Vibro acoustics catalogue


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Vibro-acoustics catalogue ICR, Ingeniería para el Control del Ruido

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Vibro acoustics catalogue

  1. 1. Acoustic & Vibration Engineering ServicesVIBR0-ACOUSTICS
  2. 2. Analyser FFT 32 channelsA WORK METHODMeasurements in Real TimeHistoryIngeniería para el Control del Ruido (ICR) is acompany located in Barcelona dedicated tosolving noise and vibrations problems. Foun-ded in 1995 by professionals with more than20 year of experience in the field of vibro-acoustics, ICR offers recent analysis methodsfor railways, automotive, wind power, indus-try and civil engineering sectors.The company’s goal has always been to offerthe right and most efficient solution for eachvibro-acoustic problem. To do so, most ofICR efforts have been focused on R+D, withthe objective to develop new predictive andanalysis methods.This company innovativeprofile has allowed ICR to take part in nume-rous highly technological projects, both natio-nal and international. In some cases, theseprojects were focused on a technology trans-fer from ICR to the main European rollingstock manufacturers.The company staff is formed by PhD, physi-cistsand engineers. This combined knowled-ge and experience allows the company toanalyze any vibro-acoustic problem from aglobal and specialized point of view. The re-sult is always a good diagnostic of the noiseand vibration problema and the proposal ofthe best solution.Solutions to noise and vibrationproblemsICR offers solutions to noise and vibrationproblems of its customers. This can be doneeither by solving the problems once they aredetected, or what is better, by trying to pre-vent and avoid them at the product designstage. Every problem receives an individualattention and the best analysis options andproceeding alternatives are chosen for it.This includes the use of standard engineeringmethods or the use of ICR developed met-hods and analysis techniques.ICR includes acoustics studies, noise measu-rements, vibrations analysis, environmentalimpact studies, noise maps, software deve-lopment, acoustic insulation studies, acousticbarrier design, noise and vibration analysispaths, etc.ICR has up to 48 channels to measure noiseand vibrations simultaneously, with therequired accelerometers and microphones.All these elements analyse the signalaccording to the frequency and in real time— they can analyse spectra, transfer func-tions, coherence...The tests required in ICR can be performedeffectively with the goal of finding solutionsfor real problems of noise and vibration. Thisis possible thanks to the simultaneous con-trol of a large amount of measurementpoints.Our commitment is to always guarantee thebest solution for each vibro-acoustic prob-lem. The experience acquired working formore than 20 years has shown us that eachproblem of sound and vibration is unique andrequires a right answer. For this reason,large part of the company’s investments aremade in research and development in orderto always offer an efficient solution for yourproblem of noise and vibration.
  3. 3. RailwayICR has achieved an important position in therailway acoustic engineering sector in the lastdecade, thanks to its prediction techniques,based on real measurements and the appli-cation of the company’s own theoreticalmethods.The company is able to measure air-bornenoise and structural noise, including the con-tribution of forces (Transfer Path Analysis)and the quantification of the paths followedby noise and vibrations (Advanced TransferPath Analysis).ICR’s clients will be able to know exactly howmuch noise is made by each element of thetrain, for example, the noise received fromeach point of attachment, the air condition-ing, the auxiliary systems, etc.This way, the manufacturer can decide, withthe information available, whether to changethe anchoring methods and establish priori-ties for future modifications. For this, thecompany uses exact numerical criteria fromthe results that can be obtained from eachmodification.The knowledge of these contributions doesnot only establish priorities for modifica-tions—in some cases it can reduce costs be-cause after each test, ICR evaluates improve-ments with its own software for a new designand defines the necessary changes to fulfilthe required objectives.Thanks to its experience, ICR hassound knowledge and latestgeneration systems for the sector.Graphic of contributionsBased on these studies, ICR carries out othertypes of jobs in the railway sector—some ofthem are specific to the sector, like the treat-ment of “squeal noise”. Others, however,have a more generic application, like the en-vironmental impact analysis, modal analysis,theoretical numerical models of the train,etc.Thanks to the company’s wide experience inthis market, it is able to solve any vi-broacoustic problems.The full acoustic model of a trainenables clients to see the effectproduced by any modificationson the design.Activate or deactivate anymodification and find out instantlyabout its effect on the total noise.Experimental setupENGINEERING SERVICES
