0
Examination of Teacher Attitudes
Towards Education of Students with
Disability in the Mainstream Classroom
International E...
Thank you very much!!
› Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabia
› My colleagues:
- Dr Ilektra Spandagou
- Mrs Cathy Little
› T...
Aims

› Examine the concept of attitudes
› Examine and interrogate attitudes with regards to the
education of students wit...
An Attitude …

› … represents an evaluative integration of cognitions and
affects experienced in relation to an object. At...
Object – my attitude?

5
Object - attitude?

6
Object – Attitude?

7
Model of Attitudes

Cognitive
Component

Attitudes

Affective
Component

Behavioural
Component
(De Boer et al., 2011)
8
What does a teacher think when they hear?
“I have just enrolled in your class, a student with a diagnosis of:
- ADHD

- He...
Model of Attitudes

Cognitive Component

Attitudes

Current context:
We are catering for more students
with these diagnose...
Historical Reminders

› Salamanca Statement
- …. every child has a fundamental right to education … (p. viii)
- … regular ...
Inclusion

› “… the process of educating children with disabilities in
the regular education classrooms of their neighbour...
Convention the Rights of Persons with Disability
Further …

› Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept and
that ...
Key Players in Inclusive Education

› Teachers

› Administrators
› Learning support personnel
› Students
- Students with d...
Attitudes of Youth/Students

› Key features in development of attitudes in youth:

- influence of “exposure”

- “… mere ex...
Model of Youth Attitudes

Perceived
Capability

Family
Member

Friend

Exposure

Behavioural
Intentions:
School

Know in
S...
Attitudes of Youth/Students
› Key features in development of attitudes in youth:
- influence of “exposure”
- perceived cap...
Family and Community

› Key partners in the education of all students; especially
students with disability and special nee...
Learning Support Personnel

› Special education teachers: dramatic shift in their roles

- Active role in working in the c...
School Leaders

› Leadership role is critical to successful educational
outcomes
- Leaders of pedagogy
- Modeling a positi...
Continuum of Assessment and Intervention

Tier 3 [5%] Intensive
Individualised Intervention with Frequent
Progress Monitor...
Attitudes of Teachers: Australia

› Teacher preparation in Australia

- All teachers undertake an initial degree to work i...
Attitudes of Teachers: Australia
› Attitudes of pre-service teachers at the University of
Sydney
- Pre-service teachers at...
Attitudes of Teachers: Regional

› Key findings: Jordan (Muhanna, 2012)

- Teachers surveyed on their attitudes towards ed...
Attitudes of Teachers: Local

› Key findings: Saudi Arabia (Alharthi, 2014)

- Survey of middle school regular and special...
Teacher Attitudes

› Key findings: Saudi Arabia (Alharthi, 2014)

› Qualitative responses:
› "I prefer to work with normal...
Model of Attitudes: Reflection

Cognitive Component:
[e.g., teacher knowledge]

Attitudes

Affective Component:
[e.g., exp...
Changing Attitudes
› Teachers are heavily socialised by their experiences
- Changing teacher attitudes requires a concerte...
Changing Attitudes

› Address teacher training
- Special education teachers need to be knowledgeable of regular
education ...
Final Word

30
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Daved Evans, PhD - Examination of Teacher Attitudes Towards Education of Students with Disability in the Mainstream Classroom - IEFE Forum 2014

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Daved Evans, PhD
Associate Professor of Special Education

Examination of Teacher Attitudes Towards Education of Students with Disability in the Mainstream Classroom

IEFE Forum 2014

Published in: Education
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Transcript of "Daved Evans, PhD - Examination of Teacher Attitudes Towards Education of Students with Disability in the Mainstream Classroom - IEFE Forum 2014"

