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إعادة مرحلة التقويم من خلال التقويم الثقافي المتجاوب في القرن الحادي والعشرين
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إعادة مرحلة التقويم من خلال التقويم الثقافي المتجاوب في القرن الحادي والعشرين

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أ. رودني هوبسون …

أ. رودني هوبسون
الرئيس لعام 2012 في رابطة التقييم الامريكية

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • 1. Rodney K. Hopson, Professor &Past-President, American Evaluation AssociationDepartment of Educational Foundations & LeadershipSchool of EducationDuquesne University (Pittsburgh, PA USA)hopson@duq.eduInternational Exhibition and Forum for Education Riyadh,Saudi Arabia18 – 22 February, 2013
  • 2. }  Sahar Abugharbieh, Project Manager/ADD Projects}  Susan Kistler, Executive Director, American EvaluationAssociation}  Prior collaborative and funded work from lectures,presentations, research grants, published papers◦  National Science Foundation, California Endowment, Robert WoodJohnson Foundation, WK Kellogg Foundation, American EvaluationAssociation/Center for Disease Control, American EducationalResearch Association, Arizona State University (USA), ClaremontGraduate U (USA), Lincoln U (USA), Manchester Metropolitan UEducation and Social Research Institute (UK)
  • 3. }  Recognize the relevance and value-addedness of culture in evaluationtheory and practice}  Identify strategies for assistingevaluators and agencies in becomingculturally responsive
  • 4. the way of life of a group of people, the complex ofshared concepts and patterns of learned behavior thatare handed down from one generation to the nextthrough the means of language and imitation.(Barnouw, 1985)the ever-changing values, traditions, social and politicalrelationships, and worldview created, shared andtransformed by a group of people bound together by acombination of factors that include a common history,geographic location, language, social class, andreligion…(Nieto, 1999)

