ياري لافنيون المعلمون عامل أساسي لنظم التعليم الناجحةالانعكاسات القائمة على تعليم المدرسين الفنلنديين
Teachers - a major factor forsuccessful educational systems:Reflections based on Finnish TeacherEducationJari Lavonen, Department of Teacher Education,University of Helsinki, FinlandArja Virta, Department of Teacher Education,University of Turku, Finland
Republic Finland In northern Europe,area of 340 000 km2(16 of Saudi Arabia)of which 8 % cultivated land 5,3 million people(15 of Saudi Arabia)17 persons per square kilometer(12 in Saudi Arabia) One of the most successful nation in competitiveness ofthe economy and supply of qualified labour force One of the lowest rate in corruption2
Helsinki, February 2011, 12:00Finnish educational context
National core curriculumHelsinki, February 2010, 12:00
8The Finnish education system The Finnish education system consists of comprehensive school (grade 1 – 9), upper secondary school or vocational school(grade 10 – 12), higher education (3 + 2 years) and adult education. According to PISA 2006 School Questionnaire data, therewere in 49.9% of the classes less than 20 students and in47.4% of the classes there were 21 – 25 students. In 2006, there were 3393 comprehensive schools and578 918 students in those schools (Tilastokeskus, 2007). 53.3% of the students continued their studies in uppersecondary school and 41.8% in vocational schools
School subjects in comprehensive school(total number of lessons hours, yearly)13Mother tongueand literature(Finnish/Swedish)42Other domesticlanguage 6(Swedish or Fin)Foreignlanguages16Voulntarylanguage12Mathematics32Sciencesubjects31Civics , religion orethics 11History , socialstudies 10Physicaleducation , music ,visual arts, craft56Optionalsubjects 13
14General Aims in the Core Curriculum … learning depends on the learners previously constructedknowledge, motivation, and…… learning is an active and goal-oriented process… collective problem-solving… Learning is situational,…
7.1.201316Two approaches to assure thequality of learning
17Outcome based –model ‘Input’ modelQuality control as in industry(behavioristic) (Mager, 1984)Enhancement-led approach= assessment for improvementsNational level assessment Assessment at the level of school andclassroom (teacher)Focus on product Focus on process and product(+) Descriptions of learning outcomesat a national level- a learner knows what should belearnt and is active in learningprocess- a basis for designing items(+) Description of aims, goals(national – local level)- co-planning- a teacher conducts assessment forenhancing learning process(-) Possibly neglection of teaching andlearning as a process, competitiveschool culture (ranking)and ”teaching to the test”(-) Problematic to discuss aboutquality of learning outcomes(comparison, selection)
Shift towards internal, teacher-conductedprocedures like alternative and formative formsof assessment (aiming to improving learning) Internal/external perspectives Formative/summative/diagnostic Purposes of doing assessment Using of assessment information for differentpurposes Changes in assessment practiceShift in educational assessment(Maier, 2009; Black & Wiliam, 2003; Parr & Timperley, 2008;Inbar-Lourie & Donitsa-Schmidt, 2009;)18
Teacher-conducted assessment has a centralrole in Finnish classroomsdesigning and implementing assessmentbut also making decisions based onassessment informationAssessment data is used in the classroom forimproving teaching and learninginternal assessment including allassessment forms is carried out mainly byteachers themselves7.1.2013Teacher-conducted assessment(Black & Wiliam, 2003; Inbar-Lourie & Donitsa-Schmidt, 2009)
How is teacher-conductedassessment in Finnishschools?7.1.2 21
22 teachers different backgrounds, fromdifferent schools, different experience witheducational technology7.1.201322A case study on school assessment14 subjectteachers (math,physics, English,biology)4 primaryschoolteachers4 preschoolteachersTeachingexperience2,5-30 years 8-11 years 2-15 yearsGender 7 females7 males4 females 4 females
Five themes emerged from the data1) Assessment as part of professional development2) Technical properties of available resources3) Pedagogical usability of assessment resources4) Different forms of assessment5) Special features of teaching and learning physics(science)7.1.201323Results of empirical needs analysis
