DOTNET 2013 IEEE MOBILECOMPUTING PROJECT Capacity of hybrid wireless mesh networks with random a ps
CAPACITY OF HYBRID WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS
WITH RANDOM APS
In conventional Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs), multihop relays are performed in the backbone comprising
of interconnected Mesh Routers (MRs) and this causes capacity degradation.
We propose hybrid WMN architecture that the backbone is able to utilize random connections to Access Points
(APs) of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). In such a proposed hierarchal architecture, capacity
enhancement can be achieved by letting the traffic take advantage of the wired connections through APs.
Theoretical analysis has been conducted for the asymptotic capacity of three-tier hybrid WMN, where per-MR
capacity in the backbone is first derived and per-MC capacity is then obtained. Besides related to the number of
R cells as a conventional WMN, the analytical results reveal that the asymptotic capacity of a hybrid WMN is
also strongly affected by the number of cells having AP connections, the ratio of access link bandwidth to
backbone link bandwidth, etc.
MR configuration of the network can drastically improve the network capacity in our proposed network
architecture. It also shows that the traffic balance among the MRs with AP access is very important to have a
tighter asymptotic capacity bound. The results and conclusions justify the perspective of having such a hybrid
WMN utilizing widely deployed WLANs.
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The Mesh routers (MRs) play an essential role in a WMN, which provides service for MCs on one hand;
forward data packets via wireless link to neighboring MRs on the other hand. Interconnected MRs form the
backbone of a WMN, where several special MRs connecting to the
Internet with wired cables are called Internet Gateways (IGWs). By taking disadvantage of wireless Multihop
forwarding deployment of MRs poses much less constraints as they can be deployed on electric poles or house
rooftop. Such deployment feasibility enables a WMN to provide low cost metro-scale coverage for MCs’
access. The major challenge in a WMN is the capacity degradation problem caused by the interference on a
single or multiple routing paths during Multihop transmission. Although the network architecture of any WMN
is different from an ad hoc network, the asymptotic capacity bound derived by the analytical work in  is still
valid for a WMN backbone.
Actually, MRs need not have access to A/C power as energy can be supplied from self-equipped solar
The whole WMN forms multiple clusters where each cluster is led by an IGW and constraints MRs
closer to the IGW. Readers interested in various cluster construction methods are suggested.
Similar network architecture is the hybrid ad hoc networks, where infrastructures are interconnected
with wired cables and deliver data packets for ad hoc clients in a single or multiple hops.
The designed to have information about the complete network topology so as to perform routing functions
without involving the IGW capacity is constrained by the IGWs and the capacity may be worse than that of ad
hoc routing in the backbone. Having the whole network information at the MRs may lead to excessive overhead
and may not facilitate easy management of the clustering approach. The backbone of a WMN consists of MRs
and IGWs, where the MRs and the IGWs are wireless interconnected to each other and provide service to the
MCs. Multiple IGWs divide a WMN into several clusters such that each one is led by an IGW.
We investigate such an IGW cluster. MRs in the cluster is homogeneous that have the same backbone and
access link transmission region. Due to interference among neighboring MRs, they have to share wireless
resources in the frequency domain and/or time domain. The network is modeled as shown in Fig. 4, where grid
deployed MRs are indicated by blue circles, the IGW is indicated by red rectangles, randomly distributed MCs
are indicated by green dots, and APs are indicated by dark triangles. The three tiers of a hybrid WMN are: MCs
in the first tier connect to the MRs in the second tier.
The second tier also interconnects to each other. So, the traffic from MCs can exchange via the
connections among MRs in the second tier.
The connections from the MRs in the second tier to the APs in the third tier are random, which are
denoted by dotted lines in the figure. While wireless connections between the second tier and the third tier
available, the traffic between two MRs in the second tier can be exchanged via the third tier.
