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Preparation of General Education Teachers for
Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
in Regular Schools in KS...
Inclusion Definition
 The education of children with disabilities in the same general

education classrooms with their ty...
Inclusion: Pros & Cons
Theoretical Pros
 Importance of contact with typical

peers for the development of social &
commun...
How Teachers perceive inclusion?
 The more severe the disability is, the more negative the

teacher’s perception of inclu...
DSM-IV-TR: ‫االضطرابات النمائية‬
PDDs ‫ األنواع الثالث‬
Autism disorder ‫1( اضطراب التوحد‬
(Asperger syndrome) ‫2( اضطراب...
‫اضطراب طيف التوحد‬
‫)‪Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD‬‬
‫‪ ‬تم الغاء جميع التصنيفات السابقة‬
‫‪ ‬اعتماد اضطراب طيف التوحد...
Why we want to discuss the inclusion of students
with ASD?
 According to CDC 1:88 has autism
 Current research indicates...
What can be done to make it successful?
 Training Training Training Training Training Training Training

Training Trainin...
Current research?
 Byrne, L. (2012), examined:

 Regular education teachers’ perceptions of inclusion relative to

their...
Result

Byrne, L. (2012)
Cont.
Barriers:
 47%: Students with ASD have problem behaviors that cause
classroom’s disruptions
 11%: additional plann...
Cont.
Benefits:
 40%: inclusion teaches tolerance
 19%: inclusion brings unique perspective
 17%: inclusion allows for ...
Current research?
 Hayes et al. (2013), examined:

 General education teachers’ perceptions to teach students with

ASD
...
Hayes et al, 2013
 204 GEN teachers from K-12

 0- 17 years of experience
 Inclusion survey
 Methods survey

 Knowled...
Hayes et al., 2013
Result:
 Teachers with prior training had positive attitude for inclusion of
students with ASD
 Teach...
Case study
Wilkinson, L. (2005)
 Demonstrated the utility of CBC model for supporting the

inclusion of a student with AS...
Result

Wilkinson, L. (2005)
Replication of Wilkinson, L. (2005)
in 3 schools in KSA
 Home-school services

 3 students ( age: 5-9)
 Parents meeting...
Make them feel Confident!
 We want teachers to have more than the knowledge about







methods
Train teachers to u...
CONT,
 Include extensive training in inclusive education in teacher





education program
Create a dual program degr...
Evidence-based Strategies
 It is based on empirical research literature

 Its effectiveness
 Positive or negative side ...
Examples of EB strategies in inclusive
settings
 Self management ( desires: structure, rules, order)

 Peer-mediated str...
What can be gained in a larger setting?
 Develop friendship

 Peer role models for academic and behavior skills
 Increa...
Finally
 The attitudes of the teacher and paraprofessional can determine

the success — or failure — of the student with ...
Conclusion
 Inclusion of students with ASD is not easy
 Teachers face many challenges
 Problems can not be solved overn...
References


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network....
Questions?
malhaddad@dah.edu.sa

www.dah.edu.sa
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Dr. Mona Al Haddad - Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA - IEFE Forum 2014

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Mona Al Haddad,
M.Ed., BCBA® Lecturer and Clinical Practicum supervisor & Co-ordinator, Special Education Program,
Dar Al-Hekma University, Jeddah, KSA


Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA

IEFE Forum 2014

Published in: Education
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Transcript of " Dr. Mona Al Haddad - Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA - IEFE Forum 2014"

