Dr. Mona Al Haddad - Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA - IEFE Forum 2014
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Dr. Mona Al Haddad - Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA - IEFE Forum 2014

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Mona Al Haddad,
M.Ed., BCBA® Lecturer and Clinical Practicum supervisor & Co-ordinator, Special Education Program,
Dar Al-Hekma University, Jeddah, KSA


Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA

IEFE Forum 2014

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 Dr. Mona Al Haddad - Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA - IEFE Forum 2014 Dr. Mona Al Haddad - Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA - IEFE Forum 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • Preparation of General Education Teachers for Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Schools in KSA IEFE SEN Forum Mona Al Haddad, M.Ed., BCBA® Lecturer and Clinical Practicum supervisor & Co-ordinator, Special Education Program, Dar Al-Hekma University, Jeddah, KSA malhaddad@dah.edu.sa
  • Inclusion Definition  The education of children with disabilities in the same general education classrooms with their typically developing peers.  To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled…  (IDEA 2004 612 (a) (5))
  • Inclusion: Pros & Cons Theoretical Pros  Importance of contact with typical peers for the development of social & communicative skills  Opportunity to observe/imitate the Real‐life Challenges  Inclusion ALONE is not enough  Training of teachers and peers is needed behavior of typically developing peers  Few teachers/staff members  Opportunity to address generalization of skills View slide
  • How Teachers perceive inclusion?  The more severe the disability is, the more negative the teacher’s perception of inclusion (smith, 2000)  Teachers with more special education coursework and with in-service training on inclusion had more positive attitudes towards inclusion than teachers without such training ( Stoler, 1992) View slide
  • DSM-IV-TR: ‫االضطرابات النمائية‬ PDDs ‫ األنواع الثالث‬ Autism disorder ‫1( اضطراب التوحد‬ (Asperger syndrome) ‫2( اضطراب اسبرجر‬ ‫3( االضطرابات النمائية الغير محددة‬ (PDD- Pervasive Developmental Disorder- Not Otherwise Specified NOS) :‫ايضا‬ ‫متالزمة ريت‬ Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) ‫اضطراب الطفولة‬
  • ‫اضطراب طيف التوحد‬ ‫)‪Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD‬‬ ‫‪ ‬تم الغاء جميع التصنيفات السابقة‬ ‫‪ ‬اعتماد اضطراب طيف التوحد‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫تم تصنيف االضطراب على مستويات مختلفة 3 ‪LEVEL1, LEVEL2, LEVEL‬‬ ‫‪ ‬تحديد المستوى حسب شدة العوارض و مستوى الخدمات ‪Supports & Services needed‬‬
  • Why we want to discuss the inclusion of students with ASD?  According to CDC 1:88 has autism  Current research indicates the majority of students with ASD spending large portion of their school day in general education settings  Teachers need to know what to do  Professionals need to prepare those teachers
  • What can be done to make it successful?  Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training Training
  • Current research?  Byrne, L. (2012), examined:  Regular education teachers’ perceptions of inclusion relative to their training on ASD  Used TATI scale  Barriers and benefits of inclusion
  • Result Byrne, L. (2012)
  • Cont. Barriers:  47%: Students with ASD have problem behaviors that cause classroom’s disruptions  11%: additional planning time  10%: lack of support staff
  • Cont. Benefits:  40%: inclusion teaches tolerance  19%: inclusion brings unique perspective  17%: inclusion allows for peers interaction with ASD students
  • Current research?  Hayes et al. (2013), examined:  General education teachers’ perceptions to teach students with ASD  Their knowledge of instructions in inclusive settings
  • Hayes et al, 2013  204 GEN teachers from K-12  0- 17 years of experience  Inclusion survey  Methods survey  Knowledge of autism (AS) survey
  • Hayes et al., 2013 Result:  Teachers with prior training had positive attitude for inclusion of students with ASD  Teachers with theoretical training are less confident
  • Case study Wilkinson, L. (2005)  Demonstrated the utility of CBC model for supporting the inclusion of a student with AS  The effectiveness of evidence-based intervention (self- management)  The positive outcome of behavioral interventions for students with ASD in mainstream settings
