Paper Drying<br />Mechanical Engineering Department<br />This project was funded by Puget Sound Energy (PSE), Inc of Belle...
Introduction<br />Paper industry consumes more than 15% of the total US Manufacturing energy<br />Largest industrial energ...
Problem Statement<br />The purpose of this project is to design a new innovative way to dry paper.  <br />The design is to...
Overview of Paper Industry<br />http://www.astenjohnson.com/images/images_paper-machine.jpg<br />
Overview of Paper Drying<br />Conventional Paper Drying<br />http://www.energysolutionscenter.org/gasirpaper/Images/ABBDru...
Tours<br /><ul><li>13 candidate mills
Over 17,000 tons/day capacity
Products variety: tissue to cardboard</li></li></ul><li>Tours<br />Kraft Simpson Mill in Tacoma, WA<br />Sonoco Mill in Su...
Literature Review<br />Comprehensive literature search<br />April 2009-September-December 2009<br />Online library interlo...
Topics of Research<br />Conventional Enhancements<br />Superheated Steam<br />Electromagnetic<br />Modeling<br />Infrared<...
Conventional Enhancements<br />Spoiler Bars<br />Increases turbulence in condensate layer<br />Increased rate of heat tran...
Conventional Enhancements<br />Multiport cylindrical dryer<br />90% less condensate<br />Small channels, higher velocities...
Superheated Steam<br />Impinging jets<br />Temperatures > 400 ºC<br />Higher drying rates<br />Higher recovery of energy<b...
Electromagnetic<br />Microwaves – 2.45 GHz<br />Serpentine slotted waveguide<br />Hot-air assist<br />High efficiency<br /...
Modeling<br />System design vs. discreet sections<br />Computational<br />Statistical<br />Measurement methods<br />Altern...
Infrared<br />Radiation & Convection<br />Specific wavelength<br />http://www.energysolutionscenter.org/GasIRPaper/Images/...
Infrared<br />Gas-fired drums<br />Resistance emitters<br />Increased output<br />Profiling capabilities<br />Penetrates c...
Literature Review<br />With IR, 20% moisture loss within 1 sec<br />Less moisture = More reflectivity<br />Kuang, H., Thib...
Literature REview<br />IR above a black tray of water<br />Intensity is much higher in the center<br />Petterson, M., and ...
Literature review<br />Created a theoretical model and ran trials<br />Seyed-Yagoob, J., S. J. Sikirica, and K. M. Counts,...
Literature review<br />IR Placement<br />35th Drum<br />Seyed-Yagoobi, J., and H. Noboa, 2003, "Drying of Uncoated Paper w...
Literature review<br />Compared electric and gas fired emitters<br />Developed software for simulations<br />Ran machine t...
Design 1:Infrared Paper Drying<br />This design completely new and innovative design.<br />The drying will be done using S...
Design Calculations<br />Material Balance Representation for Paper Drying Process<br />
Design Calculations<br />The power required to dry the paper from 50% water by mass to 6% by mass is 21 MW<br />Based on v...
Design Considerations<br />
Infrared Emitter Blocks<br />The rows have been separated into blocks<br />One block as 6 rows of emitters<br />Emitters a...
Infrared Ventilation System<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />IR<br />Dry Air<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />Dry Air<br />IR<br />H...
Infrared Paper Drying Section<br />
Maintenance<br />Emitter life is 10,000 hours running at max power<br />Estimated life is 417 days, if run for 24 hours/da...
Retro-Fit Design<br />Retro-fit design<br />72 infrared emitter rows<br />12 row of infrared blocks<br />Implemented in en...
Retrofit Design Section <br />Infrared Emitter<br />Block<br />
Infrared Paper drying<br />More compact<br />Easily maintainable dryer<br />Lower Capital Cost<br />Increase Speed in a Re...
Budget<br />
Budget<br />
Budget<br />
Budget<br />
Remaining Budget<br />
Publication<br />Generated a 9 page publication-ready paper<br />Submitted to ASME in February<br /> International Heat Tr...
Lessons Learned<br />How to navigate publication databases<br />How to read<br />How to write (and get published)<br />Pro...
Acknowledgements<br />Puget Sound Energy<br />Michael Beakley<br />Sonoco Mill in Sumner, WA<br />Kraft Simpson Mill in Ta...
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Energy savings in paper manufacturing: Saint Martin's Univ. students with Puget Sound Energy grant propose infrared drying

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The Paper industry consumes more than 15% of the total US Manufacturing energy
and is the largest industrial energy load in Northwest, with drying consuming the most energy.

