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Decolonizing our Schools: Aboriginal Education in the Toronto District School Board
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Decolonizing our Schools: Aboriginal Education in the Toronto District School Board

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  • 1. ! !!"#$%$&(&)*+,-*.#/$$%0*"#$%&&()*!+,-.)/&$(!0(!123!1$%$(/$!4&5/%&./!6.2$$*!7$)%,!!"!#$%&#!&(!)$!*#+"(!"+&#,-,(".!$/*0",&(!%,.&!%#&1$0!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! !!!!!!! ! !+23!/45!6789:!/5!/;<:! =;>?3!@4;8>9!1<?:8><:! ! ! A!/45!094B9!#;CD! 6DE>DFGD4!HIJ!KILI! ! !
  • 2. !
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  • 29. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! "#$%&%()(*!+,-!.$/%%&0!! ! "#$%&&()*!+,-.)/&$(!&(!/01!2345! ! 89Y7! ,-&%*.*#/0!6$(3#$B!*#!$23!4567! ":!$@!LMMNbLM6M?!/01!2345!0),!UNU!:.0$$*:!&(!UkL!:&/1:?!:1%I&.&(!);;%$8&D)/1*=!LUZ?MMM!:/-,1(/:G!201! 5$)%,!1D;*$=:!)#$-/!6M?6MM!1*1D1(/)%=!/1).01%:!)(,!U?NMM!:1.$(,)%=!/1).01%:!):!;)%/!$@!)! .$D;*1D1(/!$@!VV?MMM!@-**b/&D1!)(,!R?MMM!;)%/b/&D1!:/)@@G!WI1%)**?!/01!:/-,1(/!#$,=!:;1)H:!ZU!! ,&@@1%1(/!*)(-)1:!A($/!&(.*-,&(!%1&$()*!,&)*1./:B?!<&/0!%$-0*=!Leo!$@!:/-,1(/:!#$%(!$-/:&,1!$@! 7)(),)?!&(!$(1!$@!D$%1!/0)(!6ZU!.$-(/%&1:!=#EHK!./93(&/@!J:-:3&!WX@!WYAYD<!! ! 31:;&/1!/01!:&O1!$@!2$%$(/$i:!"#$%&&()*!;$;-*)/&$(?!/01%1!&:!($!.$(.1(/%)/1,!"#$%&&()*!(1&0#$-%0$$,! $%!.$DD-(&/=G!"#$%&&()*!;1$;*1!)%1!$@/1(!%1(,1%1,!&(I&:&#*1!&(!2$%$(/$i:!,&I1%:1!.&/=:.);1G!201!&D;)./! @$%!"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:!&:!$@/1(!$(1!$@!)*&1()/&$(G!E`).H&(!)!,1@&()#*1!-%#)(!"#$%&&()*!.$DD-(&/=!<&/0! <0$D!/01=!.)(!&,1(/&@=?!:/-,1(/:!)%1!$@/1(!1&/01%!&:$*)/1,!&(!/01&%!:.0$$*:!)(,!.$DD-(&/&1:!$%!)%1! p0&,,1(!&(!;*)&(!I&1<?c!%1*-./)(/!/$!:1*@b&,1(/&@=F!A2345?!LMMRBG! !! J,1(/&@=&(!/01!(-D#1%!$@!"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:!)//1(,&(!2345!:.0$$*:!0):!;%$I1(!