Theme 1: Assessment as part ofprofessional development Teachers’ autonomous role as a conductor of assessment:teachers know best how to organize assessment Student assessment provides teachers a starting-point forreflecting on the quality of teaching science…there has to be knowledge of the students whenimplementing national testing, we can’t have outsiderscome in and use the same scales for everybody, we have tounderstand the reasons behind the results.(Teacher 3, 121)24
Theme 2: Technical properties(usability) of available resources teachers value technology which is convenient and easyto use learnability easy to use added value for assessment practice: diverse,quality, context, terminology, difficulty scale Aid for carrying out assessment and documenting as wellas processing the assessment dataThe system should be user-friendly, where teachers caneasily find the content that they are currently teaching.(Teacher 4, 152) 25
Theme 3: Pedagogical usability ofavailable resources Possibility to adapt resources to one’s needs flexibly:the forms and purpose of assessment activities vary resources should be in accordance with implementedinstruction types of items contexts of the items aligning approaches used in teachingpartly I make them [tests] myself, partly I choose fromready materials, from these teachers’ materials I seeif there are suitable tasks...It’s a pretty big job tomake each one by myself and sometimes I look atsome other material... (Teacher 5, 30)26
Theme 4: Different forms ofassessment Assessment is an element of everyday classroom activities:different forms are combined flexibly and there is no need toclassify the forms of assessment teachers conduct assessment continuous part of teaching consists of multiple elements and a variety ofapproaches (e.g. not just tests) feedback to both students and a teacher self-assessment (!)how s/he works in science class and you can see it from theirclassroom activities, for example, if they have understoodsomething and…so I would argue that it is quite innate that ateacher assesses all the time…(Teacher 7, 168)27
Theme 5: Special features of teaching andlearning science A special attention paid on inquiry as an approach as wellas experiments in science education paper-and-pencil tests do not cover all aspects oflearning science Potential in using technology (e.g., simulations).. I document quite in detail how well students have managedto reach the aims... The paper-and-pencil tests are astarting-point and then I check the notebooks, how wellstudents have taken part in classroom discussion and howwell they carry out and understand experiments... (Teacher1, 167)28
30Characteristics of Finnish EducationLaukkanen (2008), Niemi et al. (2012), Sahlberg (2011)1. Common, consistent and long-term policy- models for teacher & comprehensive education are 40 years old2. Educational equality- need to mitigate socio/economic backgrounds- education is free (books, meals, health care, …)- well-organised special education (inclusion) and counselling(personalisation of education)3. Devolution of decision power to the local level- leadership and management at school level (headmaster)- teachers are responsible for local curriculum and assessment4. The culture of trust and co-operation are based onprofessionalism (academic experts):national level – district – school – families- no inspectors, no national exams (testing) …- no private tutoring or evening schools
Partners:- union ofmunicipalities- universities- industryInterestgroups- labourunions- families- ...31Levels and interactions in FinnishEducationLearning materials(publishing houses)LearningGeneral National Objectives and Education policy Ministryof Culture and Education: law for basic education 1998National Core Curriculum National Board of EducationTeacher education(pre -service andin-service) Univ.TeachingLevel 1nationalLevel 2districtschool/universityLevel 3classroomLeadership & managementMunicipalities: Local curriculumSchools: principals & teachers
Special education in Finland is preventingdrop outs 8.5 % of all students are with special education needs. Special education need students: 55 % are integrated into normal classes : 30 % are attending special education classes, locatedin mainstream schools 15 % in special schools An Individual Education Plan371st level2nd level3rd levelequality
Teacher 1 Teacher 232 pupils at 3rdgrade scienceclass4 special needpupils areintegrated to theclassroom
An introduction of atopic through awhiteboard activity.
The use of the learning environments andthe materials (web-based environments,handbooks, textbooks, workbooks, …)support learning and engagement
Lets have a lookwhere we arenow. It is time fordiscussion.