  4. 4. Sound power level measurement according tostandard IEC 61400 part 11Wind farm are gradually being built closer tobuilt-up areas and the noise they produce isstarting to be an essential factor in theirfeasibility. In order to establish this feasibilityin terms of acoustic impact on the environ-ment, ICR carries out a comprehensive studyto make sure that regulations are compliedwith.It also develops more specific and largerprojects in the design stage of wind turbines,with the aim of obtaining real predictions forthe future vibroacoustic performance or themechanism.Training is so another very important servicein the wind power sector. ICR gives veryspecific courses to companies that manufac-ture wind-driven turbines, with a syllabus thatis adapted to the sector and introducedconcepts on acoustics and its relation withcurrent legislation.Wind PowerEnvironmental impact study of the wind farmICR works on the acoustic feasibilitythe wind turbine in design phaseas the environmental control ofthe wind farm.ENGINEERING SERVICES
  5. 5. People’s peace and quiet is often disturb bydifferent problems — entertainment, fairs,bars, discos, etc. To avoid this problem, cur-rent legislation establishes the maximumimmission level allowed for every activity de-pending on the area, as well as the insulationvalues for each type of activity.Taking this into account, ICR mainly developstwo types of studies:The objective of the first study is to assessand prevent the noise level generated by theactivities outside. This type of analysis iscarried out especially at discos, fairs,recreational centres, etc.The second one studies the transmissionpaths of noise and vibrations inside abuilding. The aim of these projects is to as-sess the sound insulation between theaffected buildings.The company also carries out comprehen-sive interior acoustics projects (geometry,absorption, diffusion) in the field ofaudiovisuals—installing a sound system,mixing and recording systems, and control ordesign of new and quieter recreationalcentres.Improve the insulation of a discothequeBuildingICR offers a wide range of engineeringservices and vibroacoustic consultancyservice focused on the sector of architectureand building, namely:Functional solutionsInsulation calculationAcoustic and vibration measurementsControl and monitoring worksAcoustic conditioning and insulation designAcoustic and vibratory impact studyFinally, we have to mention that ICR hasdeveloped new systems to identify the sourceof noise and vibrations in buildings, usingmodel inversion and other methods like TPA.In the building sector, the company takespart in special and very complex projects, inwhich it evaluates the future influence ofenvironmental vibrations in buildings wherethe maximum vibration level is veryrestricted.This study is carried out firstly by calculatingthe environmental vibrations that may affectthe installations, and secondly, bycharacterising the terrain with the SASWmethod (Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves).The data obtained is used to create a finiteelement model of the terrain and thebuilding.Noise prediction radiated by equipmentsSpecial BuildingsENGINEERING SERVICES
  6. 6. ICR carries out projects and evaluation measurements every day to calculatethe impact of roads and railway tracks.Acoustic impact by road traffic in Ronda de Daltof BarcelonaEnvironmental ImpactThe concern for noise impact created by thenew high-speed train tracks is no longer asecondary factor when planning infrastruc-tures.ICR carries out environmental projects to pre-dict noise and vibrations with a methodologybased generally on the combination of thecalculation of noise prediction with acousticmeasurements. ICR believes that measuringproperly will lead to a good vibroacousticcharacterisation of the terrain, and therefore,to a good numerical model.The company also has the best calculationtools, such as CADNA A and SOUNDPLAN,which enables us to obtain highly reliableresults for our most demanding clients.Noise predictions for trains and road trafficare currently regulated by European stan-dards, which are integrated into the com-pany’s calculation procedures.Acoustic impact caused by the train circulationin GironaAutomotiveOur work in the car industry ranges from ex-perimental studies on the transmission pathsof noise and vibrations, to the creation oftheoretical models to predict the noise oftraffic.We must not forget the development of newtesting methods that optimise time and costsin the current methodology to characterise avehicle.Because the methods we use are transpar-ent, our clients have been able to gain moreinsight into vibroacoustics and thus reducecosts when resolving noise and vibrationproblems.Most acoustics laboratoriesof car industries apply theoreticalapproach of TPA/ATPAdeveloped by ICRTo determine the noise transmission pathsof each of the interior panels of vehicleENGINEERING SERVICES