  1. 1. Examination of Teacher Attitudes Towards Education of Students with Disability in the Mainstream Classroom International Exhibition and Forum for Education Riyadh International Convention and Exhibition Center, Saudi Arabia 3-6 February, 2014 FACULTY OF EDUCATION & SOCIAL WORK David Evans PhD | Associate Professor of Special Education david.evans@sydney.edu.au
  2. 2. Thank you very much!! › Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabia › My colleagues: - Dr Ilektra Spandagou - Mrs Cathy Little › The teachers from whom I learn so much: - Muhmoud Muhanna, Nora Alharthi 2
  3. 3. Aims › Examine the concept of attitudes › Examine and interrogate attitudes with regards to the education of students with disability › Highlight the implications for changing attitudes, and educational outcomes for all students 3
  4. 4. An Attitude … › … represents an evaluative integration of cognitions and affects experienced in relation to an object. Attitudes are the evaluative judgments that integrate and summarize these cognitive/affective reactions. These evaluative abstraction vary in strength, which in turn has implications for persistence, resistance, and attitudebehavior consistency (Crano & Prislin, 2006, p. 347) 4
  5. 5. Object – my attitude? 5
  6. 6. Object - attitude? 6
  7. 7. Object – Attitude? 7
  8. 8. Model of Attitudes Cognitive Component Attitudes Affective Component Behavioural Component (De Boer et al., 2011) 8
  9. 9. What does a teacher think when they hear? “I have just enrolled in your class, a student with a diagnosis of: - ADHD - Hearing impairment - Autism - Behaviour disorder - Intellectual disability - Mental health disorder - Prader-Willi Syndrome - Hypomelanosis of ito - Down syndrome - Dyslexia 9
  10. 10. Model of Attitudes Cognitive Component Attitudes Current context: We are catering for more students with these diagnoses in our regular classrooms – inclusive education. Affective Component Behavioural Component (De Boer et al., 2011) 10
  11. 11. Historical Reminders › Salamanca Statement - …. every child has a fundamental right to education … (p. viii) - … regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes. (p. ix) › Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability - States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education. - States Parties shall ensure that: Persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability … (Article 24) 11
  12. 12. Inclusion › “… the process of educating children with disabilities in the regular education classrooms of their neighbourhood schools – the schools they would attend if they did not have a disability – and providing them with the necessary services and support” [Rafftery, Boettcher & Griffin, 2001, p.266] › “Inclusion starts in our minds and hearts …” [Kasinskaite Buddeberg, 2014] › Inclusive education … an operationalisation of the concept of inclusion … people are signficant factor in this process … but we can be one of a number of barriers that impact the quality of education outcomes for all students 12
  13. 13. Convention the Rights of Persons with Disability Further … › Recognizing that disability is an evolving concept and that disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. › Consider features of our environment: - Building structures - Information and Communication Technologies - Web access - School curriculum and environment 13
  14. 14. Key Players in Inclusive Education › Teachers › Administrators › Learning support personnel › Students - Students with disabilities - Students without disability › Families and community 14
  15. 15. Attitudes of Youth/Students › Key features in development of attitudes in youth: - influence of “exposure” - “… mere exposure research outlines the ways through which attitudes can form due to affect alone, without reliance on cognition regarding an objects attributes.” [Olson & Kendrick, 2008, p. 116-7] 15
  16. 16. Model of Youth Attitudes Perceived Capability Family Member Friend Exposure Behavioural Intentions: School Know in School Gender (Female) Academic Inclusion Impact of Inclusion Nonacademic Inclusion [Siperstein et al., 2007, p.437]
  17. 17. Attitudes of Youth/Students › Key features in development of attitudes in youth: - influence of “exposure” - perceived capacity - non-academic inclusion - academic inclusion - influence of the school setting › Evidence-based practices - Early intervention - Peer support and peer tutoring 17
  18. 18. Family and Community › Key partners in the education of all students; especially students with disability and special needs › Parents and families need to work hard to support the needs of their child with a disability › Have things changed? - “I mean … it was hard going, but it was worth it.” [Mother of a 40 year old women with an moderate intellectual disability; Strnadova & Evans, 2013] - Parents of young children with hearing impairments feel “abandoned”, “isolation” and “disconnected from their child” [mothers of infants with hearing impairments; Landrigan & Evans, in prep] 18