- Learning in a smallCollaborative group- Pupils have differentCompetencies and“background” and supporteach others learning
A teacher is supportingand encouraging aspecial need student.
I like this type oflearning. It is reallynice to worktogether.
It was like aLOTTO win to getmy second child tothis type ofheterogeneousclassroom. We arereally satisfied.
... It is notnecessary, a pupilis ready for aschool. Instead aschool should beready for a pupil!
High-achieving pupils workas role models for lo-achieving pupils(support to thedevelopment of selfefficacy; important inworking life)High-achieving pupils learnskills needed in furtherstudies and in the workinglife, entrepreneurship
Finnish TeachersHelsinki university main building
49What is common in teachereducation in high performingPISA countries?McKinsey&CompanyAuguste, B., Kihn, P., & Miller, M. (2010) Closing the talent gap: Attracting and retaining top third graduates to acareer in teaching: An International and market research-based perspective. McKinsley & Company
50McKinsey&CompanyAuguste, B., Kihn, P., & Miller, M. (2010) Closing the talent gap: Attracting and retaining top third graduates to acareer in teaching: An International and market research-based perspective. McKinsley & Company
“… most important part of any successfuleducational system — the teacher”SCIENCE, 13th January 2012, Vol 335Recruit the best and the brightest to be teachers, and trainthem well.Give them the independence from centralized authority, andtime to prepare lessons and ....... Finland acknowledges the central role of teachers insociety, as demonstrated by the respect51EditorJohn E. Burris
52Teacher Education Development Programme(2002): The teacher education programmesshould help students to acquire: high-level subject knowledge and pedagogical contentknowledge, and knowledge about nature of knowledge, … academic skills, like research skills; skills needed indeveloping a curricula, … social skills, like communication skills; skill to co-operate withother teachers, … knowledge about school as an institute and its connections tothe society (school community and partners, local contextsand stakeholders), moral knowledge and skills, like social and moral code of theteaching profession, skills needed in developing one’s own teaching and theteaching profession.
EU Commission, 2007:Improving quality of teacher education A teacher needs high quality profesionality: University level education (Masters level & thesis) Pedagogical training A profession where Life-long-learning capacity is needed During the teacher education programme a studentteacher should learn skills needed in developing one’sown teaching and the teaching profession The profession is based on partnership: Collaboration in and between schools (multiprofessionalteams) School partnership with pre- and in-service teachereducation School society partnership53
54A secondary (subject) teacher typically teaches at grades 7 to 12 (ages 13 to 19) teaches typically one major and one minor subjects (e.g.math and physics)An elementary (primary) school teacher(a class teacher) teaches at grades 1 to 6 (ages 7 to 13) teaches typically all 13 subjects
55Teacher education at the University of HelsinkiUniversity of Helsinki (11 faculties, 38 000 students, 7 400 staff members)Faculty ofBehaviouralSciencesFacultyofArtsFacultyofScienceFacultyofBiosciencesFacultyofTheologyFacultyofSocialSciencesDept. ofTeacherEducationTeacherTrainingSchoolsSecondary teacher education: pedagogical studies + subject studiesPrimary teacher education
56Structure of the Master’s degreeof a secondary teacher: 3 + 2 years, 300 cr020406080100120140160180MajorSubjectMinorSubjectPedagogicalstudiesCommunicationand languagestudiesBachelor’s level (180 cr) Master’s level (120 cr)Master-thesiscr=26hoursofworkStudycreditsPed. thesisTeachersbenefit of theresearch orientationwhile they makethe school curriculum,plan, implementand evaluateteaching andlearningTeachersneed strongcompetency inthe subject (experts’knowledge) whenthey guidestudents’ learningand problem-solvingBSc thesisTeachingpracticeSubjectknowledge,knowledge aboutteaching and learning,and school practiseare integrated intothe students’own personalpedagogicaltheory
57The structure of the pedagogical studies insecondary teacher education programme inFinlandIn Finland huge amount of PCK is taught also at the departments of Physics, Chemistry,…Pedagogical studiesin Finland(60 cp.)General courses oneducation, teaching andlearning13 cpSubject pedagog y (PCK)17 cpEducational research10 cpTeaching practice20 cp- Psychology ofdevelopment andlearning 4 cp- Special needseducation4 cp- Social, historical, andphilosophical basis ofeducation5 cp- Psychological basis ofteaching and learningof a subject5 cp- Curriculumdevelopment andplanning of teaching5 cp- Evaluation of teachingand learning,evaluation of acurriculum 7cp- Researchmethodology ineducation3 cp- Teacher as aresearcher-seminar3 cp- Minor thesis inpedagogy4 cp- Supervisedbasicteaching practice 7 cp- Supervised appliedteaching practice5 cp- Supervised advancedteaching practice 8 cp- Reflection supported byportfolio assessmentwork
Psychology of development and learning, 4 cp58Objectives: A student becomes familiar with development of anindividual and group and identifies the specialcharacteristics of the different groups. The student develops readiness to understand differentviews on the growth, development and learning of thehuman being and from the significance of the interactionbetween an individual and a group and takes thepsychologic principles of the learning into consideration inthe teaching.