  1. 1. Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA IEFE SEN Forum Mona Al Haddad, M.Ed., BCBA® Lecturer and Clinical Practicum supervisor & Co-ordinator, Special Education Program, Dar Al-Hekma University, Jeddah, KSA malhaddad@dah.edu.sa
  2. 2. Inclusion Definition  The education of children with disabilities in the same general education classrooms with their typically developing peers.  To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled…  (IDEA 2004 612 (a) (5))
  3. 3. Inclusion: Pros & Cons Theoretical Pros  Importance of contact with typical peers for the development of social & communicative skills  Opportunity to observe/imitate the Real‐life Challenges  Inclusion ALONE is not enough  Training of teachers and peers is needed behavior of typically developing peers  Few teachers/staff members  Opportunity to address generalization of skills
  4. 4. How Teachers perceive inclusion?  The more severe the disability is, the more negative the teacher’s perception of inclusion (smith, 2000)  Teachers with more special education coursework and with in-service training on inclusion had more positive attitudes towards inclusion than teachers without such training ( Stoler, 1992)
  5. 5. DSM-IV-TR: ‫االضطرابات النمائية‬ PDDs ‫ األنواع الثالث‬ Autism disorder ‫1( اضطراب التوحد‬ (Asperger syndrome) ‫2( اضطراب اسبرجر‬ ‫3( االضطرابات النمائية الغير محددة‬ (PDD- Pervasive Developmental Disorder- Not Otherwise Specified NOS) :‫ايضا‬ ‫متالزمة ريت‬ Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) ‫اضطراب الطفولة‬
  6. 6. ‫اضطراب طيف التوحد‬ ‫)‪Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD‬‬ ‫‪ ‬تم الغاء جميع التصنيفات السابقة‬ ‫‪ ‬اعتماد اضطراب طيف التوحد‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫تم تصنيف االضطراب على مستويات مختلفة 3 ‪LEVEL1, LEVEL2, LEVEL‬‬ ‫‪ ‬تحديد المستوى حسب شدة العوارض و مستوى الخدمات ‪Supports & Services needed‬‬
  7. 7. Why we want to discuss the inclusion of students with ASD?  According to CDC 1:88 has autism  Current research indicates the majority of students with ASD spending large portion of their school day in general education settings  Teachers need to know what to do  Professionals need to prepare those teachers
  8. 8. What can be done to make it successful?  Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training
  9. 9. Current research?  Byrne, L. (2012), examined:  Regular education teachers’ perceptions of inclusion relative to their training on ASD  Used TATI scale  Barriers and benefits of inclusion
  10. 10. Result Byrne, L. (2012)
  11. 11. Cont. Barriers:  47%: Students with ASD have problem behaviors that cause classroom’s disruptions  11%: additional planning time  10%: lack of support staff
  12. 12. Cont. Benefits:  40%: inclusion teaches tolerance  19%: inclusion brings unique perspective  17%: inclusion allows for peers interaction with ASD students
  13. 13. Current research?  Hayes et al. (2013), examined:  General education teachers’ perceptions to teach students with ASD  Their knowledge of instructions in inclusive settings
  14. 14. Hayes et al, 2013  204 GEN teachers from K-12  0- 17 years of experience  Inclusion survey  Methods survey  Knowledge of autism (AS) survey
  15. 15. Hayes et al., 2013 Result:  Teachers with prior training had positive attitude for inclusion of students with ASD  Teachers with theoretical training are less confident
  16. 16. Case study Wilkinson, L. (2005)  Demonstrated the utility of CBC model for supporting the inclusion of a student with AS  The effectiveness of evidence-based intervention (self- management)  The positive outcome of behavioral interventions for students with ASD in mainstream settings
  17. 17. Result Wilkinson, L. (2005)
  18. 18. Replication of Wilkinson, L. (2005) in 3 schools in KSA  Home-school services  3 students ( age: 5-9)  Parents meeting first  Team meeting ( parents, teachers, school psychologist, behavioral      consultant, more) Identification of goals ( strengths, problems) Teachers training followed by application Treatment monitoring Weekly, monthly brief report Existing survey ( teachers’ evaluation of training & use of strategies in classrooms)
  19. 19. Make them feel Confident!  We want teachers to have more than the knowledge about      methods Train teachers to understand how to do them in classroom Training focuses on application Use teaching techniques (modeling, role-play) Include students with ASD in the training Use of UDL
  20. 20. CONT,  Include extensive training in inclusive education in teacher     education program Create a dual program degree Create continuing education courses about inclusive education to keep teaching licensure Provide online courses Give raise
  21. 21. Evidence-based Strategies  It is based on empirical research literature  Its effectiveness  Positive or negative side effects  For whom it works or not work  Generalizability and practicality in real-world  Clinical consensus  Socially acceptable (values & preferences for families)
  22. 22. Examples of EB strategies in inclusive settings  Self management ( desires: structure, rules, order)  Peer-mediated strategies  Activity schedule • Social Stories™  Visual aids  Graphic organizer  Special interests  Snapshot  Positive reinforcement  ABC contingency
  23. 23. What can be gained in a larger setting?  Develop friendship  Peer role models for academic and behavior skills  Increase access to general curriculum  Higher expectations of performance For students without disabilities:  Learn to build meaningful friendships  Increase appreciation for individuals with different needs  Become prepared to live in diverse community  Appear to have high levels of self-esteem as compared to others
  24. 24. Finally  The attitudes of the teacher and paraprofessional can determine the success — or failure — of the student with ASD in the general education classroom.  Parent- School Collaboration is important
  25. 25. Conclusion  Inclusion of students with ASD is not easy  Teachers face many challenges  Problems can not be solved overnight  Assisting educators to meet challenges  Offering strategies to prevent negative attitude  TRAIN, TRAIN, TRAIN new generation of teachers to be ready for diverse classrooms
  26. 26. References  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/documents/ADDM-2012-Community-REport.pdf  Byrne, L. (2012). Autism spectrum disorder: Regular education teacher’s perception of inclusion. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2012. www.PosterPresentations.com  Hayes, J. A., Baylot Casey, L., Williamson, R., Black, T., & Winsor, D. (2013). Educators’ readiness to teach children with autism spectrum disorder in an inclusive classroom. The Researcher, 25(1), 67-78.  Wilkinson, L. (2005). Supporting the inclusion of a student with Asperger syndrome: A case study using conjoint behavioral consultation and Selfmanagement. Educational Psychology in Practice, Vol. 21, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 307–326.  Hart, J. E. & Whalon, K. J. (2008). 20 ways to: Promote academic engagement and communication of students with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive settings. Intervention in Schools and Clinics, Vol. 44, No.2, November 2008, pp. 116-120.  C o o p e r, J . , H e r o n , T. & H e w a r d , W . ( 2 0 0 7 ) . A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s . 2 n d E d . N J : P e a r s o n  G u l i c k , R . & K i t c h e n , T. ( 2 0 0 7 ) . E f f e c t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n w i t h A u t i s m : A n A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y t i c A p p r o a c h . PA : T h e D r. G e r t r u d e A . B a r b e r N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e .  W e b b e r, J . & S c h e u e r m a n n , B . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . E d u c a t i n g S t u d e n t s w i t h A u t i s m : A q u i c k s t a r t M a n u a l . A u s t i n : P r o . e d
  27. 27. Questions? malhaddad@dah.edu.sa www.dah.edu.sa
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