JAVA 2013 IEEE MOBILECOMPUTING PROJECT Pulse Switching Toward a Packet-Less Protocol Paradigm for Event Sensing
Pulse Switching: Toward a Packet-Less Protocol Paradigm for Event
This paper presents a novel pulse switching protocol framework for ultra light-weight wireless network
applications. The key idea is to abstract a single Ultra Wide Band (UWB) pulse as the information switching
granularity. Pulse switching is shown to be sufficient for on-off style event monitoring applications for which a
monitored parameter can be modeled using a binary variable. Monitoring such events with conventional packet
transport can be prohibitively energy-inefficient due to the communication, processing, and buffering overheads
of the large number of bits within a packet’s data, header, and preambles for synchronization. The paper
presents a joint MAC-routing protocol architecture for pulse switching with a novel hop-angular event
localization strategy. Through analytical modeling and simulation-based experiments it is shown that pulse
switching can be an effective means for event networking, which can potentially replace the traditional packet
transport when the information to be transported is binary in nature.
The objective of this paper is to develop an ultra light pulse switching protocol framework for resource-
constrained sensors in on-off style event monitoring applications. The key idea is to introduce a new abstraction
of pulse switching in order to replace the traditional packet switching for event monitoring. An example
application is intrusion detection in which while surveying a building, it may be sufficient for a sensor to
generate an event to indicate an intrusion in its vicinity. Sending an event, indicating an intrusion, to a sink
would require single bit information transport. A key architectural novelty in this work is to integrate a pulses’
location of origin within the MAC-routing protocol syntaxes. More specifically, by observing the time of arrival
IEEE PROJECTS & SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENTS
IEEE FINAL YEAR PROJECTS|IEEE ENGINEERING PROJECTS|IEEE STUDENTS PROJECTS|IEEE
BULK PROJECTS|BE/BTECH/ME/MTECH/MS/MCA PROJECTS|CSE/IT/ECE/EEE PROJECTS
CELL: +91 98495 39085, +91 99662 35788, +91 98495 57908, +91 97014 40401
Visit: www.finalyearprojects.org Mail to:email@example.com
of a pulse with respect to the MAC-routing frame, a sink can resolve the corresponding event location with a
preset resolution. The problem for Multihop pulse routing is addressed by introducing a novel wave front
routing protocol. Synchronized pulse waves are created in the network so that a pulse can simply “ride”
synchronized phase waves across different hop-distance nodes from a sink in order to get delivered to the sink.
The paper explores architectural solutions to address those three fundamental protocol challenges for pulse
A new pulse-switching protocol paradigm and its associated MAC and routing syntaxes for Multihop
The impacts of physical layer node cooperation and mechanisms to mitigate its impacts on pulse
Unlike our solution, pulses in ] are of varying length, rendering technologies such as UWB-IR unusable.
Additionally, although pulses are used for handling collisions, traditional packets are still used for
This can give rise to faulty hop-distance recovery, leading to possible pulse forwarding failures. Such problems
in hop-distance discovery due to node cooperation can happen at all hop-distances except hop-distance 1. The
following mechanisms are proposed for minimizing impacts of node cooperation by reducing the chances of
overlapping pulses during hop-distance discovery. The pulse is transmitted by B and C on the same slot in the
event sub frame, the receiver A simply detects RF signals for a merged pulse in that slot. As long as the RF
hardware can detect the presence of this overlapped pulse, the routing continues. In fact, this pulse merging and
route diversity provides inherent in-network aggregation for events from the same event area. Note that the
pulse stacking is just a representation of the fact that multiple pulses are transmitted by different nodes during
the same slot. However, the protocols can enable targeted event monitoring applications such as intrusion
detection and certain Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for aircraft wings, bridges, and other small
The proposed pulse switching architecture is targeted mainly to small sensor networks with few
tens of sensors distributed within a restricted geographical area. As a result, a number of
proposed protocols may not scale well for large networks.
The extent of sector-constraints during wave front routing can be parameterized using, which
represents the ratio of the angular resolution
That pulse switching is general in that it can work with other event localization mechanisms. For
example, the hop-angular localization abstraction can be replaced by a generic flat area-coded
mechanism in which a sensor field is divided
MAC-Routing Frame Structure
Pulse Forwarding Using Wave
Exploiting Route Diversity
The sink initiates a reconfiguration phase by sending a full power start-recon fig pulse. It then transmits
a regular power pulse at the first slot in the reconfiguration area in the frame. Nodes that receive this pulse
conclude that they are 1 hop-distance away from the sink. All hop-distance 1 nodes send a pulse in the second
slot of the reconfiguration area during the next few frames. Nodes receiving these pulses conclude that they are
in hop distance.