/$!#1!.0)**1(&(G! J(&/&)**=!2345!LMMk!4/-,1(/!71(:-:!,)/)!:0$<1,!*1::!/0)(!6MM!"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:!&(!2345!:.0$$*:?!#-/! -;$(!%1I&:&(!/01!D1/0$,$*$=!@$%!&,1(/&@=&(!:/-,1(/:!/0&:!(-D#1%!&(.%1):1,!/$!e6e!:1.$(,)%=!:.0$$*! :/-,1(/:GN!4/-,1(/:!<0$!;)%/&.&;)/1,!&(!/01!.1(:-:!<1%1!.*)::&@&1,!):!E"#$%&&()*F!&@!/01=! 6G 41*@b,1:.%&#1,!):!E"#$%&&()*F!&(!/01!ET).1F!S-1:/&$(!$@!/01!71(:-:!$%!! LG 31:.%&#1,!/01D:1*I1:!):!E"#$%&&()*F!$%!%1*)/1,!A1GG!X$0)<H?!WC&#<)?!7%11B!&(!/01!E+/0(&.&/=F! S-1:/&$(!$@!/01!71(:-:G!!! ! J@!)..$%,&(!/$!/01!LMMk!71(:-:!,)/)!/01%1!)%1!Lk?UZU!"#$%&&()*!;1$;*1!*&I&(!&(!/01!7&/=!$@!2$%$(/$!)(,! &I1(!/0)/!LLo!$@!/01!"#$%&&()*!;$;-*)/&$(!&(!/01!.&/=!&:!-(,1%!/01!)1!$@!6U?!/01(!)!:&(&@&.)(/!(-D#1%! $@!"#$%&&()*!.0&*,%1(!)%1!)//1(,&(!2345!:.0$$*:G!201!,&:;)%&/=!#1/<11(!4/-,1(/!71(:-:!)(,!7&/=!$@! 2$%$(/$!:/)/&:/&.:!,1D)(,:!/01!S-1:/&$(9!d01%1!)%1!/01:1!:/-,1(/:!)(,!<0=!)%1!/01=!($/!:1*@b &,1(/&@=&(l! ! J(!)!;1%:$()*!()%%)/&I1!.&/1,!&(!H//()-!G:03/,8/3!AY)D1:?!LM6MB!n)(&1%!,1:.%&#1:!01%!18;1%&1(.1!$@! E.$D&(!$-/F!):!"#$%&&()*G!J(!01%!:/$%=?!n)(&1%!),,%1::1:!:$D1!$@!/01!.0)**1(1:!&(I$*I1,!&(!:1*@b &,1(/&@=&(?!18;*)&(&(!/0)/!<01(!=$-!18;$:1!=$-%!"#$%&&()*&/=!=$-!$;1(!=$-%!:1*@!-;!/$!S-1:/&$(:! &(.*-,&(!E"%1!=$-!"#$%&&()*lF!)(,!Ea$<!"#$%&&()*!)%1!=$-lF! ! n)(&1%!18;*)&(:!/0)/!/01:1!S-1:/&$(:!,1D)(,!:$D1/0&(!@%$D!01%G!2$!)(:<1%?!:01!&:!%1S-&%1,!/$!1,-.)/1! 01%!&(/1%%$)/$%:G!d01(!):H1,?!:01!/1**:!;1$;*1!)#$-/!$I1%(D1(/!;$*&.&1:!/0)/!&D;)./!"#$%&&()*! ;1$;*1!)(,!/01!.$D;*18&/&1:!&(I$*I1,!&(!).S-&%&(!)(,!*$:&(!:/)/-:G!401!:$D1/&D1:!/)*H:!#).H!/$!E/01! ;*1/0$%)!$@!D&:%1;%1:1(/)/&$(:F!$@!"#$%&&()*!;1$;*19!:01!,$1:!($/!E*$$HF!"#$%&&()*!#-/!<0)/!,$! ;1$;*1!18;1./!)(!"#$%&&()*!;1%:$(!/$!*$$H!*&H1l!n)(&1%!18;*)&(:!/0)/!/01:1!)%1!/01!:&D;*1!)(:<1%:G!201! D$%1!.$D;*18?!,&@@&.-*/b/$b18;*)&(!%1:;$(:1:!/0)/!:01!H11;:!/$!01%:1*@!0)I1!/$!,$!<&/0!0$<!:01!