  7. 7. IndustryIn the 21stcentury, uncontrolled noise and vibrationin a machine mean low quality.sources of noise that can be treated sepa-rately, in order to design an intelligent noisetreatment for each one of them.Acoustic impact study in the chemical plantin ToulouseDeciding on the appropriate solutions to re-duce the noise that an industrial plant gener-ates in its environmental is often a difficultjob. To decide, the first step is to quantify theinfluence of each source of noise on the totalnoise in the affected points.ICR uses model inversion methods to obtainthe acoustic power (SWL) of all the sources ofnoise an vibrations belonging to a factory,without having to interrupt its operation.Then, we can decide in which order to silencethem and calculate how the situation im-proves with the proposed modifications.ICR also uses this methodology to measurethe noise from outside and achieve the re-quired reduction of the noise made by a ma-chine (blower, shotblaster, etc.), in order tocomply with the regulations and prevent theproblem-machine from getting closed down.The treatment is feasible because theproblem-machine is divided into a group ofMeasurements of modal behaviour in the industrial factoryENGINEERING SERVICES
  8. 8. ICR+ is the service offered by ICR for the in-tegration of its vibroacoustic experts toclients projects. Our vibroacoustic engine-ers move to clients premises in order to beresponsible of the vibroacoustic aspects or toget adapted into the clients methodology ofwork.The displaced experts team have ICR techni-cal support continuously. Moreover, each en-gineer constantly receives training in thecompany techniques and methods. ICR+ vi-broacoustic services allows integrate toclients internal team a specialized knowled-ge in order to attend specific requirements,offering a feasible alternative to the incorpo-ration of an expert in the clients staff.Integration of acousticengineering servicesOur vibro-acoustics experts, have ICR sup-port and experience during the period of thecontract. These acoustic engineering ser-vices could cover all project stages:Offer or specification phase: predictive cal-culations… Design stage: noise and vibration studies,experimental test, noise and vibration meas-urements, design of solutions …Phase monitoring of suppliersValidation: verification of the vibro-acousticresults obtained in the final product.Depending on the means of calculation andmeasuring available for the client, the dis-placed acoustic experts can also analyse: Material selection which best suits withproduct technical specifications. Specification testing absorbent materialsand insulators. Simple calculations: barriers, enclosures,absorption, insulation, etc.Vibro-acoustic numerical model. Calculations of dynamic response of struc-tures.Noise and vibration test according to regu-lations or client requirements.Etc.Trough the incorporation of ICR engineers inthe clients projects, it is possible to improvetheir competitiveness offering professionalengineering services in design, measurement,calculation and simulation.ICR+ frame of operation covers Railways,automotive, wind power and constructionsectors.ICR integrates its experts in theclient’s projects, taking responsibilityof the vibro-acoustic aspects andadapting to their work methods.ACOUSTIC EXPERTS INTEGRATED IN YOUR PROJECTS
