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FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats
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FITT Toolbox: Standardisation in Media Formats

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Standardisation is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. The goals of standardisation can be to help with independence of single suppliers (commoditization), compatibility, …

Standardisation is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. The goals of standardisation can be to help with independence of single suppliers (commoditization), compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. Standardisation is a strategic process in the technological evolution and commercialisation of products or services like ICT software and hardware. This implies at a very early stage of the technology a close collaboration between the research community, the industry and policy makers. This case shows that in the complexity of this standardisation process the involvement of the research community at an early stage is crucial to foster a rapid integration of new technology into new products.

www.FITT-for-Innovation.eu

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  1. Standardisation in Media Formats FITT – Fostering Interregional Exchange in ICT Technology Transfer – www.FITT-for-Innovation.eu Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  2. Standardisation in Multimedia  Standardisation is a strategic process in the technological evolution and commercialisation of ICT software and hardware. Therefore it is important that there is in a very early stage of the technology a close collaboration between the research community, the industry and policy makers to converge this process within the standardisation bodies.  Nature of reusability: Standardisation in Multimedia is exemplary for this process in other domains  Case is mostly generic  Quality/Nature of stakeholders: Research institutes, industry, policy, Standardisation bodies  Processes related to case: IP management, standardisation2 | 03/2011 Standardisation in Media Formats
  3. StandardisationProcesses in Multimedia Peter Schelkens Interdisciplinary Institute for Broadband Technology & Vrije Universiteit Brussel Department of Electronics and Informatics (ETRO)
  4. Today’s Focus  Standardisation organisations, processes and structure  Some illustrations  IPR issues  Conclusions 4
  5. Today’s Focus  Standardisation organisations, processes and structure  Some illustrations  IPR Issues  Conclusions 5
  6. Strategy Strategy = f(technology, international standardisation body, European standardisation body, national standardisation body, application domain, IPR status, budget, regulatory aspects, etc.) 6
  7. International Standardisation  International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)  http://www.iso.org/  International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)  http://www.iec.ch/  International Telecommunication Union (ITU)  http://www.itu.int/  Europe  CEN – CENELEC – ETSI 7
  8. National Organisation (Belgium) Source: Marc Cumps – Agioria http://www.ictstandards.be/ 8
  9. Normalisation Timeline Phases of the standardisation process:  New Project (NP)  Can start with Technical Report (TR)  Working Draft (WD)  Committee Draft (CD)  Final Committee Draft (FCD)  (Final) Draft International Standard ((F)DIS)  International Standard (IS) Process:  NB balloting for every step  Consensus-based Duration  2.5-3 years  But: fast track schemes are possible 9
  10. Research Timeline vs. Normalisation Timeline vs. Commercialisation Timeline ............. Y-6 Y-5 Y-4 Y-3 Y-2 Y-1 Y0Fundamental Research Strategic Research Industrial R&D Product Lobbying, Call for Evidence, IS Norm Standardisation Process Technical Reports Maintenance Spin-off IP Protection Incubation IP Licensing Succesful participation = multi-lateral strategy 10
  11. Today’s Focus  Standardisation organisations, processes and structure  Some illustrations  IPR Issues  Conclusions 11
  12. ISO/IEC & ITU-T Standards ITU-T ISO/IEC JPEG H.261 ISDN Videoconferencing MPEG-1 CD-ROM H.262 MPEG-2 DVD, Digital TV, HDTV Desktop/ H.263 (+) mobile video MPEG-4 Multimedia: Baseline, telephony JPEG2000 AVC, SVC, AFX MPEG-4 H.264 AVC MPEG-7 Metadata MPEG-21 DRM, DIA, … ? 12
  13. JPEG Standardised in 1994 (Start activities in 1986) Massive market adoption started in the late 90’s. (Source Wikipedia dd. 2008) 13
  14. MP3/AAC MP3 = MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (1992) Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) = MPEG-2 Part 7 Audio (1997) + updated in MPEG-4 Part 3 (1999, 2001) 14
  15. MPEG-2 Standardised in 1994 Succesfully deployed in DVD and Digital Television markets 15
  16. JPEG 2000 Standardised in 2000 Illustration of an ecosystem standard Succesful in niche markets 16
  17. MPEG-4 AVC or H.264  MPEG-4 Part 10  Standardised in 2008 17
  18. Evolution in video coding H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC 18
  19. Extension of AVC/H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC)spatial resolution4CIFCIF bit-rates lowQCIF high 60 30 15 7.5 temporal resolution
  20. What will be on the menu in the future? Generic or focused? What are the technologies around? Intellectual property rights: a concern? 20
  21. Quiche or Niche?  Saturation effect is observable with respect to incremental improvements new technology is able to bring to current multimedia standards  Generic technologies tend to negate properties and requirements of niche markets  Embedding niche market requirements intrinsically overload standards with wide coverage 21
  22. What if we stay generic?So what can our chef do? Halve the cake but keep the quality Keep the cake but double the quality Keep the quality and boost the fool tolerance of the cooking process Improve the presentation of the dish 22
  23. This is the recepie for ITU-T’s H.265 (1/2) Focus on “Less is more” 23
  24. This is the recepie for ITU-T’s H.265 (2/2) Focus on “High Quality” Source wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:UHDV.svg 24
  25. Focus on “Fool Tolerance” 25
  26. MPEG-4 Multiview Video Coding (MVC) Standard supporting stereo and multiview coding Based on H.264 27
  27. JPEG-XR Proposed by Microsoft as successor of JPEG Focused on digital photography market Supports High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography 28
  28. Advanced Image Coding (AIC)  Focus on perceptual quality and new image coding technologies  Call for Proposals has been launched  Similar quality related activities in ITU-T  Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG)  Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) 29
  29. Today’s Focus  Standardisation organisations, processes and structure  Some illustrations  IPR Issues  Conclusions 30
  30. Intellectual Property and Standards: a Tough Nut to Crack Two streams  Royalty fee free standards  JPEG, JPEG 2000 ...  Licensing fee based standards  H.264, ... 31
  31. Intellectual Property and Standards:a Tough Nut to Crack 32
  32. Today’s Focus  Standardisation organisations, processes and structure  Some illustrations  IPR Issues  Conclusions 33
  33. Conclusions Strategy = f(technology, international standardisation body, European standardisation body, national standardisation body, application domain, IPR status, budget, regulatory aspects, etc.) Be involved!  You have impact  Standardisation bodies are an invaluable source of information  But, you have to compose the menu 34

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