This study and proposal by students at St. Martin's University in Lacey Washington, with a grant from Puget Sound Energy, offers a unique retrofit using infrared Salamander emitters to existing paper pulp dryers.

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Energy savings in paper manufacturing: Saint Martin's Univ. students with Puget Sound Energy grant propose infrared drying

  1. 1. Paper Drying<br />Mechanical Engineering Department<br />This project was funded by Puget Sound Energy (PSE), Inc of Bellevue, WA through a grant awarded to the Independent Colleges of Washington.  <br />Steven Campbell<br />Eric McKnight<br />Michael Roberts<br />Erin Woodward<br />Advisor: Dr. AmanieAbdelmessih<br />April 8, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Paper industry consumes more than 15% of the total US Manufacturing energy<br />Largest industrial energy load in Northwest<br />Drying section consumes the majority of the energy<br />http://www.epc-resources.com/images/pulp_image.jpg<br />
  3. 3. Problem Statement<br />The purpose of this project is to design a new innovative way to dry paper. <br />The design is to be more efficient than the systems that are already in place. <br />
  4. 4. Overview of Paper Industry<br />http://www.astenjohnson.com/images/images_paper-machine.jpg<br />
  5. 5. Overview of Paper Drying<br />Conventional Paper Drying<br />http://www.energysolutionscenter.org/gasirpaper/Images/ABBDrumDryer2.jpg<br />
  6. 6. Tours<br /><ul><li>13 candidate mills
  7. 7. Over 17,000 tons/day capacity
  8. 8. Products variety: tissue to cardboard</li></li></ul><li>Tours<br />Kraft Simpson Mill in Tacoma, WA<br />Sonoco Mill in Sumner, WA<br />Weyerhaeuser Mill in Longview, WA<br />Norpac Mill in Longview, WA<br />Scale<br />Speed<br />Personnel<br />
  9. 9. Literature Review<br />Comprehensive literature search<br />April 2009-September-December 2009<br />Online library interloan<br />TAPPI, ASME, IEEE, ACS publication databases<br />Saint Martin’s library, UW library<br />Focused on last 10 years of developments<br />26 papers/articles<br />
  10. 10. Topics of Research<br />Conventional Enhancements<br />Superheated Steam<br />Electromagnetic<br />Modeling<br />Infrared<br />
  11. 11. Conventional Enhancements<br />Spoiler Bars<br />Increases turbulence in condensate layer<br />Increased rate of heat transfer<br />Levels moisture profile<br />Increases drying efficiency<br />Practical Aspects of Pressing and Drying Seminar, TAPPI, 1986<br />
  12. 12. Conventional Enhancements<br />Multiport cylindrical dryer<br />90% less condensate<br />Small channels, higher velocities<br />http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2006/photo/060818_multiport_dryer-hirez.jpg<br />
  13. 13. Superheated Steam<br />Impinging jets<br />Temperatures > 400 ºC<br />Higher drying rates<br />Higher recovery of energy<br />Less trauma to microstructure of finer grades of paper<br />
  14. 14. Electromagnetic<br />Microwaves – 2.45 GHz<br />Serpentine slotted waveguide<br />Hot-air assist<br />High efficiency<br />Uniform drying<br />Zero warm-up time<br />Quiet, cool working environment<br />
  15. 15. Modeling<br />System design vs. discreet sections<br />Computational<br />Statistical<br />Measurement methods<br />Alternative optimization<br />
  16. 16. Infrared<br />Radiation & Convection<br />Specific wavelength<br />http://www.energysolutionscenter.org/GasIRPaper/Images/ABBDrumDryer.jpg<br />
  17. 17. Infrared<br />Gas-fired drums<br />Resistance emitters<br />Increased output<br />Profiling capabilities<br />Penetrates coatings<br />Highly modular<br />http://www.tchigh-tec.com/english/admin/UploadFiles/cp/200761233401751.JPG<br />
  18. 18. Literature Review<br />With IR, 20% moisture loss within 1 sec<br />Less moisture = More reflectivity<br />Kuang, H., Thibault, J., Chen, R., and Grandjean, B., 1995, "Pilot Scale Investigation of Infrared Drying of Paper." Tappi J. 78(7), pp. 129-137<br />
