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تقويم الطلاب في القرن الواحد والعشرين
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تقويم الطلاب في القرن الواحد والعشرين

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أ. آرلين جاليكسون

أ. آرلين جاليكسون
بروفيسور فخري في جامعة ميتشجن الغربية الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية

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تقويم الطلاب في القرن الواحد والعشرين تقويم الطلاب في القرن الواحد والعشرين Presentation Transcript

  • Student  Assessment  in  21st  Century  Educa4on    Arlen  Gullickson  IEFE  Forum  2013    February,  2013  Riyadh,  Saudi  Arabia  1  
  • A  note  of  AppreciaAon  •  With  special  thanks  – Saleh  Alshumrani,    – Edward  Abankwa,  and    – Sahar  Abugharbieh  – Mohammed  Alyami  2  
  • My  ObjecAves    •  Make  the  case  for  focusing  on  formaAve  assessment  (Assessment  for  Learning)  •  Focus  on  Feedback  a  key  aLribute  of  FormaAve  Assessment  •  Offer  Suggested  Next  Steps  3   View slide
  • Personal  Context  50  years—teacher    and  educator  30  years—of    direct  interest  in  improving  classroom  assessment  pracAces  10  years—chair  of  the  Joint  CommiLee  on  Standards  for  EducaAonal  EvaluaAon  20+  years  in  program  evaluaAon  at  The  EvaluaAon  Center  WMU  4   View slide
  • Key  References  Knowing  what  students  Know    Na4onal  Research  Council    (2001)        Visible  Learning:  A  synthesis  of  Over  800  Meta-­‐Analyses  Rela;ng  to  Achievement    John  Ha[e  (2009)      Inside  the    Black  Box  Black  &  Wiliam  (1998)  The  Student  Evalua;on  Standards  (Now  called  the  Classroom  Assessment  Standards)  Joint  CommiLee  on  Standards  for  EducaAonal  EvaluaAon  (2003)     5  
  • Reference  •  Improving  Forma;ve  Assessment  Prac;ce  to  Empower  Student  Learning      Caroline  Wylie,  et  al.  (2012)  – Four  step  approach  – Key  areas  for  assessment  focus    6  
  • An  Opening  Ques4on    •  We  know  that  every  school,  regardless  of  where  it  is  located,  has  a  finite  amount  of  resources  available  to  serve  the  educaAonal  needs  of  its  students.    •  Suppose  you  have  just  one  child.  That  child  is  nearing  school  age  and  you  have  a  major  say  in  how  your  child’s  school  will  use  its  resources  for  assessment  purposes.    •  How  will  you  allocate  those  assessment  resources?  Will  you  spend  most  on  summaAve,  interim,  or  formaAve  assessments?    –  ALendant  to  that,  what  are  the  reasons  for  your  choice?    7  
  •  Student  Learning      EducaAon  focuses  directly  on  moving  each  and  every  student  forward  on  a  “novice  to  expert”  conAnuum.    8  Knowing  What  Students  Know  (NRC,  2001)  
  • Expert  CharacterisAcs    Experts  in  a  subject  domain  – Have  extensive  factual  and  procedural  knowledge  – Organize  knowledge  into  schemas  that  support  paLerns  of  recogniAon  and  the  rapid  retrieval  and  applicaAon  of  knowledge  (scaffolding)  We  expect  teachers  to  be  experts  in  the  content  domains  they  teach     9  Knowing  What  Students  Know  (NRC,  2001)  
  • Development  of  ExperAse  1)  PredisposiAon  to  Learning  2)  MulAple  paths  to  learning  3)  Role  of  prior  knowledge  4)  PracAce  and  feedback  5)  Transfer  of  knowledge  6)  Role  of  social  context  7)  Impact  of  cultural  norms  and  learner  beliefs  8)  Assessment  10  Knowing  What  Students  Know  (NRC,  2001)  
  • PredisposiAon  to  Learning  •  Children  are  naturally  curious  and  natural  problem  solvers  •  Some  things  are  learned  naturally  and  viewed  as  a  part  of  normal  growth  and  development  •  Children  can  reason  adeptly    •  They  will  try  to  solve  problems    and  persist  in  trying  •  Children  are  not  predisposed  to  learn  all  things  •  They  can  be  deliberate,  self-­‐directed,  and  strategic  but  need  adult  guidance  when  they  are  not  predisposed.    •  Oken  a  major  factor  is  moAvaAng  the  student  11  
