تقويم البرامج التعليمية متطلبات تكوينية وإجمالية ومتطلبات المساءلة للتقويم بغرض الدعم وليس بغرض إضعاف التعلم
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تقويم البرامج التعليمية متطلبات تكوينية وإجمالية ومتطلبات المساءلة للتقويم بغرض الدعم وليس بغرض إضعاف التعلم

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برونوين كويه

برونوين كويه
مديرة معهد بحوث التربية ويلف مالكولم, جامعة وايكاتو نيوزيلندا

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تقويم البرامج التعليمية متطلبات تكوينية وإجمالية ومتطلبات المساءلة للتقويم بغرض الدعم وليس بغرض إضعاف التعلم تقويم البرامج التعليمية متطلبات تكوينية وإجمالية ومتطلبات المساءلة للتقويم بغرض الدعم وليس بغرض إضعاف التعلم Presentation Transcript

  • Formative, Summative andAccountability Demands forAssessment to Support and notUndermine LearningBronwen Cowie WMIERThe University of Waikato, New Zealand
  • Outline1.  A systems orientation2.  The New Zealand context3.  Examples of practice
  • 1. A systems orientationMultiple assessment purposes• Formative assessment is used to inform action toenhance teaching and learning, during the learning• Summative assessment sums up student learning ata point in time•  Accountability/ accreditation assessment accountsfor and or reports on student or system learning toothers• Each of these assessment purposes has a role to playin a productive assessment system• All assessments must support learning in some way
  • 1. A systems orientation• The stakeholders and participants in assessmentinclude:• Students, teachers, families, schools and their widercommunities. Ministry/ Department of Education personnelat the regional, state and national levels, policy makers andpoliticians• These stakeholders have different informational needs(focus, format, time) that need to be met
  • 1. A systems orientation• Curriculum, pedagogy and assessment interact toshape and frame students’ educational experiencesand teacher practice• What really counts in education is what happens whenteachers and students meet. The wisdom of anydecision about education is best judged on the basis ofwhether or not it raises the quality of theseinteractions. (Atkin and Black, 2003, p. ix)• Teachers experience multiple accountabilities withinand through assessment
  • 2. The New Zealand context
  • 2. The New Zealand context
  • 2. The New Zealand context• A national curriculum• Current curriculum goals pose a challenge toconventional assessment practices•  The development of student capacity for lifelong learning•  The development of student capacity to use, generate andcritique and not just recall knowledge•  Expectations that all students can and will learn• Schools and teachers devise local curriculum,assessment and reporting to build on student andcommunity needs and interests
  • 2. The New Zealand context• No national testing at primary•  Light sample system monitoring of students at Year 4 and 8 from1995•  Recent introduction of National Standards for literacy andmathematics• Policy and professional development support forformative assessment• Students at the heart of assessment policy
  • 3. Examples of practice from primary scienceclassrooms1.  Teacher accountability to the curriculum via planningfor instruction and assessment2.  Teachers balancing accountability to students and tothe curriculum3.  Teacher accountability to students for opportunitiesfor self assessment4.  Teachers balancing formative and summativeassessment5.  Teacher assessment/ reporting to families
  • Example 1:Accountability to the curriculum via planning• On the whole primary teachers have a restrictedbackground in science• Detailed planning that targets the breadth and depth ofdesired learning outcomes can support• The development of the pedagogical content knowledgeteachers need to teach and assess• Clarification of student performance expectations (Whatmight learning look like?) and criteria for quality (How do wejudge success criteria?)• Coherence and continuity in student opportunities to learn
  • Example 1: Planning framework part 1Big idea/ task: Learningarea/s:Key competencies:Conceptuallearningoutcomes:Procedurallearningoutcomes:Nature ofScience:Technicalskills:•  Framework helps teachers identify ‘big’ ideas•  Think through component and contributing ideas•  Rehearse tasks and anticipate student responses
  • Example 1: Planning framework part 2TasksMacroidea/ taskMesoideas/tasksMicro tasks ResourcesPlannedinteractionsKeyOutcomes/ evidence1. 1.11.22. 2.12.2•  Teachers link tasks to learning outcomes to performanceexpectations•  Sets up tasks as nested and connected•  Teachers rehearse tasks and anticipate possibilities•  Teachers scope interactions
  • 14Example 1: Teacher thoughts on planningSome things, concepts need to be deliberately taught, orbrought to children’s attention. You need to know what youwant your children to know. Yes, it made me clarify whatexactly were the ideas, so that I was better able to help thechildren. (Lois)It made me think through each stage thoroughly instead ofalways having to think on my toes, which can often meanmissing good opportunities, or not choosing the best way todo something. (Jenny)
  • Example 2: Balancing accountability to studentsand to the curriculumA combination of planned and interactive formativeassessment• Planned formative assessment•  Tasks such as quick quizzes, brainstorms,concept mapping•  Involves the whole class•  Focused on teacher curriculum learning goals• Interactive formative assessment• Takes place through teacher-student interaction• Relies on teacher noticing, recognising and responding tostudent learning as it emerges• Student focused and very demanding for teachers
  • Example 3: Accountability to students for selfassessmentNeed to develop student capacity to assess and progresstheir own learning• Peer assessment• Access to criteria for quality/ success• Access to resources to inform decision making!
  • Example 4: Teachers balancing formative andsummative assessment• Teacher summing up during a teaching sequence• Teacher summing up at the end of teaching sequence• Teachers sharing whole class summative assessmentinformation
  • Example 5: Teacher accountability to familiesand the school communityMoving beyond written reports at the end of a period ofteaching and learning• Engaging families with their child’s learning throughout aunit of work•  Class websites•  Displays of student work• Public presentations as a means of reporting to families
  • Concluding comments• Teachers are responsible for formative, summative andaccountability assessment purposes• These need to cohere in support of student learning inthe short, medium and long term• It is difficult for teachers to change their practice inisolation• Leadership support and resourcing is crucial at all levels ofthe system• There is value in bringing teachers together to plan and todiscuss student work
  • WWW.WAIKATO.AC.NZ/WMIER +64 7 858 5171