  19. 19. Literature REview<br />IR above a black tray of water<br />Intensity is much higher in the center<br />Petterson, M., and Stenström, S., 2000, "Experimental Evaluation of Electric Infrared Dryers." TAPPI JOURNAL PEER REVIEWED PAPER<br />
  20. 20. Literature review<br />Created a theoretical model and ran trials<br />Seyed-Yagoob, J., S. J. Sikirica, and K. M. Counts, 2001, "HEATING/DRYING OF PAPER SHEET WITH GAS-FIRED INFRARED EMITTERS—PILOT MACHINE TRIALS." DRYING TECHNOLOGY, 19(3&4), pp. 639–651<br />
  21. 21. Literature review<br />IR Placement<br />35th Drum<br />Seyed-Yagoobi, J., and H. Noboa, 2003, "Drying of Uncoated Paper with Gas-Fired Infrared Emitters—Optimum Emitters’ Location Within a Paper Machine Drying Section." DRYING TECHNOLOGY, 21(10), pp. 1897–1908<br />
  22. 22. Literature review<br />Compared electric and gas fired emitters<br />Developed software for simulations<br />Ran machine trials<br />Poulin, A., Dostlie, M., and Bédard, N., 2005, “Investigation of Efficiency and Potential Benefits of Infrared Systems for Uncoated Paper Drying.” Annual Meeting of the Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, C, pp. C77-C81<br />
  23. 23. Design 1:Infrared Paper Drying<br />This design completely new and innovative design.<br />The drying will be done using Salamander Infrared Emitters<br />Working in a wavelength range of 3.0 – 3.25 micrometers<br />Design required drying the paper from 50% water by mass to 6% water by mass<br />
  24. 24. Design Calculations<br />Material Balance Representation for Paper Drying Process<br />
  25. 25. Design Calculations<br />The power required to dry the paper from 50% water by mass to 6% by mass is 21 MW<br />Based on view factor and radiation properties radiation absorbed by the paper is 33.17 kW/ m2<br />47,520 Salamander Emitters<br />1,326 Rows of Emitters, which span the width of the paper which is assumed as 8.13 m<br />
  26. 26. Design Considerations<br />
  27. 27. Infrared Emitter Blocks<br />The rows have been separated into blocks<br />One block as 6 rows of emitters<br />Emitters are staggered<br />
  28. 28. Infrared Ventilation System<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />IR<br />Dry Air<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />Dry Air<br />IR<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />H= 4 m<br />Dry Air<br />IR<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />IR<br />Dry Air<br />Humid Air<br />IR<br />Dry Air<br />IR<br />W= 0.8 m<br />Alternating Infrared Block & Cool Down Block<br />Mounted to the side of ventilation ducts<br />Remove Humid air and supply dry air to system<br />Manifolds<br />
  29. 29. Infrared Paper Drying Section<br />
  30. 30. Maintenance<br />Emitter life is 10,000 hours running at max power<br />Estimated life is 417 days, if run for 24 hours/day<br />Removal of Infrared Blocks<br />Wheels and Angle Iron<br />
  31. 31. Retro-Fit Design<br />Retro-fit design<br />72 infrared emitter rows<br />12 row of infrared blocks<br />Implemented in entire 3rd drying section<br />
  32. 32. Retrofit Design Section <br />Infrared Emitter<br />Block<br />
  33. 33. Infrared Paper drying<br />More compact<br />Easily maintainable dryer<br />Lower Capital Cost<br />Increase Speed in a Retrofit Design<br />
  34. 34. Budget<br />
  35. 35. Budget<br />
  36. 36. Budget<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Budget<br />
  39. 39. Remaining Budget<br />
  40. 40. Publication<br />Generated a 9 page publication-ready paper<br />Submitted to ASME in February<br /> International Heat Transfer Conference<br />Presentation August 8-13th in D.C.<br />
  41. 41. Lessons Learned<br />How to navigate publication databases<br />How to read<br />How to write (and get published)<br />Project management skills<br />A bit of “real world” engineering<br />Work environments for engineers<br />
  42. 42. Acknowledgements<br />Puget Sound Energy<br />Michael Beakley<br />Sonoco Mill in Sumner, WA<br />Kraft Simpson Mill in Tacoma, WA<br />Weyerhaeuser Mill in Longview, WA<br />Norpac Mill in Longview, WA<br />
  43. 43. Questions?<br />

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