@11*:! )#$-/!01%!&,1(/&/=!)(,!01%!*$::!$@!)..1::!/$!01%!/%),&/&$()*!*)(-)1!)(,!/%),&/&$()*!H($<*1,1G!n)(&1%c:! 1::)=!&:!01*;@-*!&(!18;*)&(&(!:$D1!$@!/01!%1):$(:!<0=!"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:!)%1!.0$$:&(!($/!/$!&,1(/&@=G! 7*1)%*=?!n)(&1%!0):!,$(1!:$D1!/0&(H&(!)#$-/!01%!&,1(/&/=Q!:01!0):!0),!/01!$;;$%/-(&/=!/$!*1)%(!0$<!/$! :;1)H!#).H!/$!/01!S-1:/&$(:!;$:1,G!! ! 201!&::-1:!)(,!.0)**1(1:!:-%%$-(,&(!:1*@b&,1(/&@&.)/&$(!)%1!<$I1(!/0%$-0!/0&:!%1;$%/G!J(!:$D1!<)=:! n)(&1%c:!:/$%=!1(.);:-*)/1:!/01!1::1(.1!$@!<0)/!<1!*1)%(1,G!"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:!)%1!.0$$:&(!($/!/$! :1*@b&,1(/&@=!#1.)-:1!&/!&:!($/!)*<)=:!:)@1!/$!,$!:$?!)(,!#1.)-:1!/01=!,$!($/!(1.1::)%&*=!H($<!0$<!/$! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! N !J/!0):!#1.$D1!1I&,1(/!/0%$-0!/01!<$%H!$@!/01!K"+>>!/0)/!/01%1!)%1!D)(=!D$%1!:/-,1(/:!/0)(!/0&:!(-D#1%!%1@*1./:G! 6U!
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  • 31. ! ! ! "#$%&%()(*!+,-!.$/%%&0!! ! "#$%&&()*!+,-.)/&$(!&(!/01!2345! ! ! 3!!! "#$%&&()*!+,-./(,!0/**12/&(!! ! ! ! 201!8%&9)%:!;$.-<!$;!/01!="+>>!&(!/01!2345!?)<!$(!"#$%&&()*!</-,1(/<@!A&/0!</-,1(/<B!81%9&<<&$(C!?1! #1&(!?&/0!/0%11!8%$;&*1<!,1<.%&#&(!/01&%!8)</!)(,!8%1<1(/!%1*)/&$(<0&8<!?&/0!<.0$$*&(@!D(!1).0!.)<1!/01! </-,1(/!?)<!)./&E1*:!&(E$*E1,!?&/0!/01!>&*$/!>%$F1./!;$%!/?$!:1)%<@6! ! ! 345!!4/-,1(/!>%$;&*1<!! 678"+9!+:;<=! D!.)91!;%$9!)!%1<1%E1!&(!/01!($%/0C!&/!0)<!($!()91@! A$-*,!&/!9)G1!)!,&;;1%1(.1!/$!:$-C!)<!?1!8*):!/01!D(,&)(!"./!)91H! I1!)(,!9:!#-,,&1<!?1!0)E1!$-%!$?(!?):@! A1!/1**!$-%!</$%&1<!&(!.$9&.!#$$G<!)(,!0&8!0$8@! 4$!/0)/!:$-!.)(!01)%!?0)/!?1!0)E1!/$!<):@! D!?%$/1!)!<$(C!D!(11,!/$!;$%&E1!/$!.*1)(<1!$-%!<$-*<C! D/!<119<!/$!91!/01:!)&(J/!<$%%:!;$%!8*):&(!/01&%!%$*1@! ! D!)9!;%$9!)!($%/01%(!K(/)%&$!%1<1%E1!)(,!D!?1(/!/$!<.0$$*!-8!/01%1@!D(!LMMN!D!.)91!/$!2$%$(/$!)(,!</)%/1,! %),1!66@!I:!;&%</!:1)%!?)<!,&;;&.-*/C!D!0),!($!;%&1(,<C!D!0),!($!.