  • MulAple  Paths  to  Learning  •  We  do  not  expect  students  to  move  simply  and  directly  from  subopAmal  to  opAmal  strategies  for  learning.      •  Nor  do  we  expect  that  we  will  always  choose  paths  that  are  opAmal  for  learning  in  specific  situaAon.      •  The  teacher’s  challenge  is  to  move/use  structures  in  ways  that  serve  students  effecAvely.  •  Learning  is  consAtuted  within  parAcular  contexts  and  situaAons.  12  
  • Role  of  Prior  Knowledge  •  When  exposed  to  new  knowledge  we  aLempt  to  reconcile  it  with  currently  held  knowledge/beliefs.    •  Naive  concepAons  can  provide  a  good  foundaAon  for  future  learning.    •  Drawing  out  and  working  with  exisAng  understanding  is  important  to  learning  13  
  • PracAce  and  Feedback  •  Developing  deep  knowledge  and  skill  requires  opportuniAes  for  pracAce  with  feedback    •  Laws  of  skill  acquisiAon  – power  law  of  pracAce.    – Knowledge  of  results  14  
  • Transfer  of  Knowledge  •  Learners  must  develop  an  understanding  of  when  (under  what  condiAons)  it  is  appropriate  to  apply  what  they  have  learned.  •  Transfer  is  more  likely  to  occur  when  the  person  understands  the  underlying  principles  of  what  was  learned.    •  Learners  need  to  understand  how  one  problem  is  both  similar  to  and  different  from  other  problems.    15  
  • Role  of  Social  Context  •  Much  of  what  humans  learn  is  acquired  through  discourse  and  interacAons  with  others.  •  Much  knowledge  is  embedded  within  systems  of  representaAon,  discourse,  and  physical  acAvity.    •  Moreover,  communiAes  of  pracAce  are  sites  for  developing  idenAty–one  is  what  one  pracAces  to  some  extent.  The  rewards  and  meaning  people  derive  from  becoming  deeply  involved  in  a  community  can  provide  a  strong  moAve  to  learn.  •  Studies  of  the  social  context  of  learning  show  that  in  a  responsive  social  se[ng,  learners  can  adopt  the  criteria  for  competence  they  see  in  others  and  then  use  this  informaAon  to  judge  and  perfect  the  adequacy  of  their  own  performance.    16  
  • Impact  of  Cultural  Norms  and  Learner  Beliefs  •  Cultural  a[tudes  about  cooperaAon,  as  opposed  to  independent  work,  can  affect  the  degree  of  support  learners  provide  for  each  other’s  learning.  •  Personal  beliefs  about  learning  itself  significantly  affect  learning  and  performance.  17  
  • ImplicaAons  for  Assessment  •  Assessment  pracAces  should  focus  on  making  learners’  thinking  visible  to  themselves  and  others      •  Assessment  feedback  should  be  Amely  and  informaAve.    18  
  • This  Thing  Called  Assessment  •  DefiniAon  is  evolving.    •  Assessment  and  evaluaAon  oken  are  used  interchangeably  •  DisAncAons  are  not  the  same  across  people  and  se[ngs.    •  Language  differences  increase  misunderstandings  19  
  • Arabic  Terms  for  Assessment  and  EvaluaAon    ‫ﱘ‬‫ اﻟﺘﻘﻮ‬ •    ‫ﻢ‬‫  اﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴ‬  •20  
  •  Defining  And  Describing  Assessment  Types    •  Assessment  is  derived  from  assidere  to  sit  with  or  beside.      – It  is  something  we  do  with  and  for  a  student,  not  something  we  do  to  them.    (Wiggins,  cited  in  Green,  1998)  •  SummaAve  •  FormaAve  •  Interim  21  
  • SummaAve  Assessment  •  Assessment  to  determine  what  students  have  learned  and  accomplished.  – Uniformly  focuses  on  achievement  in  a  course  or  curriculum  – A  current  synonym  is  Assessment  of  Learning,    – It  summarizes  the  development  of  learners  at  a  parAcular  point  in  Ame.  22  
  • FormaAve  Assessment  •  Assessment  used  to  serve  student  learning    Synonymous  with  Assessment  for  Learning  – a  range  of  formal  and  informal  assessment  procedures    – employed  by  teachers  during  the  learning  process    – Its  purpose  is  to  modify  teaching  and  learning  acAviAes  to  improve  student  aLainment  23  
  • Interim  Assessment  •  Interim  assessments  are  considered  medium-­‐scale,  medium-­‐cycle  assessments,  falling  between  summaAve  and  formaAve  assessments  and  usually  administered  at  the  school  or  district  level.  Typically  given  several  Ames  a  year.      24  