The pedagogical studies helps the students … to integrate subject knowledge, knowledge aboutteaching and learning and school practice into their ownpersonal pedagogical theory, to become aware of the different dimensions of theteacher profession: social, philosophical, psychological,sociological, and historical basis of education, to be able to reflect on their own personal pedagogical“theory” (reflection for, in and on action), to develop potentials for lifelong professionaldevelopment.60
Quality Assurance of FinnishTeacher education programmesDepartment of Teacher Education
A new era in Quality Assurance (QA) for highereducation Wolff (2004): The focus in QA is turning more and more to mastering changes, allowing ownership for developers Ehlers (2009) writes:… “In teacher education we need methods and practicesthat get deeper into organizations and closer to the teachereducators and learners.”63
Levels of Quality Assurance in Finland Quality Assurance (QA) has three main levels: National audits and other national level external evaluations(based on self-assessment at an instituitional level) Institutional, university level QA (committees and studentfeedback systems, feedback from local stakeholders) Department and programme level QA processes (students’evaluations and staff members’ self evaluations,feedback from local stakeholders). The interaction between levels through official (meetings ofdeans) and unofficial meetings (meetings inside theuniversity)64
Quality Culture: allows freedom for different actors is based on a certain level of trust is based on self-assessment and monitoring partners/levels take their responsibility seriously continuous interaction between different partners/levels students’ evaluations and staff members’ selfevaluations is discussed collaboratively65
66FeedbackStudents learningoutcomes andevaluationsof the programmeMunicipalityfeedbackOutcomes,Collectionof students’evaluationsEU andNationalstrategiesCurriculumResearch on- subject matter- teaching andlearning- needs of learners- policy, history, ...→ ContentResearch on teachereducation- Structure of teacherknowledge- Forms of knowledge:professional … practicalUniversity pedagogyOwn researchon teachereducationFramework for designing a teacher educationprogramme at the University of HelsinkiSubject teacher education programmeCo-operative planning of the programme: Teachers from thesubject departments, Department of teacher education,school teachers , principals and student teachers
69Student admission for teacher educationprogrammes 1 All Finnish universities are maintained by the State andenjoy extensive autonomy. They are free to develop theirown procedures for selection of student teachers. The number of new students is agreed in the negotiationsbetween the university and the Ministry of Culture andEducation.
