FITT (Fostering Interregional Exchange in ICT Technology Transfer)
Standardisation in multimedia <ul><ul><li>Standardisation is a strategic process in the technological evolution and commer...
Standardisation Processes in Multimedia Peter Schelkens Interdisciplinary Institute for Broadband Technology & Vrije Unive...
Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></u...
Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></u...
Strategy <ul><li>Strategy = f(technology, international standardisation body, European standardisation body, national stan...
International Standardisation <ul><li>International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://w...
National Organisation (Belgium) Source: Marc Cumps – Agioria http://www.ictstandards.be/
Normalisation Timeline <ul><li>Phases of the standardisation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Project ( NP ) </li></ul><...
Research Timeline vs. Normalisation Timeline vs. Commercialisation Timeline <ul><li>Succesful participation = multi-latera...
Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></u...
ISO/IEC & ITU-T Standards MPEG-7 MPEG-21 MPEG-4 AVC  MPEG-1 MPEG-2 MPEG-4 ISO/IEC CD-ROM DVD, Digital TV, HDTV Multimedia:...
JPEG <ul><li>Standardised in 1994 (Start activities in 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive market adoption started in the late...
MP3/AAC <ul><li>MP3 = MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) = MPEG-2 Part 7 Audio (199...
MPEG-2 <ul><li>Standardised in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Succesfully deployed in DVD and Digital Television markets </li></ul>
JPEG 2000 <ul><li>Standardised in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of an ecosystem standard </li></ul><ul><li>Succesful...
MPEG-4 AVC or H.264 <ul><li>MPEG-4 Part 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised in 2008 </li></ul>
Evolution in video coding  H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC
Extension of AVC/H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC) spatial resolution temporal resolution 4CIF CIF QCIF 7.5 15 30 60 bit-r...
What will be on the menu in the future? <ul><li>Generic or focused? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the technologies around? </...
Quiche or Niche? <ul><li>Saturation effect is observable with respect to incremental improvements new technology is able t...
What if we stay generic? <ul><li>So what can our chef do? </li></ul><ul><li>Halve the cake but keep the quality </li></ul>...
This is the recepie for ITU-T’s H.265 (1/2)  <ul><li>Focus on “Less is more”  </li></ul>
This is the recepie for ITU-T’s H.265 (2/2)  <ul><li>Focus on “High Quality”  </li></ul>Source wikipedia : http://en.wikip...
Focus on “Fool Tolerance”
Distributed Source Coding <ul><li>Wiener-Ziv Coding </li></ul><ul><li>Additional advantage: suppports low complexity encod...
MPEG-4 Multiview Video Coding (MVC) <ul><li>Standard supporting stereo and multiview coding </li></ul><ul><li>Based on H.2...
JPEG-XR <ul><li>Proposed by Microsoft as successor of JPEG </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on digital photography market </li></...
Advanced Image Coding (AIC) <ul><li>Focus on perceptual quality and new image coding technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Call f...
Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></u...
Intellectual Property and Standards:  a Tough Nut to Crack <ul><li>Two streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royalty fee free stan...
Intellectual Property and Standards:  a Tough Nut to Crack
Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></u...
Conclusions <ul><li>Strategy = f(technology, international standardisation body, European standardisation body, national s...
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Standardisation In Media Formats

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  • Mention Fraunhofer IP problems
  • A lot of mobile devices -&gt; low power constraints
  • Power is not the issue Mention also the importance of high-frame rates with increasing resolution: this can become problematic.
  • Royalty fee free standards (vs Advantages Fast market introduction potential Fewer hurdles for smaller market players Disadvantage Submarine patents (cfr. Forgent) No price setting Algorithmic patents might be license fee free, the implementation of the standards will not
  • Standardisation In Media Formats