  • 5. StudentServantBabadiMultiOlwayindaPanAfricanPillars oflifeHow do you think aboutyourself?Think about all of the culturalroles you play and howplaying these roles define howyou perceive yourself.Identify influences in yourworld view.How do you think your worldview influences what you dopersonally? Professionally?
  • 6. }  How you define yourself is the template bywhich you organize the world◦  Culture and one’s cultural background influencesour template(s), decisions, and practices
  • 7. }  Social location of evaluator matters: livedexperiences shape assumptions andframes of reference in evaluation process}  Evaluators play roles in furthering socialchange and justice: we are “more thantechnicians” but have duty to recognizepower relations, challenge systems ofinequity
  • 8. }  Avoiding ethnocentrism means embracingmultiple cultural perspectives}  Culture is central to the evaluation process}  Culturally and ethnically diversecommunities have contributions to makein redefining field of evaluation(Hopson, 2003)
  • 9. }  Evaluation in rudimentary form in developingcountries, even among international organizations}  Evaluation as auditing versus examination of howuseful and/or appropriate a certain program is forthe local community}  Western ideas of what "should" happen becomethe default priority for organizations}  Difficulties understanding the populations ways ofthinking, living, and understanding
  • 10. }  Researchers/evaluators struggle to addresscultural conflicts they have encountered}  Culture is either not taken into consideration or itis unknown how to be successfully taken intoaccount}  Culture seems to be something to learn so thatone can simply get the evaluation done; it’s notreally considered}  Often include cultural communities as passiveparticipants
  • 11. Understand and recognize the larger contextfor programs or projectsDesign evaluation with participants in mindAllow for self-determination by stakeholdersand program participantsCasillas, Hopson, & Gomez (in preparation)
  • 12. Build trust and facilitate communicationUnderstand the evaluation audience and helpthe audience to understand the evaluationpurpose and processMake the evaluation accessibleUnderstand evaluator attributes that mayaffect professional practice
  • 13. ◦  Demographic, sociopolitical, contextualdimensions◦  Characteristics as dynamic, multifaceted,learned, created, influenced◦  From personal to global position◦  Majority vs. minority◦  More than about race and ethnicity butinclusive of other identifications (SenGupta,Hopson & Thompson-Robinson, 2004; Nieto,
  • 14. }  Approach/model used to guide evaluation}  System and culmination of evaluationstrategies}  Theoretical and political positioned (as areall evaluations)
  • 15. Cultural competence is a stance takentoward culture, not a discrete status orsimple mastery of particular knowledgeand skills. A culturally competentevaluator is prepared to engage withdiverse segments of communities toinclude cultural and contextualdimensions important to the evaluation.Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation(American Evaluation Association, 2011)Accessible at www.eval.org
  • 16. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results20
  • 17. }  Be informed by the socioculturalcontext of the evaluand, including◦  History◦  Formal and informal power relationships◦  Communication and relational styles}  Assemble an evaluation team whosecollective lived experience fits thecontext of the evaluand.◦  Evaluator awareness of own cultural values,assumptions, prejudices, stereotypes◦  Not merely about matching demographics
  • 18. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results22
  • 19. }  Develop a stakeholder group representativeof the population served by program.}  Seek to include persons impacted by theprogram directly and indirectly.}  Pay attention to issues of power, status andsocial class.}  Include multiple voices in meaningfulpreparation process and activities.
  • 20. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results24
  • 21. }  Document, examine programimplementation◦  How well is the program connecting with itsintended consumers?◦  Is the program operating in ways that arerespectful of cultural context?◦  Are program resources equitably distributed?}  Document, examine progress towardgoals◦  Who is benefiting from the program, and arethese benefits equitably distributed? Who isburdened by the program?}  Evaluate overall effectiveness
  • 22. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results26
  • 23. }  Reflections on embedding culturallycompetent evaluation in Indian Country◦  Build understanding of values that underlieprograms and projects and create value-addedevaluative contribution◦  Engage stakeholders in participatory manner–  Build ethic of participation and capacity building thatvalues community, relationships, respect◦  Frame purpose by building conceptual picture/model◦  Careful of “too sequential and narrative driven”logic models
  • 24. SANKOFA MODEL©2010 P. Frazier-Anderson, S. Hood. & R. Hopson.All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. }  Questions of relevance to significantstakeholders}  Determine what will be accepted as evidence}  Notice whose voices are heard in the choice ofquestions and evidence.}  Reflect on how questions limit what can belearned and how they might be poseddifferently.}  Notice how different questions may expandunderstanding. Revise and refine questions.}  Can questions be answered with availableresources?
  • 26. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results30
  • 27. }  Build design appropriate to both evaluationquestions and cultural context.}  Seek culturally appropriate mixed methods,combining qualitative and quantitativeapproaches.}  Try to collect data at multiple points in time,extending the time frame of the evaluation asneeded.}  Construct control or comparison groups in waysthat respect cultural context and values.
  • 28. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results32
  • 29. }  Identify, develop or adapt instruments for thelocal context.}  Establish evidence of reliability and validity.}  Language and content of instruments shouldbe culturally sensitive.}  Use best translation practices, validating bothsemantic and content equivalence.}  Norms must be appropriate to the group(s)involved in the program.
  • 30. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results34
  • 31. }  Evaluation of undergraduate STEM researchprogram designed for students of color◦  Deliberate design of evaluation team intimatelyconnected with program of study and backgroundof program, including similar lived experiences ofparticipants◦  Questions were sensitive to lived experiences ofparticipants and focused on substance ofparticipant experiences
  • 32. }  Procedures used to collect bothqualitative and quantitative data must beresponsive to cultural context.}  Nonverbal as well as verbalcommunications provide keys tounderstanding.}  Train data collectors in culture as well astechnical procedures.}  Recognize how cultural identifications ofthe evaluation team affect what they canhear, observe.
  • 33. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results37
  • 34. }  Understanding cultural context is necessaryfor accurate interpretation.}  A cultural interpreter may be needed tocapture nuances of meaning.}  Stakeholder review panels can more accuratelycapture the complexity of cultural context,supporting accurate interpretation.}  Disaggregate data and cross-tabulate toexamine diversity within groups.}  Remember that data are given voice by thosewho interpret them.
  • 35. CulturalResponsive7Collectthe data8Analyzethe data3Identify purposeof the evaluation4Frame theright questions1Prepare forthe evaluation5Design theevaluation6Select and adaptinstrumentation2Engagestakeholders9Disseminate anduse the results39
  • 36. }  Maximize community relevance of findings;invite review by community members prior todissemination.}  Communication mechanisms must be 
culturally responsive.}  Inform a wide range of stakeholders.}  Make use consistent with the purpose of theevaluation.}  Consider community benefit and creatingpositive change.
  • 37. }  Discussion of urban school-to-careerintervention program using culturallyresponsive evaluation approach◦  Findings disaggregated by gender and age to getbreakdown of career attitudes and beliefs forparticipants◦  Findings provided to numerous stakeholders inparticular ways (e.g. student findings presentedin student-friendly manner)
  • 38. }  Culture matters and affects every evaluation}  CRE encourages the consideration of avariety of factors in conducting evaluationsin agencies and communities◦  Consideration of cultural context and factors canprovide a more responsive and accurate evaluation
  • 39. Rodney K. Hopson, Professor &Past-President, American Evaluation AssociationDepartment of Educational Foundations & LeadershipSchool of EducationDuquesne University (Pittsburgh, PA USA)hopson@duq.eduInternational Exhibition and Forum for Education Riyadh,Saudi Arabia18 – 22 February, 2013