MAC-Routing Frame Structure
The proposed system is frame-by-frame time synchronized by the sink, and they maintain MAC-Routing
frames in which each slot is used for sending a single pulse. The slot includes a guard time to accommodate the
cumulative clock-drift during a frame, which can be very small for RF technology such as UWB-IR, as the
frame size itself can be ultra short for UWB. The downlink sub frame contains a synchronization slot in which
the sink transmits a full power pulse to make all nodes frame-synchronized.
Pulse Forwarding Using Wave
The absence of MAC addressing, a node cannot determine the hop-distance of a pulse’s transmitter
node. We introduce a wave front routing in which nodes synchronously transition in a frame by state cycle that
enables pulse forwarding toward the sink. Nodes with the same hop-distance cycle in-phase, but those with
different hop distances remain synchronized but out-of-phase so that when the hop-distance h nodes transmit,
Exploiting Route Diversity
The routing ensures that a pulse is forwarded only across nodes with reducing hop distances. As shown in a
pulse originated from node E is not forwarded by node which has the same hop-distance 3, but both nodes B
and C forward it to node A, which in turn delivers it to the sink. Since all transmissions take place at the same
slot in the event sub frame, the transmissions from B and C get merged while being delivered to node A. This
phenomenon of multiple intermediate route segments gives rise to route diversity, which provides tolerance
from errors. For example, the pulse can be delivered to sink in spite of a failure of node B or C, or a
transmission error across E-B or E-C. More about such errors and their impacts are analyzed
Angle-based filtering can be activated so that the forwarding of a pulse remains constrained within a
predefined number of sectors around that of its origin. While higher sector-constraints curtail route diversity and
subsequent pulse duplications leading to better energy economy, they also reduce the error tolerance due to lack
of pulse duplications.
The frames provide a tunable mechanism for reducing idling consumption at the expense of additional
pulse transportation delay. Using the D frames, delay can be scaled up by a constant factor k, which is one more
than the number of inserted meaning that the delay is scaled up by three times and the idling energy is scaled
down. With this arrangement, a pulse may now have to remain buffered at the origin or at an intermediate node
before it can be routed.
A pulse switching protocol framework for ultra lightweight networking applications involving severely
resource- constrained sensors has been developed in this paper. A joint MAC-routing architecture for pulse
switching with a hop-angular event localization strategy was presented. The key contribution of the presented
architecture is to combine event localization with the pulse
switching protocol in a manner that allows a receiver to localize an event by observing the temporal position of
a received pulse with respect to a synchronized frame structure. Through analytical modeling and simulation
based experiments, it is shown that the proposed pulse switching architecture can be an effective means for
energy efficiently transporting information that is binary in nature. Ongoing work includes an implementation
of the proposed pulse routing architecture on UWB embedded hardware.
 Y. Zhu, Y. Liu, L.M. Ni, and Z. Zhang, “Low-Power Distributed Event Detection in Wireless Sensor
Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2401-2405, 2007.
 C.R. Farrar, G. Park, D.W. Allen, and M.D. Todd, “Sensor Network Paradigms for Structural Health
Monitoring,” J. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 210-225, 2006.
 Z. Yuanjin, C. Rui, L. Yong, “A New Synchronization Algorithm for UWB Impulse Radio Communication
Systems,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Comm. Systems (ICCS), pp. 25-29, 2004.
 J. Gummeson, S.S. Clark, K. Fu, and D. Ganesan, “On the Limits of Effective Hybrid Micro-Energy
Harvesting on Mobile CRFID Sensors,” Proc. ACM MobiSys, 2010.
 A. Jain, M. Gruteser, M. Neufeld, and D. Grunwald, “Benefits of Packet Aggregation in Ad-Hoc Wireless
Network,” Technical Report CU-CS-960-03, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of
Colorado at Boulder, 2003.
 Y. Zhu, R. Sivakumar, “Challenges: Communication Through Silence in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc.
ACM MobiCom, pp. 140-147, 2005.