    1. 1. FITT (Fostering Interregional Exchange in ICT Technology Transfer)
    2. 2. Standardisation in multimedia <ul><ul><li>Standardisation is a strategic process in the technological evolution and commercialisation of ICT software and hardware. Therefore it is important that there is in a very early stage of the technology a close collaboration between the research community, the industry and policy makers to converge this process within the standardisation bodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of reusability: Standardisation in Multimedia is exemplary for this process in other domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case is mostly generic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality/Nature of stakeholders: Research institutes, industry, policy, Standardisation bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes related to case: IP management, standardisation </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Standardisation Processes in Multimedia Peter Schelkens Interdisciplinary Institute for Broadband Technology & Vrije Universiteit Brussel Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO)
    4. 4. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>IPR issues </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    5. 5. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>IPR Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    6. 6. Strategy <ul><li>Strategy = f(technology, international standardisation body, European standardisation body, national standardisation body, application domain, IPR status, budget, regulatory aspects, etc.) </li></ul>
    7. 7. International Standardisation <ul><li>International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.iso.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.iec.ch/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Telecommunication Union (ITU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.itu.int/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CEN – CENELEC – ETSI </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. National Organisation (Belgium) Source: Marc Cumps – Agioria http://www.ictstandards.be/
    9. 9. Normalisation Timeline <ul><li>Phases of the standardisation process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Project ( NP ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can start with Technical Report ( TR ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Draft ( WD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Draft ( CD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Committee Draft ( FCD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Final) Draft International Standard ( (F)DIS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Standard ( IS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NB balloting for every step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus-based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5-3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: fast track schemes are possible </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Research Timeline vs. Normalisation Timeline vs. Commercialisation Timeline <ul><li>Succesful participation = multi-lateral strategy </li></ul>Fundamental Research Strategic Research Industrial R&D Standardisation Process Incubation Product Y0 Y-1 Y-2 Y-3 Y-5 Y-4 Y-6 IP Protection Lobbying, Call for Evidence, Technical Reports ............. Spin-off IP Licensing IS Norm Maintenance
    11. 11. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>IPR Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    12. 12. ISO/IEC & ITU-T Standards MPEG-7 MPEG-21 MPEG-4 AVC MPEG-1 MPEG-2 MPEG-4 ISO/IEC CD-ROM DVD, Digital TV, HDTV Multimedia: Baseline, AVC, SVC, AFX H.261 H.263 (+) ITU-T ISDN Videoconferencing Desktop/ mobile video telephony Metadata DRM, DIA, … H.262 H.264 JPEG JPEG2000 ?
    13. 13. JPEG <ul><li>Standardised in 1994 (Start activities in 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive market adoption started in the late 90’s. </li></ul>(Source Wikipedia dd. 2008)
    14. 14. MP3/AAC <ul><li>MP3 = MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) = MPEG-2 Part 7 Audio (1997) + updated in MPEG-4 Part 3 (1999, 2001) </li></ul>
    15. 15. MPEG-2 <ul><li>Standardised in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Succesfully deployed in DVD and Digital Television markets </li></ul>
    16. 16. JPEG 2000 <ul><li>Standardised in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration of an ecosystem standard </li></ul><ul><li>Succesful in niche markets </li></ul>
    17. 17. MPEG-4 AVC or H.264 <ul><li>MPEG-4 Part 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Standardised in 2008 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Evolution in video coding H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC
    19. 19. Extension of AVC/H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC) spatial resolution temporal resolution 4CIF CIF QCIF 7.5 15 30 60 bit-rates high low
    20. 20. What will be on the menu in the future? <ul><li>Generic or focused? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the technologies around? </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights: a concern? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Quiche or Niche? <ul><li>Saturation effect is observable with respect to incremental improvements new technology is able to bring to current multimedia standards </li></ul><ul><li>Generic technologies tend to negate properties and requirements of niche markets </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding niche market requirements intrinsically overload standards with wide coverage </li></ul>
    22. 22. What if we stay generic? <ul><li>So what can our chef do? </li></ul><ul><li>Halve the cake but keep the quality </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the cake but double the quality </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the quality and boost the fool tolerance of the cooking process </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the presentation of the dish </li></ul>
    23. 23. This is the recepie for ITU-T’s H.265 (1/2) <ul><li>Focus on “Less is more” </li></ul>
    24. 24. This is the recepie for ITU-T’s H.265 (2/2) <ul><li>Focus on “High Quality” </li></ul>Source wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:UHDV.svg
    25. 25. Focus on “Fool Tolerance”
    26. 26. Distributed Source Coding <ul><li>Wiener-Ziv Coding </li></ul><ul><li>Additional advantage: suppports low complexity encoding </li></ul>[Girod 2006]
    27. 27. MPEG-4 Multiview Video Coding (MVC) <ul><li>Standard supporting stereo and multiview coding </li></ul><ul><li>Based on H.264 </li></ul>
    28. 28. JPEG-XR <ul><li>Proposed by Microsoft as successor of JPEG </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on digital photography market </li></ul><ul><li>Supports High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography </li></ul>
    29. 29. Advanced Image Coding (AIC) <ul><li>Focus on perceptual quality and new image coding technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Call for Proposals has been launched </li></ul><ul><li>Similar quality related activities in ITU-T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>IPR Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    31. 31. Intellectual Property and Standards: a Tough Nut to Crack <ul><li>Two streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royalty fee free standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JPEG, JPEG 2000 ... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing fee based standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H.264, ... </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Intellectual Property and Standards: a Tough Nut to Crack
    33. 33. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Standardisation organisations, processes and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>IPR Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    34. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Strategy = f(technology, international standardisation body, European standardisation body, national standardisation body, application domain, IPR status, budget, regulatory aspects, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Be involved! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardisation bodies are an invaluable source of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, you have to compose the menu </li></ul></ul>

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