Gender analysis of agricultural value chains


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  • Welcome remarks
  • Gender is a social construct that refers to relations between and among the sexes, based on their relative roles. It encompasses the economic, political, and socio-cultural attributes, constraints, and opportunities associated with being male or female. As a social construct, gender varies across cultures, is dynamic, and open to change over time. Because of the variation in gender across cultures and over time, gender roles should not be assumed but investigated. Gender roles are shaped by ideological, religious, ethnic, economic and cultural factors, and are a key determinant of the distribution of responsibilities and resources between men and women This distribution can be changed through conscious social action Gender and sex are not synonyms Note that “gender” is not interchangeable with “women” or “sex.” Sex is fixed Gender roles change - Value chains encompass the full range of activities and services required to bring a product or service from its conception to sale in its final markets—whether local, national, regional or global. Value chains include input suppliers, producers, processors and buyers. They are supported by a range of technical, business and financial service providers. or contact Ruth Campbell, ACDI/VOCA AMAP Program Manager ( “ a series of sequential activities where at each step in the process the product passing through the chain of activities gains some value Meridian institute a value chain describes the full range of activities required to bring a product or service through the different phases of production, including physical transformation, the input of various producer services, and response to consumer demand.12 As such, value chains include the vertically linked interdependent processes that generate value for the consumer. A METHODOLOGICAL GUIDE Tools That Make Value Chains Work: Discussion and Cases Martin Webber, J.E. Austin Associates, Inc. Program Director: Patrick Labaste, The World Bank
  • Need for data to inform programming – Capacity and skills Appropriate tools -
  • There is a lack of holistic GVCA done (i.e. tracing out a whole chain and collecting sex-disaggregated data), resulting in a lack of information to inform gender aware agriculture programming The quality of evaluations of existing GVC work (i.e. interventions in chains to promote women’s involvement) is poor and there is a complete lack of sex-disaggregated value chain data Only a narrow range of crops have been covered through VCA or GVCA; similarly a narrow range has been included in reviews/assessments of interventions in chains Chain aspects studied Approaches are more often gender neutral than gender transformative Little attention is paid to the wider impacts of women’s chain participation or changes in this participation WHO ARE Involvement Various – international, national etc Inadequate capacity Little resources Reflected in the quality of data HOW TO Existing gender focused tools and manuals need improvement - weak
  • Different profiles of women (married/unmarried – school/out of school – rural vs urban) Assess variation in access to and control over economic resources Better informed gender aware programs that address the gaps in access and control towards constraints and women’s participation and benefits from the chains. ID sources of gender inequality, underlying women’s differential access to resources and ability to control the benefits of their economic participation Wider institutional implications – policies?
  • Two rapid assessments in western Kenya involving self help groups
  • Gender analysis of agricultural value chains

    1. 2. Advancing agri-practice: Adding Value for Women Making the Case for Gender Analysis of Agricultural Value Chains
    2. 3. Session Outline <ul><li>Important terminologies </li></ul><ul><li>Why focus on gender analysis of agricultural value chains </li></ul><ul><li>Current state of knowledge and practice </li></ul><ul><li>A preliminary theory of change </li></ul>
    3. 4. General definitions <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender: socially and culturally defined meanings associated with being a man or woman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis of agricultural value chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID different roles of men and women; outcomes to men and women at different nodes of VC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A value chain encompasses the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service from conception through the different phases of production to delivery to the final consumer and final disposal after use – Asareca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ value added along the chain at the nodes” </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Typical agricultural value chain <ul><li>Seed suppliers -> Farmers -> Traders -> Processors -> Exporters/importers -> Retailers ->Consumers -> Waste </li></ul>
    5. 6. Preliminary map - HONEY Inputs - hives - protective materials Production honey Traders honey Marketing finished products Honey export market Provide the protective clothing Women homeworkers in hive production? Daughters helping with protective clothing? Women shopworkers/wives of traders? Mothers might buy nutritious products on local markets? Women and girls on family farms? Women shopworkers/wives of traders? Some visible/ invisible women stakeholders Modified from Mayoux and Mackie 2007, ILO
    6. 7. Jon Hellin and Madelon Meijer - FAO
    7. 8. <ul><li>Many types of agric value chains – simple to complex, depth, width and breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Demand managed value chains – big commercial markets, national, international commercial value chains </li></ul><ul><li>Supply driven value chains - </li></ul><ul><li>Micro value chains – localized, simple and short </li></ul>
    8. 9. Why Focus on Gender Analysis of Agricultural Value Chains <ul><li>GAAVC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying a gender analysis to agricultural value chains – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>analyzing gender relations, power, roles and outcomes, and not just describing differences but assessing their causes (apply definition of gender analysis); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it differs from gender and ag VCs – not just describing where women are, what they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>analyzing gender relations within chains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those where women have roles and where roles are less visible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ID opportunities in chains women are less visible and in nodes where women are less visible </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Significance of agriculture in SSA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver of economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small holders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercialization of agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disproportionate distribution of benefits between men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for better, gender transformative programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remunerate and incentivize for enhanced participation and food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Theory of change for knowledge-based gender-transformative agricultural development Gender-based Knowledge & Capacity Building in Agriculture <ul><li>Gender strategies </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning by doing” </li></ul><ul><li>Technical assistance </li></ul>Program Implementation & Monitoring Program Evaluation Knowledge Collection and Dissemination <ul><li>Databank on gender roles & relations in commodity chains </li></ul><ul><li>Databank of promising programmatic practices </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of best practices, lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination via conferences, web-for a, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence on promising practices </li></ul><ul><li>Program staff capacity strengthened on gender, agriculture & M&E </li></ul>Program & M&E Design <ul><li>Gender-transformative approaches </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Learning by doing’ </li></ul>Gender-disaggregated data informs Improved Engagement of Women (and Men) Farmers <ul><li>Inclusive outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive access to development resources </li></ul>Women and men farmers consulted Knowledge shared with: <ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Women & men farmers </li></ul>More & better evidence informs practice Monitoring data used to “fine-tune” intervention <ul><li>Women share (with men) benefits of improvements (e.g. food security, yields, income) </li></ul><ul><li>Families, communities & society benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Women more empowered; gender relations improve </li></ul>Better Impact
    11. 12. <ul><li>Recent literature review of GAVC - ICRW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lit scanty and scattered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who are involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Current State of Knowledge and Practice in Gender and AVC </li></ul><ul><li>A gender analysis of AVC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of value chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roles of men and women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program and development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. “Micro” Value Chains <ul><li>Small in scale </li></ul><ul><li>Largely localized </li></ul><ul><li>Use local resource </li></ul><ul><li>Entail value addition at a cottage industry level </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for scaling up </li></ul><ul><li>Many under control and management of women (either as individuals or organized in groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Faces many challenges – recognition, skills, equipment, capital, markets </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Based on our presentations, AVC is way to go, but we must examine them from a gender lens; e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory and collaborative efforts among interested parties to promote GAAVC to address issues on GAAVC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory review and development of tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to re-examine the skills and capacity to drive this agenda forward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine policy gaps and determine a way forward of addressing them? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>The end </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>