HARDWARE & SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:
Processor - Pentium –IV
Speed - 1.1 GHz
RAM - 256 MB (min)
Hard Disk - 20 GB
Floppy Drive - 1.44 MB
Key Board - Standard Windows Keyboard
Mouse - Two or Three Button Mouse
Monitor - SVGA
Operating System : Windows XP
Front End : Visual Studio .Net 2008
Scripts : C# Script.
NOVEL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
NETWORK MODEL AND ANALYSIS
HYBRID WMN ARCHITECTURE
ROUTING AND TRAFFIC BALANCE
ROUTING AND TRAFFIC BALANCE
NOVEL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE:
The proposing a novel network architecture a hybrid WMN, which will have a higher capacity than a
conventional WMN. Presence of APs in the deployment area of conventional WMNs is assumed and access
links for the connections to MRs are used. Thus, from the network architecture view, existing WMN is extended
with new elements Ps and a new link type AP-MR link, and translates a two-tier network into a three-tier
NETWORK MODEL AND ANALYSIS:
Multiple IGWs divide a WMN into several clusters such that each one is led by an IGW. We investigate such an
IGW cluster. MRs in the cluster is homogeneous that have the same backbone and access link transmission
region. Due to interference among neighboring MRs, they have to share wireless resources in the frequency
domain and/or time domain. AP is present in the transmission range of anMRcell, MR can access the AP. The
connection between the MR and the AP is also an access link, which shares bandwidth with the MCs it is
serving. We call the MR with AP connection as AP-MR and the MR without AP connection as non-AP-MR.
While we use term “MR” without specifying and it means both kinds of MRs.
HYBRID WMN ARCHITECTURE:
The network is modeled where grid deployed MRs are indicated by blue circles, the IGW is indicated by red
rectangles, randomly distributed MCs are indicated by green dots, and APs are indicated by dark triangles. The
three tiers of a hybrid WMN are: MCs in the first tier connect to the MRs in the second tier. Each MR provides
network access service for multiple MCs. MRs in the second tier also interconnects to each other. So, the traffic
from MCs can exchange via the connections among MRs in the second tier. There is one IGW in the second
layer to provide Internet access to MRs. The third tier includes APs which are connected to each other by wired
The traffic generated or terminated at MCs can be divided into intercluster and intracluster traffic. The
intercluster traffic is from the MCs to the destination outside the cluster or from the source outside the cluster to
the MC in the cluster. The traffic goes to the IGW and the IGW is in-charge of aggregating intercluster traffic,
routing in the wired network, protocol conversation, etc. Without loss of generality, we assume inter-cluster
traffic is from the MCs to the IGW. This condition also applies in the reverse direction.
ROUTING AND TRAFFIC BALANCE:
The routing and traffic balance scheme used in analyzing a WMN backbone, we use a 2D grid-based WMN.
The connectivity graphs of the MRs, which are denoted by dots at the intersection points, denote the
communication links. Packets can transmit from one MR to the neighboring MR in the grid, which counts as
The utilizing a random AP connection, the ratio of the backbone link bandwidth to the access link bandwidth is
very critical. The traffic via the APs employs the access link. While it is not sufficient, the benefits from using
the random connections will be limited. An increase in the number of AP-MRs can help increase the traffic
through the APs. The efficiency of implementing a large number of APs depends very much on the strategies of
traffic load balancing.
In this paper, we have derived asymptotic capacity of hybrid WMN architecture with random connections to
APs. With this, the access link bandwidth greatly affects the capacity, which is different from a conventional
WMN. To some extent, the ratio of access link bandwidth to backbone link bandwidth is critical. It dominates
the capacity bottleneck and magnifies the influence of AP-MRs.
Theoretical results show that the capacity enhancement by accessing APs within the coverage of MRs is
significant with an increase in the number of AP-MRs and the bandwidth ratio. The improvement is at the very
low cost by utilizing currently available networks and it is also possible for those networks to take advantage of
We access to the APs are random, it may have negative impact on WLANs’ performance when the WLANs’
traffics are heavy. In the future work, we plan to consider the traffic between MRs and WLANs so as to have a
control mechanism that takes the traffic load at the APs into account.
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