  • Some  DisAnguishing  Features  •  SummaAve  assessments  –  Tend  not  to  be  replicated  –  ApplicaAons  tend  to  be  used  in  high  stakes  situaAons—high  stress  –  Are  widely  used  across  the  U.S.  to  make  policy  recommendaAons  –  High  technical  difficulty  to  develop  –  Cost  (Ame  and  money)  is  high—developed  and  sold  for  school  use  by  publishers    –  Sample  broadly  across  course  and  curricular  content  –  Student  collaboraAon  is  forbidden  –  CheaAng  is  a  major  problem  –  Have  zero  or  near  zero  effect  on  learning  25  
  • Some  DisAnguishing  Features  FormaAve  Assessments  •  Are  replicated  regularly,  oken  several  Ames  within  an  instrucAonal  period    •  Are  narrowly  focused    •  Regularly  address  facets  other  than  course  content  •  Student  involvement  &  collaboraAon  is  encouraged    •  Cost  per  assessment  miniscule  •  Low  stress,  liLle  cheaAng  •  Average  effect  on  student  learning  is  high  26  
  • Serving  Development  of  ExperAse  27  Summa4ve   Forma4ve   Learning  Characteris4c  □   □  PredisposiAon  to  Learning    □   □  MulAple  paths  to  learning    □   □  Role  of  prior  knowledge    □   □  PracAce  and  feedback    □   □  Transfer  of  knowledge    □   □  Role  of  social  context    □   □  Impact  of  cultural  norms  and  learner  beliefs    
  • Status  •  SummaAve  is  simpler  than  formaAve  •  SummaAve  Assessment  sAll  captures  the  most  aLenAon  •  Enormous  interest  in  formaAve  assessment  – Spurred  by  Black  and  Wiliam  (1998)  – Large  effect  sizes  28  
  • Assessment  Effects  •  What  is  effect  size?  •  How  big  should  effect  size  be  before  we  consider  it  important?  29  
  • FormaAve  Assessment  Effect  Size    •  Typical  effect  sizes  of  between  0.4  and  0.7;.    •  PracAcal  consequences  of  such  large  gains:  1.  An  effect  size  of  0.4    a.  would  mean  that  the  average  pupil  involved  in  an  innovaAon  would  record  the  same  achievement  as  a  pupil  just  in  the  top  35  per  cent  of  those  not  so  involved.  b.  would  improve  performance  of  pupils  in  GCSE  by  between  one  and  two  grades.  2.  A  gain  of  effect  size  0.7,  if  realized  in  the  recent  internaAonal  comparaAve  studies  in  mathemaAcs  (TIMSS-­‐  Beaton  et  a,  1996),  would  raise  England  from  the  middle  of  the  41countries  involved  to  being  one  of  the  top  5.  30  Inside  the  Black  Box  (Black  &  Wiliam,  1998,  pp3-­‐4)  
  • Feedback  •  InformaAon  gathered  from  or  provided  to  students    – A  key  element  in  the  development  of  ExperAse  – Known  to  have  a  LARGE  effect  size  (0.73  on  average)  – A  determining  characterisAc  of  formaAve  assessment  Visible  Learning  (Ha[e,  2009)   31  
  •  EffecAve  Feedback    Answers  Three  QuesAons      1.  Feed  Up:  Where  am  I  going?  (goals)  2.     Feedback:  How  am  I  going?  3.     Feed  Forward:  Where  to  next?  32  
  • Feedback  •  Main  purpose  of  feedback  is  to  reduce  discrepancies  between  current  understandings  and  performance  and  a  learning  intenAon  or  goal.  •  Feedback  is  a  consequence  of  performance  •  Feedback  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  drivers  of  improving  performance  (d=0.73)  (Ha[e,  2009,  p.  172)  33  
  • More  EffecAve  Feedback  •  Provides  informaAon  on  correct  rather  than  incorrect  responses  and    •  Builds  on  changes  from  previous  trails  •  Occurs  when    – learning  goals  are  specific  and  challenging  but  task    complexity  is  low  – perceived  threats  to  self-­‐esteem  are  low  rather  than  high    34  
  • Moving  Forward  With  Feedback  •  Relate  feedback  to  learning  goals.  •  Provide  cues  or  reinforcement  to  the  learner.  •  Make  sure  that  students  see  and  appreciate,  and  can  act  appropriately  based  on  the  feedback—Based  on:  –  sound  evidence,    –  clear  criteria  and    –  transparent  •  Where  possible  provide  in  the  form  of  video,  audio  or  computer-­‐assisted  instrucAon  feedback    35  