  19. 19. Learning Support Personnel › Special education teachers: dramatic shift in their roles - Active role in working in the classroom - Less of a role taking students out of the classroom › Teaching assistants: their role under scrutiny - Voice of students indicate they do not want them - Cost benefit is being questioned - … yet, teachers are very dependent on them to deliver education programs 19
  20. 20. School Leaders › Leadership role is critical to successful educational outcomes - Leaders of pedagogy - Modeling a positive attitude and setting of high expectations - Establishing school wide processes to cater for student diversity - Building inclusive environments, resourcing, assessment and monitoring of student progress › Evidence-based practice - Three tier model to supporting intervention 20
  21. 21. Continuum of Assessment and Intervention Tier 3 [5%] Intensive Individualised Intervention with Frequent Progress Monitoring Tier 2 [15%] Targeted Small group Intervention with Progress Monitoring Tier 1 [80%] Universal Evidence-based Curriculum and Screening [3 time/year] [Riley-Tillman & Burn, 2009, p.9]
  22. 22. Attitudes of Teachers: Australia › Teacher preparation in Australia - All teachers undertake an initial degree to work in regular education classrooms - All pre-service teachers complete a mandatory unit of study in special and inclusive education › Special education teachers in Australia are required to have a pre-service degree in regular education - This is not the case in all education sectors internationally 22
  23. 23. Attitudes of Teachers: Australia › Attitudes of pre-service teachers at the University of Sydney - Pre-service teachers attitudes can be enhanced through a mandatory unit of study (Spandagou, Little & Evans, 2009) - Little is known about what happens in the first years (e.g., in-school support, ongoing professional learning) › Neutral attitudes of teachers: concerns about resourcing, professional knowledge (Westwood & Graham, 2003) › Short term effects of special education retraining programs - Washout effect in regards to attitudes and practice (SmythKing, 2014) 23
  24. 24. Attitudes of Teachers: Regional › Key findings: Jordan (Muhanna, 2012) - Teachers surveyed on their attitudes towards educating students with autism in regular education primary schools (reg educ: 120; spec educ: 120) - Neutral attitudes across teacher training, experience, and gender 24
  25. 25. Attitudes of Teachers: Local › Key findings: Saudi Arabia (Alharthi, 2014) - Survey of middle school regular and special education teachers attitudes to inclusion to inclusion of stduents with lerning disability in the regular classroom; specific focus on the role of collaboration - Initial results indicate: - special education teachers general atttitudes were positive - regular education teachers genereal attitudes neutral 25
  26. 26. Teacher Attitudes › Key findings: Saudi Arabia (Alharthi, 2014) › Qualitative responses: › "I prefer to work with normal students and special ed. teachers work with those students separately” [regular education teacher] › “… as a special educator it is hard to teach students with LDs in middle schools or support them to access the curriculum because we are not experts in math or Arabic language.” [special education teacher] › “… general ed. teachers have enough work … we do not need more work!” [regular education teacher] › “… courses and workshops about collaboration and effective teaching strategies for students with LDs …” [special education teacher] 26
  27. 27. Model of Attitudes: Reflection Cognitive Component: [e.g., teacher knowledge] Attitudes Affective Component: [e.g., exposure] Behavioural Component: [e.g., engagement] (De Boer et al., 2011) 27
  28. 28. Changing Attitudes › Teachers are heavily socialised by their experiences - Changing teacher attitudes requires a concerted effort by all - Teachers hold high expectations for all students › Building professional knowledge and understanding - Education planning built on educational, social and personalised need; access to the regular school curriculum - Promoting and supporting use of evidence-based practices - Flexible planning, resourcing, pedagogies and assessment (e.g., universal design for learning, use of ICT’s) › Development and modelling of exemplar inclusive educational practices relevant to contexts - Increase exposure to educational exemplars (e.g., highly proficient teachers, use of web-based exemplars, personalised learning) 28
  29. 29. Changing Attitudes › Address teacher training - Special education teachers need to be knowledgeable of regular education curriculum and practices - Regular education teachers need access to knowledge of practices that promote access for all students › Research with schools and teachers highlighting the benefits of inclusive education outcomes for all - Reported in a number of formats relevant to the consumer - Highlight evidence-based practices 29
  30. 30. Final Word 30
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