JAVA 2013 IEEE MOBILECOMPUTING PROJECT Pulse Switching Toward a Packet-Less Protocol Paradigm for Event Sensing


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JAVA 2013 IEEE MOBILECOMPUTING PROJECT Pulse Switching Toward a Packet-Less Protocol Paradigm for Event Sensing

  1. 1. Pulse Switching: Toward a Packet-Less Protocol Paradigm for Event Sensing Abstract This paper presents a novel pulse switching protocol framework for ultra light-weight wireless network applications. The key idea is to abstract a single Ultra Wide Band (UWB) pulse as the information switching granularity. Pulse switching is shown to be sufficient for on-off style event monitoring applications for which a monitored parameter can be modeled using a binary variable. Monitoring such events with conventional packet transport can be prohibitively energy-inefficient due to the communication, processing, and buffering overheads of the large number of bits within a packet’s data, header, and preambles for synchronization. The paper presents a joint MAC-routing protocol architecture for pulse switching with a novel hop-angular event localization strategy. Through analytical modeling and simulation-based experiments it is shown that pulse switching can be an effective means for event networking, which can potentially replace the traditional packet transport when the information to be transported is binary in nature. Existing System The objective of this paper is to develop an ultra light pulse switching protocol framework for resource- constrained sensors in on-off style event monitoring applications. The key idea is to introduce a new abstraction of pulse switching in order to replace the traditional packet switching for event monitoring. An example application is intrusion detection in which while surveying a building, it may be sufficient for a sensor to generate an event to indicate an intrusion in its vicinity. Sending an event, indicating an intrusion, to a sink would require single bit information transport. A key architectural novelty in this work is to integrate a pulses’ location of origin within the MAC-routing protocol syntaxes. More specifically, by observing the time of arrival GLOBALSOFT TECHNOLOGIES IEEE PROJECTS & SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENTS IEEE FINAL YEAR PROJECTS|IEEE ENGINEERING PROJECTS|IEEE STUDENTS PROJECTS|IEEE BULK PROJECTS|BE/BTECH/ME/MTECH/MS/MCA PROJECTS|CSE/IT/ECE/EEE PROJECTS CELL: +91 98495 39085, +91 99662 35788, +91 98495 57908, +91 97014 40401 Visit: Mail
  2. 2. of a pulse with respect to the MAC-routing frame, a sink can resolve the corresponding event location with a preset resolution. The problem for Multihop pulse routing is addressed by introducing a novel wave front routing protocol. Synchronized pulse waves are created in the network so that a pulse can simply “ride” synchronized phase waves across different hop-distance nodes from a sink in order to get delivered to the sink. The paper explores architectural solutions to address those three fundamental protocol challenges for pulse switching. Disadvantages A new pulse-switching protocol paradigm and its associated MAC and routing syntaxes for Multihop operations The impacts of physical layer node cooperation and mechanisms to mitigate its impacts on pulse switching. Unlike our solution, pulses in ] are of varying length, rendering technologies such as UWB-IR unusable. Additionally, although pulses are used for handling collisions, traditional packets are still used for sending information. Proposed System This can give rise to faulty hop-distance recovery, leading to possible pulse forwarding failures. Such problems in hop-distance discovery due to node cooperation can happen at all hop-distances except hop-distance 1. The following mechanisms are proposed for minimizing impacts of node cooperation by reducing the chances of overlapping pulses during hop-distance discovery. The pulse is transmitted by B and C on the same slot in the event sub frame, the receiver A simply detects RF signals for a merged pulse in that slot. As long as the RF hardware can detect the presence of this overlapped pulse, the routing continues. In fact, this pulse merging and route diversity provides inherent in-network aggregation for events from the same event area. Note that the pulse stacking is just a representation of the fact that multiple pulses are transmitted by different nodes during the same slot. However, the protocols can enable targeted event monitoring applications such as intrusion detection and certain Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for aircraft wings, bridges, and other small structures.