  • Result Wilkinson, L. (2005)
  • Replication of Wilkinson, L. (2005) in 3 schools in KSA  Home-school services  3 students ( age: 5-9)  Parents meeting first  Team meeting ( parents, teachers, school psychologist, behavioral      consultant, more) Identification of goals ( strengths, problems) Teachers training followed by application Treatment monitoring Weekly, monthly brief report Existing survey ( teachers’ evaluation of training & use of strategies in classrooms)
  • Make them feel Confident!  We want teachers to have more than the knowledge about      methods Train teachers to understand how to do them in classroom Training focuses on application Use teaching techniques (modeling, role-play) Include students with ASD in the training Use of UDL
  • CONT,  Include extensive training in inclusive education in teacher     education program Create a dual program degree Create continuing education courses about inclusive education to keep teaching licensure Provide online courses Give raise
  • Evidence-based Strategies  It is based on empirical research literature  Its effectiveness  Positive or negative side effects  For whom it works or not work  Generalizability and practicality in real-world  Clinical consensus  Socially acceptable (values & preferences for families)
  • Examples of EB strategies in inclusive settings  Self management ( desires: structure, rules, order)  Peer-mediated strategies  Activity schedule • Social Stories™  Visual aids  Graphic organizer  Special interests  Snapshot  Positive reinforcement  ABC contingency
  • What can be gained in a larger setting?  Develop friendship  Peer role models for academic and behavior skills  Increase access to general curriculum  Higher expectations of performance For students without disabilities:  Learn to build meaningful friendships  Increase appreciation for individuals with different needs  Become prepared to live in diverse community  Appear to have high levels of self-esteem as compared to others
  • Finally  The attitudes of the teacher and paraprofessional can determine the success — or failure — of the student with ASD in the general education classroom.  Parent- School Collaboration is important
  • Conclusion  Inclusion of students with ASD is not easy  Teachers face many challenges  Problems can not be solved overnight  Assisting educators to meet challenges  Offering strategies to prevent negative attitude  TRAIN, TRAIN, TRAIN new generation of teachers to be ready for diverse classrooms
  • References  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/documents/ADDM-2012-Community-REport.pdf  Byrne, L. (2012). Autism spectrum disorder: Regular education teacher’s perception of inclusion. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2012. www.PosterPresentations.com  Hayes, J. A., Baylot Casey, L., Williamson, R., Black, T., & Winsor, D. (2013). Educators’ readiness to teach children with autism spectrum disorder in an inclusive classroom. The Researcher, 25(1), 67-78.  Wilkinson, L. (2005). Supporting the inclusion of a student with Asperger syndrome: A case study using conjoint behavioral consultation and Selfmanagement. Educational Psychology in Practice, Vol. 21, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 307–326.  Hart, J. E. & Whalon, K. J. (2008). 20 ways to: Promote academic engagement and communication of students with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive settings. Intervention in Schools and Clinics, Vol. 44, No.2, November 2008, pp. 116-120.  C o o p e r, J . , H e r o n , T. & H e w a r d , W . ( 2 0 0 7 ) . A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y s i s . 2 n d E d . N J : P e a r s o n  G u l i c k , R . & K i t c h e n , T. ( 2 0 0 7 ) . E f f e c t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n w i t h A u t i s m : A n A p p l i e d B e h a v i o r A n a l y t i c A p p r o a c h . PA : T h e D r. G e r t r u d e A . B a r b e r N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e .  W e b b e r, J . & S c h e u e r m a n n , B . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . E d u c a t i n g S t u d e n t s w i t h A u t i s m : A q u i c k s t a r t M a n u a l . A u s t i n : P r o . e d
  • Questions? malhaddad@dah.edu.sa www.dah.edu.sa