1st phase Subject-related test/tests with one or several books/pdf-materials to read- primary school teacher education: test oneducational sciences- secondary school teacher education: test on thesubject High school diploma 2nd phase Interview (next slide) Group discussion (Primary teacher education) Special activity in some programmes, like educationalepisode in Kindergarten teacher educationTwo phases in admission to the teachereducation programmes in Finland
Interview as a part of the student admission Two to three interviewers (one teacher from the teachertraining school) The questions are asked in order to clarify: How motivated the applicant is for the teacherprofession (e.g. are there any other choices) How eager the applicant is for studies (e.g. how wellknow the content of the programme) How suitable the applicant is for a teacher profession(e.g. interaction skills, experiences of working withkids or young people)72
Interview as a part of the student admission Three interviewers (one teacher from the teacher trainingschool) The questions are asked in order to clarify: How motivated the applicant is for the teacherprofession (e.g. are there any other choices) How eager the applicant is for studies (e.g. how wellknow the content of the programme) How suitable the applicant is for a teacher profession(e.g. interaction skills, experiences of working withkids or young people)73
75Content Analysis of the Finnish (andKorean) Teacher Education Programms
76University of Helsinki(Finland), courses(credit points)Seoul National University(Korea), courses(credit points)Generalcourses oneducation,teaching andlearning(GPK)Psychology of developmentand learning, 4cp.Special needs education, 4cp.Societal, historical, andphilosophical foundations ofeducation, 5cp.Compulsory (4 cp.):Understanding on specialeducation and special neededstudents, 2cp.Understanding on works ofteaching profession, 2cp.Optional: (14cp.)An introduction to education,2cp.Educational psychology, 2cp.Philosophy and history ofeducation, 2cp.Educational sociology, 2cp.Curriculum, 2cp.Educational evaluation, 2cp.Educational administration andeducational management,2cp.Educational methodology andeducational technology, 2cp.Guidance and counseling, 2cp.Pedagogy of Introduction to chemistry Chemistry education, 3cp.
77Question for the content analysis of the aimsof the pedagogical studies What kind of support the pedagogical studies offers to theconstruction of teacher knowledge from the point ofview of- structure of the knowledge- origin of the knowledge
78A structural perspective to teacher knowledge A knowledge base for a professional teacher:- Subject matter knowledge,- Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)- General Pedagogical Knowledge (GPK)(Shulman, 1987; Carlsen, 1999; Hashweh, 2005)+ Knowledge about how to produce and/or consumeresearch based knowledge in education (RES)Origin of teacher knowledge Teacher knowledge could be divided into: practitioner (practical) and professional (theoretical) knowledge(Hiebert et al., 2002)
Origin of teacher knowledge Pre-service teachers can learn professional knowledge from textbooks, articles,research reports, etc., while practitioner knowledge through supervised teachingexperience and reflection (Darling-Hammond andBransford, 2005; Levin, 2008).79
80Academic General pedagogical knowledge (GPK)↔ Teachers personal pedagogical knowledge Research based General pedagogical knowledge (GPK)consists of1) classroom management and organisation,2) instructional models and strategies,3) classroom communication and discourse. Teachers personal pedagogicalknowledge is divided into1) personal beliefs,2) personal practical experiencee.g.Gore & Gitlin, 2004Morine-Dershimer &Kent, 1999
81Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) PCK is a knowledge domain that is synthesis of all knowledgeneeded for teaching and learning a specific content PCK is- content specific,- event- and story-basedpedagogical constructionan experienced teacher has developedas a result of repeated- planning and teaching and- reflection on the teachingof the most regularly taught topics.e.g.Grossman, 1990;Bromme, 1995Hashweh, 2005McCaughtry, 2005Nilsson, 2008
