotional value: Price  Target group ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 21
    19. 19. Managerial Implications • Positive hotel brand image: – Online brand attributes (website) – Search engines and – eWOM • Hotels should make sure to satisfy needs with regards to hygiene factors while being aware that these factors are not sufficient to boost positive hotel brand image. • Structure and layout: Closing the gap between brand identity and brand image is still important by integrating both online and offline marketing communication. • Consequences of different prices on various platforms for brand image ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 22
    20. 20. THANK YOU Q&A ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 23

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