$((1./&$(!/$!)(:!.$99-(&/:!01%1@!O&//&(!&(! /$!)!(1?!0&0!<.0$$*!&<!(1E1%!1)<:C!#1&(!<&(*1,!$-/!)<!/01!$(*:!P)/&E1!</-,1(/!,&,!($/!01*8@!201%1!?)<!)!#&! .$99-(&.)/&$(!8%$#*19!#1/?11(!91!)(,!/01!/1).01%<C!)(,!F-</!#1.)-<1!D!.$-*,(J/!-(,1%</)(,!9$</!$;! ?0)/!/01:!?1%1!<):&(!/01:!?1%1!*&G1C!QK0!:$-B%1!)!#),!G&,@R! ! 201(!&(!P$E19#1%C!)!/%)(<;$%9)/&$(!0)881(1,@!"!/1).01%!01)%,!)#$-/!)(!1E1(/!/0)/!?)<!0)881(&(!)/!/01! "+S!)(,!D!?)<!/01!$(*:!&,1(/&;&1,!P)/&E1!G&,!&(!/01!<.0$$*C!<$!01!/$$G!91!$-/!$;!.*)<<!)(,!#%$-0/!91!/$!/01! )<<19#*:@!201%1!?)<!,%-99&(!)(,!G&,<!,)(.&(@!D!($!*$(1%!;1*/!)*$(1!&(!/01!.&/:C!D!?)<!*&G1!?0$)C!D!?)(/!/$! #1!)!8)%/!$;!/0&<@! ! 4$!?&/0!/01!01*8!$;!I%@!T-<<1**!D!$%)(&U1,!)!8$??$?!)/!9:!<.0$$*!?&/0!,)(.1%<C!<&(1%<!)(,!)(!)./&E&</!?0$! )E1!)(!&(/1%1</&(!/)*G@!20&<!1E1(/!)/!/01!<.0$$*!/-%(1,!/0&(<!)%$-(,@!P$?!/01:!0)E1!"#$%&&()*!)%/!$(!/01! ?)**<C!/01!8%&(.&8)*<!)(,!/1).01%<!)%1!&E&(!91!0)(,<0)G1<!)(,!<):&(C!QA$?C!:$-J%1!)!8%1//:!#%&0/!G&,@R! ! 20&<!?)<!/01!F-98&(!$;;!8$&(/!;$%!91@!D!91/!<$91!</);;!)/!/01!"+S@!D!#1)(!/$!1/!&(E$*E1,!?&/0!/01! .$99-(&/:@!D!$/!&(E$*E1,!?&/0!/01!:$-/0!91(/$%<0&8C!,$&(!/01!31#?1?&(C!01*8&(!?&/0!/01!.)98!$(!/01! D<*)(,@!201!>&*$/!>%$F1./!$/!91!&(E$*E1,!)(,!8-<01,!91C!&/!/%)(<;$%91,!)!%1U!G&,!&(/$!)(!)./&E1!*1),1%@! ! 201(!.)91!9:!<1.$(,!:1)%!)(,!D!?)<!&(/%$,-.1,!/$!/01!P)/&E1!V1)%(&(!S1(/%1C!/01!T&E1%,)*1!S$-%<1C!)(,! /01!3%)9)!S$W$8@!D(!/01<1!8%$%)9<!D!<81(/!)!*$/!$;!/&91!$(!<$.&)*!&(/1%)./&$(!)(,!*1)%(&(!/01!/1).0&(<@!D! ?)<!/$*,C!QD!.)91!$-/!$;!9:!<01**R!?0)/1E1%!/0)/!91)(<C!D!#1.)91!)!81$8*1!81%<$(@!QDJ9!F-</!9:<1*;!%&0/! ($?R!)(,!&/!&<!/01!>&*$/!>%$F1./!/0)/!1()#*1,!91!/$!#1*&1E1!D!)9!.)8)#*1!$;!#&!/0&(<@! ! DBE1!$/!/$!/)G1!#).G!)**!/01<1!/0&(<!D!$/!01%1!($?C!)(,!/)G1!/0)/!/$!/01!%1<1%E1!<$!/0)/!/01!</-,1(/<!/01%1! .)(!0)E1!/01!$8/&$(@!201:!,1<1%E1!9-.0!9$%1!/0)(!?0)/!/01:!)%1!?$%G&(!?&/0!($?@!201!$E1%(91(/!(11,<! /$!01*8!-<!$-/C!?1!)%1!($/!1//&(!/0)/!9-.0!)