  9. 9. ValuesICR+establishes a relationship with the clientbased on proximity, rigor, transparency andconfidentiality. The goal is to guarantee aservice according to client internal needs ineach moment.Proximity: our model of work requires be-ing always close of every project and our en-gineers in order to offer the best service in apersonalized way. Rigor: by a continuous advice, ICR ensurethe same rigor and efficiency required intheir daily work Transparency: the clients have total trans-parency in each of the steps taken during theduration of each work. By this way, the clientget the necessary know-how for choosing thebest option for each situation. Confidetiality: ICR ensures the maximunconfidentiality in all the process carried outwith the client internal team.BenefitsOur proposal is based in the efficient use ofmethodologies of work methodologies for theproject management and the staff, highlyqualified, experienced and committed to thecompany and to develop projects for our cli-ents.With ICR+ you will obtain: Experience and knowledge: professionalexperts in acoustic engineering and vibrationwith high knowdlege in the most advancedtechnologies of the market.Quality and rapidity response.Compromise: our experts adapt to client’swork environment and shows every day astrong involvement in the projects in whichthey are assigned.INTEGRACIÓN DE EXPERTOS EN SUS PROYECTOSRigorConfidentiality TransparencyProximity
  10. 10. ICR has always invested time and resourcedto provide training in vibroacoustics, atdifferent levels.So, ICR has courses like that:Basic AcousticAdvanced AcousticInsulationVibrationsEnvironmental ImpactAeroacousticsCourse about Advanced acousticAt ICR there are highly qualified professionalswho are able to give courses on differentnoise and vibration topics.The training they give can fully adapt to theclient’s needs. It always includes a syllabusdivided into two parts — the first part with ageneric introduction of vibroacoustics, and asecond specialised part, based on contentsthat are much more specific and adapted tothe corresponding sector.These tailor-made courses enable us to guar-antee a sound theoretical knowledge, and, ifrequired, also practical knowledge, becausethe client’s interest is the only limit.One of ICR’s policies is always to be one stepahead. This is proved in the field ofcalculation tools, where the company hasevolved significantly — it currently offers aspecific service to develop custom-madeprogrammes.It has programmed specific software for thequality control of the production line, formeasuring instruments, for signal treatment,and even software for methods like TPA(Transfer Path Analysis).TrainingTechnical and specific training whichno needs previous knowledge.SoftwareOne of the programmes worth highlighting isthe programmes for the prediction of soundinsulation — dBKAisla. It has been designedto calculate the insulation of single panels,multiple panels (double, triple, quadruple,etc.) and mixed panels, to offer the user theoption of calculating a group of specific solu-tions for each face.dBKAisla also enables the development of thecalculation of insulation from air-borne noiseand impact noise between two buildings,taking into account lateral transmissionpaths according to the detailed method ofthe UNE-EN 12354 standard (regulationestablished and recommended by the DB-HRof the Spanish Building Technical Code).OTHER SERVICESdBKAislaTreatment software, frequency analysis andvisualisation of bridge vibration signals
  11. 11. ICR has always tried to be up to the techno-logical standard that is required, so it hasinvested time and money in its resources inorder to provide its clients with the most de-tailed and specific solutions in every case.Thanks to this it has achieved significant ad-vantages in the market, providing theoreticalsolutions as well as designing new experi-mental technologies within the vibroacousticfield. .Some of ICR’s most important research fieldsare: aeroacoustics, TPA, software develop-ment, model inversion, dynamic characterisa-tion of the terrain, design of materials, silenc-ers, acoustic photography, etc.The R+D projects in which the company hastaken part have received public and privatefunding.Certain innovations achieved by the companyhave been exhibited at conferences or pub-lished in science articles and technical re-ports and national and European magazines.For example, the mathematical bases of theTPA method have been published in the mostimportant international magazines and theyhave even been transferred to large multina-tional corporations.Research & DevelopmentStructural transmission of signalsThanks to the company’s ongoing Research &Development, most of the methods that ICRuses every day have been designed in-house.The company has also adapted commercialmethods.Then, some of these methods are briefly out-lined.Carry out an insulation treatment while the factory was in full operationFIRST SITUATIONCURRENT SITUATIONSoundproofed MachineEXPECTED IMPROVEMENT —> 15dBAOBTAINED IMPROVEMENT —> 14dBAA problem well posedis usually a problem solvedR+D
