Debate Automóvel e Consumo - Max Gruenig parte 1
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Debate Automóvel e Consumo - Max Gruenig parte 1

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Etiquetagem de eficiência energética no mundo

Etiquetagem de eficiência energética no mundo

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Debate Automóvel e Consumo - Max Gruenig parte 1 Debate Automóvel e Consumo - Max Gruenig parte 1 Presentation Transcript

  • www.ecologic.euCar Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies Max Grünig Ecologic Institute IDEC: Debate Automóvel e Consumo
  • www.ecologic.euEcologic Institute Independent Research Institute Environmental Research Policy Analysis 120 employees Offices in Berlin, Brussels, Washington DC und San Mateo Experience and Contacts: Car Labeling Study commissioned by the European Parliament (2010) ICCT, Friends of the Earth Europe, Germany Association of the Automotive Industry, various manufacturers Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 1
  • www.ecologic.euOverview: Vehicle Energy Efficiency Peak Oil Climate Change Rising Fuel Costs Need for Vehicle Energy Efficiency Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 2
  • www.ecologic.euEU Policy Instruments Directive1999/94/EC: Information for new passenger cars for sale or lease Label Guide Poster display Printed promotional material Regulation (EC) No 443/2009: Emission performance standards for manufacturers Manufacturer Consumer „Push-Pull“ effect Standards Information Influence Influence Supply Demand Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 3
  • www.ecologic.euOverview: Car Labeling Information regarding fuel economy and CO2 emissions costly to obtain Provide consumers with relevant information Compare Make Remove Link with passenger informed information monetary cars more purchasing barriers savings easily decisions Manufacturers compete according to fuel economy Climate Change Mitigation Energy Independence Cost savings and Effiency Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 4
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelFranceLabel AttributeFormat Absolute: CO2 Emissions StaticCategories 7Additional city and highway fuelInformation consumption, link to websiteAssessment No running costs on label but Bonus/Malus System links directly to the label Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 5
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelGermanyLabel AttributeFormat Relative: CO2 Efficiency by car mass Semi-Dynamic: Percentage deviation from the reference value (potential A++,A+++)Categories 8 (so far)Additional Electricity consumption, taxInformation information, fuel and electricity costsAssessment No inventive for lighter vehicles Vehicle registration tax linked to CO2 emissions Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 6
  • www.ecologic.euGermany C CO2 Emissions B A A+ Mass Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 7
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelThe NetherlandsLabel AttributeFormat Relative: CO2 Emissions by realtive footprint (weighted) DynamicCategories 7Additional -InformationAssessment No information about fuel costs No incentive for smaller vehicles, but for lighter vehicles Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 8
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelSwitzerlandLabelAttributeFormat Dual Label Absolute/Static: CO2 Emissions (continuous scale with fleet average) Relative/Dynamic: Energy Efficiency by massCategories 7Additional link to websiteInformationAssessment No running costs Too complex  information overload? Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 9
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelSwitzerlandLabelAttribute Separate label for electric vehiclesAdditional CO2 emissions fromInformation electricity generation, assuming the Swiss electricity consumption mixAssessment Plug-in electric vehicles  well-to-wheels basis; other vehicle types  tank-to- wheels basis Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 10
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelUnited KingdomLabelAttributeFormat Absolute: CO2 Emissions StaticCategories 13Additional Fuel costs, vehicle exciseInformation duty (direct link between label and tax), link to website, logos  branding and legitimating Voluntary for used carsAssessment A lot of information provided  potential overload? Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 11
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelBrazilLabel AttributeFormat Relative: Energy consumption by car class StaticCategories 5 (but in 8 car classes)Additional Ethanol and gasolineInformation consumption (if appll.), city and highway, Plus CO2-emissions logos  branding and legitimationAssessment Voluntary  compliance issues, overlapping categories, No running costs less incentive for lighter vehicles Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 12
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of the LabelUnited StatesLabelAttributeFormat Absolute: Combined continuous scale for fuel economy and GHG emissions StaticAdditional Additional smog scale, annualInformation fuel costs and savings over 5 years; car class range; MPG: city, highway and combined; logos  branding and legitimation, online tools, Smartphone applicationAssessment Focuses on costs (cultural reasons?) Potential information overload Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 13
  • www.ecologic.eu Illustration of ElectricUnited States and Hybrid Car Label(s)LabelAttribute Separate label for electric and hybrid vehiclesFormat Absolute: same scale as other passenger vehicles StaticAdditional Charge time, driving range,Information fuel economy by electricity and gasolineAssessment Focus on costs Potential information overload Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 14
  • www.ecologic.euDebate: Relative vs. Absolute Label Pros of relative label: Enables consumers to compare fuel efficiency of cars within vehicle class efficiency vs. fuel economy Complements decision making process of car buyer (two-stage process) 1. Vehicle Class 2. Buying Decision • Reliability • Fuel Consumption • Security • Environmental • Comfort Factors • Price Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 15
  • www.ecologic.euDebate: Relative vs. Absolute Label Cons of relative label: Complicated method and calculations No incentive for manufacturers to build smaller / lighter cars  manipulation Could create confusion among consumers Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 16
  • www.ecologic.euBest Practices Mandatory labelling for 100% of LDV is the global standard Provide cost information on label fuel consumption Translate fuel factored into consumption and decisions based CO2 emissions on economic into monetary implications, not costs and environmental savings ones Link label to fiscal policies (complementarity of measures) Avoid information overload Present information in a clear and concise manner (units that can be intuitively understood Use branding strategies and supplement label with online-tools Adapt information to local consumer preferences  market research Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 17
  • www.ecologic.euAwareness German consumers understand the impacts on the environment, knowledge about the car label is increasing > continuous process Do you know about the new CO2 Efficiency car label?Please tell us if the following factors arerelevant to your car purchasing decision Yes Fuel consumption Fuel costs CO2 Emissions Very No Important Fuel/ Drive type Don’t know Rather Taxes Important Size (# seats, etc.) Motorization Brand Jan. 2012 Oct. 2012 Basis: 1,680 New Car Buyers, Oct. 2012 Source: DENA, 2012 Basis: 1,680 New Car Buyers, Oct. 2012 Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 18
  • www.ecologic.euOverall Assessment CO2 Mitigation Average CO2 emissions of new car registrations in selected Member StatesCO 2 Emissions are decreasing reduction due to a combination ofmeasures includingtargets, taxes and labeling Source: AEA, 2011 Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 19
  • www.ecologic.euKey messages1. Mandatory labelling for 100% of LDV is the global standard2. Provide cost information on label3. Link label to fiscal policies (complementarity of measures)4. Avoid information overload5. Present information in a clear and concise manner (units that can be intuitively understood6. Use branding strategies and supplement label with online-tools7. Adapt information to local consumer preferences  market research Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 20
  • www.ecologic.eu Thank you for your attention! Max GrünigEcologic Institute, Pfalzburger Str. 43-44, D-10717 Berlin Tel. +49 (30) 86880-0, Fax +49 (30) 86880-100 max{dot}gruenig{at}ecologic{dot}eu www.ecologic.eu Car Labeling: A Comparison of Case Studies – Max Grünig 21