  • Important  Caveats  •  Roughly  a  third  of  studies  on  feedback  show  a  negaAve  effect  •  Judgments  problem-­‐-­‐Giving  praise  for  compleAng  a  task  is  ineffecAve  •  Teachers  do  not  do  well  at  determining  the  “next  step”  •  Feedback  actually  is  bidirecAonal.  Teachers  provide  feedback  to  students;  more  importantly,  students  provide  feedback  to  teachers  and  to  each  other.  •  In  most  classrooms  students  provide  most  feedback  •  The  key  is  feedback  that  is  received  and  acted  upon  by  students—UlAmately,  it  is  not  what  the  teacher  says,  it  is  what  the  students  do.  36  
  • Next  Steps  •  Decide  on  a  Focus  (e.g.,  disposiAon  to  learn)    – What  will  make  teachers  want  to  focus  on  formaAve  assessment?  – Encourage  teacher  self-­‐assessment  – Remove  or  reduce  barriers-­‐-­‐What  would  stop  teachers?  – Simplify  the  task  – Find  ways  to  engage  and  work  together  on  common  tasks  37  
  • A  General  Strategy  38  
  • The  BoLom  Line  •  “If  you  can  both  listen  to  children  and  accept  their  answers  not  as  things  to  just  be  judged  right  or  wrong  but  as  pieces  of  informaAon  which  may  reveal  what  the  child  is  thinking,  you  will  have  taken  a  giant  step  toward  becoming  a  master  teacher,  rather  than  merely  a  disseminator  of  informaAon.”      (Easley  and  Zwoyer  1975:  p  25)  Accessed  from  hLp://www.tki.org.nz/r/assessment/one/formaAve_e.php    39  
  • •  Thank  you  for  your  paAence  and  interest.  40  
  • Postscript  •  AddiAonal  thoughts  on  next  steps.  41  
  • ImplemenAng  formaAve  Assessment  Changes  •  Narrow  focus  into  manageable  chunks  •  Work  on  one  small  chunk  at  a  Ame  •  Embed  assessment  in  instrucAon  •  Engage  the  students  in  all  aspects  of  the  formaAve  assessment  process  •  ALend  to  what  happens  when  feedback  is  provided  42  
  • Deciding  what  to  Try  •  Make  the  chunk  meaningful  •  Make  it  small  •  ALend  to  it  –  pracAce  it  in  a  variety  of  ways  over  a  substanAal  period  of  Ame  43  
  • Example  •  Learning  Target  Chart  •  IdenAfies  concepts  to  be  covered  during  6  week  math  unit  •  Students  self-­‐chart  progress  – I’ve  heard  of  this  – I  can  do  this  with  some  help  – I  can  do  this  on  my  own  – I  can  teach  someone  else  (Bearden,    2002  in  SES  Facilitator’s  Guide  by  Wingate,  2003)  44  
  •  ReflecAng  on  Your  FormaAve  Assessment    •  Clarity  of  Learning  and  Assessment  IntenAons  – Intended  outcomes  of  learning  and  assessment  are  clearly  stated  and  shared  with  students    •  Sound  Assessment  Design  •  EffecAve  Feedback    Provided  to  Students  •  Strategic  Student  Engagement  45  
  • Look  At  What  You  Are  Trying  To  Affect  •  Knowledge:  Conceptual  understanding  of  informaAon,  theories,  principles,  and  research      •  A[tude:  Beliefs  about  the  value  of  parAcular  informaAon  or  strategies    •  Skill:  The  abiliAes  to  use  strategies  and  processes  to  apply  knowledge    •  AspiraAon:  Desires  or  internal  moAvaAons  to  engage  in  a  parAcular  pracAce    •  Behavior:  Consistent  applicaAon  of  knowledge  and  skills    46  NaAonal  Staff  Development  Council  (Killion,,  J.,  2008)  
  • Simplify—Make  a  Large  Task  Small  Clarity   Design   Feedback   Engagement  Knowledge   Let’s  do  this  one  A[tude  Skill  AspiraAon  Behavior  47  
  • Now  Ask  a  QuesAon  Clarity  of  Inten4ons:  Intended  outcomes  of  learning  and  assessment  are  clearly  stated  and  shared  with  students      Knowledge:  Conceptual  understanding  of  informa4on,  theories,  principles,  and  research    Simple:  What  percentage  of  your  students  can  demonstrate  that  they  know  the  intended  learning  outcomes?        More  Complex:  Do  Students  see  how  this  new  objecAve  builds  on    previous  learning?  48  
  • Some  Closing  Thoughts  •  Choose  a  trail  and  begin  •  Remember  that  it  is  the  knowledge  and  acAon  of  students  that  tells  the  real  story  •  Most  of  all  developing  strong  formaAve  assessment  skills  takes  Ame,  paAence  and  effort.  –  There  is  that  first  characterisAc  of  developing  experAse  again—predisposiAon  to  learn  manifests  as  persistence.    •  I  hope  that  you  will  both  begin  and  persist  in  your  efforts  to  use  formaAve  assessment  I  think  it  will  pay  you  back  many  fold.  49