Gender in Agricultural programs: Learningfrom PracticeWorkshop on Improving agri-practice: addingvalue for Women in Agriculture-ICRW24th May 2011,Gerald Mutinda- East Africa Dairy Development Project, Nairobi
OverviewBrief about EADD,How Gender Analysis was conductedThe kinds of Data collected & at what NodesHow data was/is used to shape implementation &outcomesBottlenecks during implementation associated to lack ofgender dataConclusions & lessons
EADD in brief• A 4 (& ½) years smallholder dairy project• Vision-Double dairy income in 179,000 families• Knowledge based interventions to: • Sustainably increase dairy productivity & efficiency • Expand dairy markets and increase access• Through the dairy-hub approach• Countries; Kenya, Rwanda & Uganda• A consortium of partners led by Heifer international- Technoserve, ILRI, ICRAF, ABS• Funded by BMG Foundation
1. Dairy sub-sector value chain analysisValue chain of both formal and informal market is •Analysis notfragmented, with low level of vertical integration sufficiently Chilling Processin Transport/d Gendered Production Transport and Retail bulking g istribution •Very minimalPlayers • ~ 1.8 M • Large • A number of • 34 • Informal: a • Mobile: a gender smallholders number of bulking registered, 3 number of large • ~ 5K large individuals using bike, centers large brokers and hawkers number of traders disaggregation farms • ~ 70 chilling foot or vehicles plants, not all operational • Formal: a number of selling milk door to door of data agents and distributors • Fixed: kiosks, •Data collected; stores, supermarke production, tsIntegration • Can be • Owned by • Own chilling • Producers Transport, done by either plants and and producers or producers or some parts of transporters Chilling & by processors, transport sometimes processors when they some donor- funded chain sell milk directly to Bulking; buy directly from end consumer processing producers Distribution & Informal and formal Source: Formal Source: Interviews, market research, KDB, IFC, ILRI 19 Retailing
The first transportation mean is usually a Transportbike, foot or donkey Chilling plant Sector characteristics Br ok • Maximum capacity ~100lt er /ha • Average distance 10-30km wk er • Buys milk at 7-8 am, delivers by 9,10 s am, a maximum of one run a day • Earn a spread of ~ 4Ksh/liter (buy at 17Ksh, sell at 21ksh) • Successful transporters have long term relationships with buyers and sellers • Most pay cash to producers, some extend cash advances Source: Interviews The link to markets-”transportation” extremely male (youths) dominated 7
2. Project baseline survey-Dedicated a whole chapter on; “Gender, dairyproduction and marketing”Focused more on Household productiondynamicsData was gender disaggregated to a great extent Is Gender blind VCA a missed opportunity?; Project Baseline can be remedial
Project baseline survey- Kind of DataGeneral household characteristics – headship & farm management (Resources, age, experience farming, years of schooling Patterns of ownership-livestock & other assets; Electronic, communication, transport related, farm equipment and tools Access to & use of general & livestock technologies-irrigation, improved breeding strategies-A.I. Expenditure on livestock services Access to & use of other services (credit, training, membership in groups, investing credit to dairying, reasons not accessing credit) Decision making patterns (e.g. use of A.I, sale of milk, dominance influence or joint, Participation in milk markets & membership in Coops- proportion selling milk, Who receives money from sale of milk- morning and evening milk, formal and traditional markets
Usage of data to shape implementation & outcomes A gender strategy was developed- informed by the baseline survey & other field analysis; site specific gender analyses- e.g. division of labor in pastoralist sites, Based on the gender strategy and review of field experiences, ◦ Results oriented annual action plans are developed ◦ Mainstream M & E outcomes, outputs, targets and milestones were reviewed- Engendered ◦ Training and staff capacity development programme developed.
Gender strategy- Household dynamics & Production Key issue 11. Decision making at the production level still largely remain with men Low women decision / joint decision • Targeted gender training in groups making in livestock issues • Exposure visits for both men and women that demonstrate benefits of shared decision making and women’s involvements e.g visits to successful dairy women farmers Key issue 12. Move from pastoralists’ to intensive system of farming where women have higher workload with no revenue. Women are thus resisting change a) Added labour for women e.g feeding • Analyse the labour issues involved in shifts from and watering of cows in intensive and pastoral system to the intensive system for women zero grazed systems and yet no additional income for them
Gender strategy- Participation in Farmer marketing groupsKey issue 8: Low registration of women in groups. While joint registration has been taken up, it has its own shortcomings andnames are on paper but women still do not participate Men are the decision makers • Sensitization to both men and women during the group formation when it comes to registration in processes of the benefits of having more than one registered groups. member of family. • More actively combine use of women groups and mixed groupsKey issue 9: Women not actively taking up leadership roles and when they do, they are taking the roles of treasurer orSecretary in groups Women not taking up leadership Gender sensitization to the executive committee positions in groups and DFBAs/ • Empowerment training for women leaders/ potential leaders that co-operatives includes basic training on leadership skills, organizational and facilitation skills • Develop a mentoring system for women leaders and potential leaders that include exchange visits to groups led by other women • Strengthen roles taken by women leaders by making them participate in sub-committees.
Gender strategy- Chilling & bulking issuesKey Issue 6: Milk is delivered to CPs by women but money is collected by men/husbands. As a result, some women divert milkfrom the chilling plants. Money is also diverted due to the payment schedule of the chilling plant (monthly/ or bi weekly) Although joint registration has been • Group discussions with women on possible solutions implemented, it has its own short • Test strategies such as group registration of women in the comings in that names are on paper chilling plants but women still do not receive the money from milk sales Women keep more and have more • Combine both formal and informal milk marketing to ensure control of milk sold in the evening to women do not lose control of milk income. informal markets compared to milk • Encourage registration of women in the chilling plants going to chilling plants
Bottlenecks Sluggish uptake of the practice of gender disaggregating data/information, Which constrained planning & gender responsiveness of the project, Low appreciation of the inherent gender inequity ◦ = limited commitment & accountability among staff Anecdotal gender outcomes concealed
Lessons A gender aware livestock project is not just a technical project!- is compelled to indulge in HH/community dynamics, Capacity of project staff on gender is often assumed leading to missed opportunities Women likely to curve new roles in the Traditional markets compared to more formal CP hubs (a research question!) Male farmers are interested in change, especially when it makes a business sense to HH wellbeing!