  12. 12. Because there are not many analysis resources on the market, ICR has beenmotivated to adapt several methods in the science of vibroacoustics.Motor-drive coupling calculation by FEMNumerical MethodsFEM (Finite Element Method) and BEM(Boundary Element Method) are powerfulprediction methods for low frequencies. Bothof them are used to resolve vibroacousticproblems straight from the design and canestablish the exact validity of any solutionsproposed by clients.With these numerical methods, ICR evaluatesthe dynamic performance of structures withthe introduction of forces—mechanical,acoustic or aerodynamic. For example, theycan determinate the vibration response of atrain carriage in the excitation that the en-gines, the auxiliary systems, etc. Introduce,taking into account the different middlestructures.So, FEM and BEM can provide prediction ofnoise and vibrations in the design stage, thusavoiding problems in the final product.Other numerical methods such as the waveequation or WEM (Wave ExpansionModel Inversion MethodThe core idea of the application of model in-version is to achieve the calculation of thecauses based on the effects, using a cause-effect relation.Model Inversion method is a mathematicaltechnique developed in geophysics, whichICR has applied to vibroacoustics.In this case, inversion is applicable to theestablishment of the acoustic power of a col-lection of sources, which we know producecertain noise in a group of measured points.This involves using mathematical methodslinked with statistics and uncertainty.Method) are among the many numericalmethods used at ICR, according to therequirements of each study.ICR integrates vibroacousticsinto the design stageAcoustic power of panels of a carTECHNIQUES/METODOLOGY
  13. 13. Process of Transmission Path AnalysisTPA / ATPATransmission Path Analysis is a techniqueinvented in the 1980s and developed exten-sively by ICR, especially in the treatment ofpaths and the application of the vibroacous-tics energy theory.This system quantifies the contributions ofeach one of the sources of noise that causesa problem and can be applied in general, thatis, it is valid for all fields. For example, on atrain, each one of the parts of the vehicle thatmakes a certain noise can be analysed. Andthis can also be done in heavy machinery,small mechanisms, etc.The main idea of this analysis is that the ob-ject to be studied is divided into parts andthe contribution of each part to the overallnoise is defined. This is the only way to findthe best solutions to the problem.With this method we can also evaluate theforces that operate on a mechanical system,for example, dynamic forces that an enginecan introduce into the bodywork of a vehicle.This provides solutions that reduce forces —changing the points of support or the use ofappropriate elastic support devices.So, with this test method and a theoreticaldevelopment, we can obtain the necessarydata to define the necessary improvements toresolve the problem.Examples of TPA/ATPA application in diferents sectorsICR gives ongoing training in all thedisciplines that gradually improveprediction.TECHNIQUES/METODOLOGY
  14. 14. Aeroacoustics calculationsA problem with vibrations can have differentorigins and natures. For example, it cancome from a source of noise, of electromag-netic forces, or dynamic unbalance.Fluid motion around a body (a train, a car, ablower, etc.) at great speed is an importantsource of noise and vibrations. The sciencethat studies this phenomenon is Aeroacous-tics.ICR is currently working on the prediction ofinterior noise caused by aerodynamic effects,either in a train running at high speed, or in awind-driven generator.Aeroacoustic study of a trainUntil recently, it was inconceivable that anyprediction could be made in the field ofaeroacoustics. However, computing hasadvanced so much that very complex calcula-tions can be carried out now.ICR has its own calculation methods in thelatest CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)and CAA (Computational Aeroacoustics),which, combined with the classic FEM andBEMs, enable the company to quantify thecontribution of the aerodynamic load in thevibration of a structure or the noise inside avehicle.The modal or experimental analysis, or withnumerical methods, involves establishing theparameters of each one of vibration modes ofa structure, which are the natural vibrationfrequency, mode shepes and damping.Vibration in the low frequency range in anystructure can be obtained as the superimpo-sition of the contribution of each of themodes. For the calculation of the contributionof each mode you only need the vibrationalexcitation force and modal parametersmentioned above, so the analysis results of astructure enable the calculation of thevibrational response when it is subject to anyexcitation.Because we are able to know the contributionof each mode, the corrective measurementsto be taken to reduce the level of global vibra-tions effectively can be focused on the pre-ponderant vibration modes. ICR has success-fully applied these techniques in many differ-ent fields of industry.TECHNIQUES/METODOLOGYModal Analysis of a structureVibrations control is acurrent work of ICRModal Analysis