//1(/&$(@!D(!9:!T&E1%,)*1!.$-%<1!D!*1)%(1,!/0)/!D!.$-*,!<81)G! $-/!&(!.*)<<C!D!*1)%(1,!/0)/!"#$%&&()*&/:!?)<!<$91/0&(!<81.&)*!/0)/!1E1%:#$,:!(11,<!)(,!1E1%:#$,:!(11,<! /$!;&(,!/0)/!$-/!;$%!/019!<1*E1<@! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 !"(!"#$%&&()*!S%1)/&E1!A%&/&(!S$(<-*/)(/!I&.0)1*!3&$(!?%$/1!/01<1!8%$;&*1<@!201!</$%&1<!)%1!#)<1,!$(!/%)(<.%&8/<!$;!/01!</-,1(/<B! &(/1%E&1?<!)<!?1**!)<!</-,1(/<B!$?(!?%&//1(!)(,!.%1)/&E1!?$%G@!4/-,1(/<!)88%$E1,!/01!8%$;&*1<!8%&$%!/$!/01&%!&(.*-<&$(!&(!/01!%18$%/@!! 67!
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  •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`#!#$7(+6#%M/#/&3%1/6@#!#$7(+6#%M/V#$I`#$%"#$%&`_9#>/I#$/2/@#"/I#$/2/# %-.2I@#]EI`_@#"/I#%6#%#+7"#7O#]EI`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i7$#Z"/#-7-J;*72,.,-%+[#3,+62/-#$/2/#&(212,&/6@#/&1/3,%++I#$,"#"/#M,6/7#Z!R)#T7"#"/# !-6,%-#^7(#i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
  • 71. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! "#$%&%()(*!+,-!.$/%%&0!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! "#$%&&()*!+,-.)/&$(!&(!/01!2345! ! 2,HI,5O&HKN25L9!2LKNO&2K&NE&5,OAKNOL9LRL2L,O&PK5&E,HKRKNL^2LKN& ;1).0&(!/01:1!$)*:!%1H-&%1:!)!*)%1!:0&8/!&(!/1).01%!<1%:<1./&>1C!<%1<)%)/&$(C!)(,!)(!)..1</)(.1!$8! /01&%!%1:<$(:&#&*&/&1:@!G/!%1H-&%1:!/0)/!/1).01%:!#1!:11(!):!o!)(,!:11!/01A:1*>1:!):!o!.1(/%)*!/$!/01! <%$O1./!$8!,1.$*$(&E)/&$(@!h&>1(!/01!:0$%/!<1%&$,!$8!/&A1!)(,!/01!:A)**!(-A#1%!$8!:/)88C!/01!N"+KK!?):! :-..1::8-*!&(!01*<&(!/1).01%:!/$!8-*8&**!/01&%!%1:<$(:&#&*&/&1:@!5-/!/$!).0&1>1!:-.0!)!:&(&8&.)(/!:0&8/C!A$%1! /&A1C!:/)88C!%1:$-%.1:C!)(,!<)/&1(.1!)%1!(11,1,@!20&:!&:!&A<$%/)(/!8$%!($(F"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:!?0$!(11,! )(,!?)(/!/$!*1)%(!)#$-/!"#$%&&()*!<1$<*1C!0&:/$%=C!)(,!.-*/-%1@!5-/!&/!&:!32(3,%+!8$%!"#$%&&()*!:/-,1(/:! )(,!/01&%!8)A&*&1:@! 7]!
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