FITT Toolbox: Exploitation


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This chapter focuses on how outputs from research and development activities can be exploited and how technology transfer officers can initiate and support the transfer. The exploitation process will explain how a transfer officer can impact the exploitation of results by the socio economic environment.

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FITT Toolbox: Exploitation

  1. 1. Exploitation FITT– Fostering Interregional Exchange in ICT Technology Transfer – www.FITT-for-Innovation.euExcept where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
  2. 2. Process “Exploitation” in general  Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) among Universities and Research Centres are created in order to optimize the exploitation of R&D outputs.  Exploitation as such should not be limited to the creation of financial value.  Succesfull exploitation does not depend solely on the TTOs but also rely on the socio-economic environment of the R&D project and the University and/or Research Centre.  TTOs are therefore to be considered either as facilitators or managers of the exploitation process, on a case by case basis.2 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  3. 3. Process “Exploitation” in general  In the activity of IP Management, exploitation is perceived as a legal and business focused activity. Business (see activity “IP Management” for more details about this triangulation) VALUATION EXPLOITATION IP Management PROTECTION Technology Legal3 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  4. 4. TTOs and exploitation services TTOs can support at various levels the exploitation (meaning the active use) of any given asset by it’s socio-economic environment. Such levels are apprehended hereby as opportunities for services, which are : • On demand services • Horizontal integrated services • Vertical integrated services4 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  5. 5. “Exploitation” as on-demand services On demand services related to the exploitation of R&D results • Such services are usually punctual. • At a strategic level, their positioning related to the exploitation plan is purely operational. • In such a scheme, TTOs solely assist the exploitation of R&D results. All exploitation-related decisions are taken at the project level, and the impact of TTOs on exploitation strategies is marginal. TTOs Idea R&D Results Exploitation5 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  6. 6. “Exploitation” as horizontal integrated services Horizontal integrated services for exploitation imply that TTOs have a secondary role related to the exploitation strategy and conduct • TTOs help at optimizing IP protection. • TTOs impact the exploitation strategy by seeking for secondary markets, but they do not influence the R&D process leading to exploitable results. • Compare to on demand services, TTOs have an ability to trully optimize and not only assist the exploitation of project results. Secondary markets TTOs Idea R&D Results Exploitation6 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  7. 7. “Exploitation” as vertical integrated services TTOs positionning their services on a vertical scale impact deeply R&D projects • “Roles” are inverted, in the sens that all R&D projects are managed in order to enrich a strategically managed IP pool. Decisions related to the orientation of research is therefore less in the hands of researchers. • TTOs have a primary role in exploitation strategy, with continuous activities set at a decisionnal level related to the exploitation of the R&D results. Markets Idea R&D TTOs IP Pools Exploitation7 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  8. 8. TTOs role and strategic exploitation impact TTOs Services On Demand Horizontal Vertical integration integration Activities related to Assistance Seek secondary Complete decision exploitation markets control Role related to Marginal Secondary Primaryexploitation strategy Occurrence of Ponctual Frequent Continuous activities Decisionnal levels Operationnal Managerial Strategic8 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  9. 9. Parts of the process The object is not to cover and expose the whole range of practices commonly in use in the field of exploitation. A focus on ICT particular issues in the FITT project propose the following practices: • Practices related to FOSS Licensing • Practice Exploitation Scenarios • Practice Choosing the right license: elements to guide technology transfer officers • Case open source business case • Case ideal technology transfer9 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  10. 10. Practice “FOSS Licensing” FOSS licensing (Free and Open Source Software) Part 1 : Initial guidelines Part 2 : Governance rules Part 3 : Transfer & Licensing out Acquiring Managing Governing Code audit Diffusion Choosing third party the the and and a license software contributions community validation tracking The process is divided in various parts, all of which have an impact on exploitationFree and Open Source licensing is a specific approach to exploitation (freedom is granted to use, modify, distribute, under certain limitations)10 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  11. 11. Practice “Exploitation Scenarios” This practice illustrates various possible exploitation scenarios from R&D to post-project stages The practice relates to other processes such as• Valuation of technologies• Elaboration of transfer scenarios• Management of financial compensation 11 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  12. 12. Practice “Choosing the right license: Elements to guide technology transfer officers” A license is a contract between a software publisher (licensor) & an end user (licensee) governing the usage and redistribution of a software. Software licenses can generally be fit into two categories : proprietary & open source licenses. The practice provides : • definitions of proprietary and open-source licenses • a case study detailing the necessary steps to pick up the right license • a compatibility table for licenses (Cecill, GPL, LGPL, BSD) • practical recommendations12 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  13. 13. Case “Open Source Business” This case exposes the global exploitation strategy (in its legal and business aspects) Case exposed is iText, a pdf generator software licensed under an Open Source license Case exposes some important licensing and IP management aspects which strongly impact the exploitation strategy13 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  14. 14. Case “Ideal transfer case” Case exposes a transfer activity led by INRIA in partnership with Texas Instrument Assets exploited as described in the case range from tacit ideas to codified technology : The whole transfer chain was covered Case is an ideal illustration of a successfull exploitation strategy14 | 03.2011 Exploitation
  15. 15. Suggested Readings Link to code book: intellectual property, intellectual property protection, intellectual property rights, patent, software patent, copyright, invention, inventor, invention disclosure, non disclosure, research result, background, exploitation, valuation, spin off, start-up, standardisation, licensing. Link to relevant websites: • • • http://www.wipo.int15 | 03.2011 Exploitation