  15. 15. TECHNIQUES/METODOLOGYICR applies its knowledge to any field,when it is required.The final result is Know-How for themanufacturing company, which is asolid base of knowledge that can beused in the future, once it has beenintroduced into the production cycle.Statistical Energy Analysis(SEA)Ratiation Acoustic calculation (right) from the velocity distribution (left)Ray-TracingWhether it happens because of the buildings’acoustics or propagation outside, this tech-nique is based on step-by-step calculationsthat provide results in the case of homogene-ous environments.In the high frequency limit, the wave equationturns into an eikonal equation that enablesthe interpretation of the noise propagationwith rays.Ray-Tracing predictionFor medium and high frequencies,ICR has wide experience in the fieldof energy theories.The high frequency study in complex systemscannot be studied with wave equations.The methodology that is normally used isSEA (Statistical Energy Analysis), avibroacoustic calculation method based onenergy transfer between the parts of thesystem. These transfers are characterisedwith coupling factors that depend on themodal density.Complex systems with medium to highfrequencies can be studied with the SEA, inorder to make more realistic diagnoses,which is unfeasible and impossible with othertechniques.
  16. 16. Source localisation technology canbe the first step to approach avibroacoustic problem.Acoustic Antennas are microphone networksthat show the direction from which the noisecomes from, by processing the signalsreceived.Acoustic antennas are generally based on ahypothesis of the emitted sound field, like,for example, flat waves, spherical waves, etc.ICR also has correlation antennas that evenlocate noise in reverberating fields.Noise sources localisation on a movement carTECHNIQUES/METODOLOGYSources LocalisationAcoustic Holographic is a specific inversiontechnique which calculates the vibrations in avibrating body, based on the pressuresmeasured in the sound field of the body.This is carried out with Green’s integral equa-tion, which applies both variables—pressureon space and speed on a closed surface.Graphic of acoustic antenna sensivitySoftware to obtain the acoustic photographyOne of ICR’s main objectives is to quantifyand locate the sources of noise andvibrations, in order to optimise the solutionto a vibroacoustic problem. For this, thereare methods like holography and acousticantennas.
  18. 18. AbstractsMODEL INVERSION METHODAn model inversion method to obtain the acoustic power of the noise sources in a largefactory.O. Guasch, F.X. Magrans & P.V. Rodríguez. Applied Acoustics 63, pp. 401-417 (2002).AbstractA common problem for large factories that wish to decrease their environmental acoustic im-pact on neighbouring locations is to find out the acoustic power of every noise source. As thesefactories cannot stop their activity in order to measure each source individually, a procedure isneeded to obtain the acoustic powers with the factory under normal operating conditions. Theircontribution to the overall sound pressure level at each neighbouring location can then be ob-tained and it is possible to calculate the improvements obtained after any modification of thesources. In this paper an inversion modelling method is used to do so. Acoustic powers areobtained by means of field sound pressure level measurements and with the use of a soundpropagation software. A careful analysis of the solution has been carried out by simulating er-rors on the measured data in order to detect possible correlations between the acoustic powerof different sources and avoid misleading interpretations of the results. The whole methodologyhas been applied to a liquid-gas production factory. An model inversion method to obtain the acoustic power of a car cabin panels in themid-high frequency range.O. Guasch, F.X. Magrans & P.V. Rodríguez. Proceedings of the 14 Jornada Técnica de Au-tomoción, UPNA-STA. Pamplona, (2002).AbstractThe Inverse Problem Theory is a quite complete mathematical theory that integrates methodsfor extracting as much information as possible from measured data, in order to find the mostprobable values for an a priori unknown physical model. It is based on probability calculus andbrings a natural extension of the minimax, least absolute and least squares optimisation crite-ria. The theory has found several