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Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning
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Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning

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  • 1. Adaptive Strategies to Technological Change: Understanding Travellers Using the Internet for Trip Planning Zheng Xiang Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA Dan Wang Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China Daniel R. Fesenmaier Temple University, Philadelphia, USA ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 1
  • 2. Agenda • Introduction • Related Literature • Research Goal • Methods • Findings • Discussion ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 2
  • 3. Introduction • Tremedous growth of the Internet and tools available to travellers in the last decade: – Search engines – Social media – Mobile computing • Important to understand how ICT and travallers co-evolve, particularly in travellers‘ use of the Internet for trip planning purposes. • Past studies were conducted at the early days of the Internet, and they focused on user demographics and characteristics that distinguish travellers from non-users. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 3
  • 4. Related Literature • Role of trip planning in travel decision making (Fodness & Murray, 1997; Vogt & Fesenmaier, 1998; Gursoy & McCleary 2004; Jeng & Fesenmaier, 2002; Bieger & Laesser, 2004). • Traveler characteristics (Bonn, Fur, & Susskind, 1998; Chu, 2001; Ip, Lee, & Law, 2010; Kim, Lehto, & Morrison, 2006; Weber & Roehl, 1999). • Other factors influencing trip planning such as trip purpose, travel party, and travel experience (Luo, Feng, & Cai, 2004; Jun, Vogt, & MacKay, 2007). ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 4
  • 5. Research Goal • Goal of this study is to gain an understanding of the strategies travellers developed as result of using the Internet for travel planning. Specifically, – what information sources and channels do travellers tend to use more/less frequently for travel planning purposes? – How does the use of Internet impact on certain behaviors, e.g., amount of money spent, number of choices considered? ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 5
  • 6. Methodology (1) • On-going Internet-based surveys were conducted by National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce at Temple U in Philadelphia from 2007 to 2012 using a portion of an online panel of 300,000 American consumers. • Numbers of respondents from each survey ranged from 2,436 (in 2007) to 1,041 (in 2012) and were post hoc weighted according to age, ethnicity, and gender in order to represent the American population. • Survey focused on three main areas related to travelers’ use of the Internet for trip planning: use, impact, and satisfaction. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 6
  • 7. Methodology (2) • For this analysis survey questions in three domains measuring travellers’ behavioral response to using the Internet (14 items) including: – changes in travel plan (five items) – changes in information channels used (five items), and – likelihood of calling to make reservations or for further information (four items). • Average scores for each domain were calculated and rounded to the nearest integer so as to resemble the original scale. • Cluster analysis was then conducted based upon the scores of the three domains using the K-means ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 7 procedure.
  • 8. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 8
  • 9. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 9
  • 10. General Use/Attitude toward Technology by American Travel Group Agree or Disagree with the Statement… Super Does Not Planner Bother Me Efficient Mixed Mixed I Mixed II Planner III Skills of finding what I want (strongly or somewhat agree) 91.1% 87.8% 77.8% 91.0% 88.3% 92.8% Skilled at using Internet (strongly or somewhat agree) 85.4% 73.3% 64.0% 79.5% 74.9% 77.3% Internet gives people more control with technology (Yes) 84.0% 65.5% 62.2% 77.6% 75.9% 80.7% 72.4% 35.7% 33.7% 41.9% 42.2% 43.7% 68.4% 33.8% 34.2% 38.7% 37.9% 43.2% 66.5% 26.5% 24.9% 28.5% 30.9% 37.8% 37.8% 15.5% 12.9% 20.7% 19.5% 21.0% Used technology a lot compared to my friends (strongly or somewhat agree) Know new tech before others in social circle (strongly or somewhat agree) First to buy a new tech in my circle (strongly or somewhat agree) Own tablet computer (e.g., iPad etc) (Yes) ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 10
  • 11. Websites Used in Online Travel Planning by American Travel Group Super Planner Does Not Bother Me Efficient Planner Mixed I Online travel agencies Search engines Suppliers Destination sites Travel search engines General travel sites Travel guidebook sites Travel review sites 71.4% 64.1% 55.7% 45.0% 37.6% 31.9% 26.6% 25.4% 56.2% 49.0% 54.6% 33.0% 19.0% 10.6% 8.1% 11.6% 44.8% 43.5% 51.6% 27.4% 10.5% 13.0% 7.7% 5.3% 68.3% 58.9% 66.5% 41.6% 25.0% 11.5% 10.3% 18.1% 64.7% 59.6% 60.8% 45.1% 24.0% 16.5% 17.6% 17.3% 74.5% 68.8% 67.0% 54.7% 30.6% 24.6% 11.2% 28.6% Newspaper or magazines 23.4% 5.3% 4.5% 4.2% 7.7% 10.3% Social networking Online communities 19.8% 19.3% 3.9% 4.8% 5.8% 10.5% 4.6% 4.3% 5.9% 8.7% 5.6% 11.6% Photo/video sharing sites 18.7% 2.9% 3.6% 3.2% 4.9% 5.0% Personal blogs 13.3% 4.8% 5.3% 3.2% 5.6% 4.8% ENTER 2014 Research Track Mixed II Mixed III Slide Number 11
  • 12. Variation in Online Travel Planning Activities by American Travel Group Super Planner Request printed materials/brochures Print out travel information/online brochures Watch videos Print out coupons Read travel-related blogs Look at comments/materials other travellers have posted Use interactive calendar of events Use interactive trip planners to create personal travel plans Download videos Use live chat to talk with travel experts Listen to travel-related audio files Does Not Bother Me Efficient Planner Mixed Mixed II I Mixed III 53.2% 29.3% 23.3% 27.3% 41.3% 52.2% 52.2% 35.7% 31.4% 40.3% 46.6% 57.1% 48.9% 48.1% 42.1% 11.9% 20.9% 12.1% 13.5% 26.0% 15.2% 15.8% 25.5% 19.1% 19.5% 28.5% 20.3% 23.1% 36.4% 26.8% 35.8% 24.1% 13.5% 40.1% 38.4% 50.2% 35.3% 13.9% 12.1% 19.4% 20.8% 29.7% 35.0% 11.9% 12.6% 15.6% 18.7% 26.2% 26.0% 3.1% 5.4% 2.4% 4.7% 4.6% 21.9% 2.9% 4.9% 2.5% 5.3% 4.7% 15.0% 2.1% 1.3% 1.6% 4.0% 4.0% ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 12
  • 13. Discussion • Three “normative” strategies represent typical ways people respond to technology within the travel context. • Generally speaking, use of Internet has more significant impact on travel plans than the other two areas. • Seems travellers either take full advantage of online/offline channels (super planners) or intentionally reduce their use of these channels because they have already “figured out” what to look for (efficient planners). • Once a channel is built into one’s media repertoire, its use in the future will remain stable. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 13
  • 14. Conclusions and Future Research • This paper paints a broad picture of how technology could “drive” people to develop certain preferences and even habits of use. • Further analyses need to be done to examine other variables such as demographics that distinguish these user sectors. ENTER 2014 Research Track Slide Number 14

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