Main categories Definition Examples of original expressionscommoninFinlandandSouthKorea(7)1. Planningofteaching,teachingandassessingStudent teacherslearn to plan alocal curriculumand lessons,teach, guidestudents atschool to learnknowledge, skillsand attitudesand, moreover,learn to useversatile teachingand assessmentmethods. Inthese processeshe/she is able totake intoconsideration thenationalcurriculum andresearch basedknowledge aboutlearning anddevelopment.Fin Student teachers- develop readiness to understand differentviews on the learning (Psy)- become familiar with the development of agroup (Psy)- learn interaction skills (Psy)- learn to design chemistry teaching by takinginto consideration the research on teachingand learning (Cur)- learn to evaluate student learning (Eval)Kor Student teachers- learn to apply basics of educationalpsychology on instruction.(Psy)- can select the appropriate textbooks,contents, and methods.(Book)- learn to understand the fundamentals onthe theory and the practice of Chemistryeducation curriculum. (Cur)- learn the application techniques ofquidance and counseling per category.(Guid)- learn the methods how educationalevaluation can be applied at school sites.(Eval)2. The roleofeducationin thesocietyStudent teacherslearn educationalknowledge andperspectives, likeschool as aninstitute having acurriculum andbeing a part of asociety.Fin Student teachers learn- to analyze the historical and society baseof the school system (Phil).- to cooperate with the interest groups of theschool and homes (Eval)- participate in the development of localcurriculum (Eval)- to analyze critically co-operation withnetwork around school (Ad_prac)Kor Student teachers learn- to understand about characteristics androles of various detailed fields ofeducational knowledge. (Intro)- to understand an education in relation to asociety.( Socio)- the conceptual understanding on threetypes of educational perspectives.(Intro)3.ProducingeducationalresearchStudent teacherslearn to do smallscale educationalresearch.Fin Student teachers- learn in seminars how to use researchmethodology for educational reseach(Sem)- make a minor thesis in education (Sem)Kor Student teachers learn to write their thesesbased on sources acquired by experimentsand literature studies under the guidance ofacademic advisors.(Chem_res)4.ConsumingofeducationalresearchStudent teacherslearn to applyresearch basedknowledge to theplanning ofteaching.Fin Student teachers learn to apply researchbased knowledge in school teaching (Sem.)Kor Student teachers learn to select the researchthesis related to Chemistryeducation.(Chem_res)5. Use ofICT inlearningStudent teacherslearn to use ICTin teaching andlearning.Fin Student teachers develop a readiness toutilise information and communicationtechnology in the teaching of chemistry(B_prac)Kor Student teachers learn to apply methods,techniques and theories of educationaltechnology in schools.(Tech)6.ReflectionStudent teacherslearn to reflect.Reflection refersto an activity inwhich anexperience isrecalled,considered, andevaluated.Fin Student teachers learn to analysedevelopment of his/her own teacherprofession (Cur)Kor Student teachers learn to reflect thestrengths and limits of each theory by theirown perspectives about educationalphenomena.(Socio)7. SchoolpracticeStudent teachersexperienceteaching andlearn aboutFin Student teachers learn to work in an expertnetwork of the school and take intoconsideration responsibilities and co-operation (Ad_prac)Finland(2)8. Differentneeds ofstudentsStudent teacherslearn to take intoaccount differentneeds of studentsand learn toidentify students’learningdifficultiesStudent teachers learn to- identify different kinds of learners (B_prac)- identify pupils learning difficulties (Spe)9.Designinginstructionbased onthenature ofthesubject(chemistry)Student teacherslearn to designchemistryteaching and takeinto account thenature of scienceStudent teachers learn to design subject(chemistry) teaching by taking into considerationthe epistemological and ontological assumptionsof the subject (Eval)Korea(2)10.Learning ofeducationalrealityStudent teacherslearn abouteducationalpractices, realityand context ofschool orclassroom andthey learn how toStudent teachers learn to understand aboutcharacteristics of education and educationalpractices from an educational point of view(Intro.)
Number of different aims in the curriculum ofthe pedagogical studies0 5 10 15 20 25Planning, teaching and assessingDifferent needs of studentsThe role of education in the societyUse of ICT in learningDesigning instruction based onthe nature of subjectLearning of educational realityLearning of teachers attitudeSchool practiceConsuming educational researchProducing educational researchReflectionKoreaFinlandNumber of aimsResearchorientationPracticePedagogy
From the point of view of the origins of teacherknowledge:840 10 20 30 40 50FinlandKoreaPractitionerknowledgeTheoreticalknowledge
In general: What can be learned from Finnisheducation?86More ... Less ...collaboration andprofessionalism– competitionequal opportunities for alllearners– private organizationstaking care of educationpersonalization, decisionmaking and assessmentat local levelless standardization andnational testingtrust based responsibility(self-evaluations, listening ofstudents and municipalitypeople/ parents voice)– test based accountabilityprofessionalism – bureaucracy