  3. 3. Advantages The proposed pulse switching architecture is targeted mainly to small sensor networks with few tens of sensors distributed within a restricted geographical area. As a result, a number of proposed protocols may not scale well for large networks. The extent of sector-constraints during wave front routing can be parameterized using, which represents the ratio of the angular resolution That pulse switching is general in that it can work with other event localization mechanisms. For example, the hop-angular localization abstraction can be replaced by a generic flat area-coded mechanism in which a sensor field is divided Modules Hop-Distance Self-Discovery MAC-Routing Frame Structure Pulse Forwarding Using Wave Exploiting Route Diversity Sector-Constrained Routing Delay-Traded Sleep Module Description Hop-Distance Self-Discovery The sink initiates a reconfiguration phase by sending a full power start-recon fig pulse. It then transmits a regular power pulse at the first slot in the reconfiguration area in the frame. Nodes that receive this pulse conclude that they are 1 hop-distance away from the sink. All hop-distance 1 nodes send a pulse in the second slot of the reconfiguration area during the next few frames. Nodes receiving these pulses conclude that they are in hop distance. MAC-Routing Frame Structure The proposed system is frame-by-frame time synchronized by the sink, and they maintain MAC-Routing frames in which each slot is used for sending a single pulse. The slot includes a guard time to accommodate the cumulative clock-drift during a frame, which can be very small for RF technology such as UWB-IR, as the frame size itself can be ultra short for UWB. The downlink sub frame contains a synchronization slot in which the sink transmits a full power pulse to make all nodes frame-synchronized. Pulse Forwarding Using Wave
  4. 4. The absence of MAC addressing, a node cannot determine the hop-distance of a pulse’s transmitter node. We introduce a wave front routing in which nodes synchronously transition in a frame by state cycle that enables pulse forwarding toward the sink. Nodes with the same hop-distance cycle in-phase, but those with different hop distances remain synchronized but out-of-phase so that when the hop-distance h nodes transmit, the hop-distance. Exploiting Route Diversity The routing ensures that a pulse is forwarded only across nodes with reducing hop distances. As shown in a pulse originated from node E is not forwarded by node which has the same hop-distance 3, but both nodes B and C forward it to node A, which in turn delivers it to the sink. Since all transmissions take place at the same slot in the event sub frame, the transmissions from B and C get merged while being delivered to node A. This phenomenon of multiple intermediate route segments gives rise to route diversity, which provides tolerance from errors. For example, the pulse can be delivered to sink in spite of a failure of node B or C, or a transmission error across E-B or E-C. More about such errors and their impacts are analyzed Sector-Constrained Routing Angle-based filtering can be activated so that the forwarding of a pulse remains constrained within a predefined number of sectors around that of its origin. While higher sector-constraints curtail route diversity and subsequent pulse duplications leading to better energy economy, they also reduce the error tolerance due to lack of pulse duplications. Delay-Traded Sleep The frames provide a tunable mechanism for reducing idling consumption at the expense of additional pulse transportation delay. Using the D frames, delay can be scaled up by a constant factor k, which is one more than the number of inserted meaning that the delay is scaled up by three times and the idling energy is scaled down. With this arrangement, a pulse may now have to remain buffered at the origin or at an intermediate node before it can be routed.
  5. 5. Flow Diagram Hop-Distance Self-Discovery MAC-Routing Frame Structure Pulse Forwarding Using Wave Exploiting Route Diversity Sector-Constrained Routing Delay-Traded Sleep
  6. 6. CONCULSION A pulse switching protocol framework for ultra lightweight networking applications involving severely resource- constrained sensors has been developed in this paper. A joint MAC-routing architecture for pulse switching with a hop-angular event localization strategy was presented. The key contribution of the presented architecture is to combine event localization with the pulse switching protocol in a manner that allows a receiver to localize an event by observing the temporal position of a received pulse with respect to a synchronized frame structure. Through analytical modeling and simulation based experiments, it is shown that the proposed pulse switching architecture can be an effective means for energy efficiently transporting information that is binary in nature. Ongoing work includes an implementation of the proposed pulse routing architecture on UWB embedded hardware. REFERENCES [1] Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, L.M. Ni, and Z. Zhang, “Low-Power Distributed Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2401-2405, 2007. [2] C.R. Farrar, G. Park, D.W. Allen, and M.D. Todd, “Sensor Network Paradigms for Structural Health Monitoring,” J. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 210-225, 2006. [3] Z. Yuanjin, C. Rui, L. Yong, “A New Synchronization Algorithm for UWB Impulse Radio Communication Systems,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Comm. Systems (ICCS), pp. 25-29, 2004. [4] J. Gummeson, S.S. Clark, K. Fu, and D. Ganesan, “On the Limits of Effective Hybrid Micro-Energy Harvesting on Mobile CRFID Sensors,” Proc. ACM MobiSys, 2010. [5] A. Jain, M. Gruteser, M. Neufeld, and D. Grunwald, “Benefits of Packet Aggregation in Ad-Hoc Wireless Network,” Technical Report CU-CS-960-03, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder, 2003. [6] Y. Zhu, R. Sivakumar, “Challenges: Communication Through Silence in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 140-147, 2005.