applications in a wide variety of fields such as mathematics,astrophysics, geophysics, engineering or economy.In this paper, the theory is applied to reconstruct the medium-high frequency acoustic field inthe cabin of a Ferrari 456. The acoustic powers of the car cabin panels are obtained by meansof sound pressure spectra measurements and with the use of a diffuse model of radiation fol-lowing Lambert’s law. Once all the acoustic powers are known, their influence to the acousticpressure at any point inside the car cabin can be calculated. A careful analysis of the solutionhas been performed by simulating errors on the measured data in order to obtain correlationsamong the acoustic powers and avoid a misleading interpretation of the results. The methodhas proved encouraging and saves a large amount of time when compared with more classicalapproaches.Then, you will find some scientific articles and technical papers about R+D by ICR,which had been published in prestigious journals.PAPERS
  19. 19. An innovative approach for the noise reconstruction and analysis at the medium-highfrequencies.O. Guasch, F.X. Magrans, P.V. Rodriguez & G. Manacorda, Proceedings of Euro-Noise,Munich, Germany, October, Vol. I, pp.503-509 (1998).AbstractIn the last 30 years the Inverse Problem Theory has been mainly developed by geophysicianstrying to model the Earth’s interior from data collected at the Earth´s surface. As the Earth’sinterior is unaccessible, methods for extracting as much information as possible from data hadbeen carried out. These methods turned out to be really efficient and have been applied tomany other fields of applied physics and mathematics, engineering and economy. A quite com-plete mathematic theory has been built for them.In our study we used some of these methods to reconstruct the medium-high frequencies noisefield in the cabin of the new Ferrari 456. Our purpose was to know in what ways each of thepanels in the total interior surface contribute to the measured noise at different points in thecabin. The results we obtained are very hopeful and we think that will improve in the future aswe will have more information and a priori data to manage.TRANSMISSION PATH ANALYSISPath AnalysisF.X.Magrans, Proceedings Nag Daga (2009)AbstractThe title of this paper is Path Analysis, and not Transfer Path Analysis, because the latter namehas been assigned to the Forces method which, as it is used, is a contribution analysis method,more than a path method.The origins of the method lie in the need to solve two different problems. The first problem con-sists in quantifying the contribution of each part of a vibrating system to the total noise meas-ured at a given location. This problem will be called problem A. The second one, called prob-lem B, consists in determining the noise produced by each one of the forces acting on a me-chanical system.In the 60’s the method used to solve the problem A was called the “Strip” method. In thismethod the noisy object was totally covered with insulating blankets in order to attain a veryreduced noise. Then the surfaces were uncovered one by one and the contributions of each sur-face deduced from measurements. The “Strip” method has been applied to motors, whole carsor even to whole train coachs, and it is still being applied today.A typical case of problem B was to estimate the contributions to interior noise of each one ofthe engine supports on a car. In order to solve this problem, the practical method was to unlinkthe engine from the car and then to attach the supports one by one.Low and mid-high frequency advanced transmission path analysis.F.X. Magrans, P.V. Rodriguez & G. Cousin, Proceedings of the 12 International Congresson Sound and Vibration, Lisboa, Portugal (2005).AbstractAdvanced Transfer Path Analysis (ATPA) is a test-based numerical technique allowing the diag-nosis necessary to solve vibro-acoustic problems. For vehicle applications, the main purposeconsists in ranking the contributions of potential sources or potential transmitting points, dis-tributed around a cabin, and creating noise at a receiving passenger location. The classicPAPERS
  20. 20. of the sources at the receiver points, independently of their transmission path. Using the ATPAtechnique, the transmission paths are quantified and ranked. This technique complements thepossibilities of the classical TPA method by allowing the determination of the relative contribu-tions of the selected structure and airborne transmission paths. Using the information ex-tracted from the application of this theory, the mechanical component to be modified can beidentified. From that point, the decision can be taken to act directly on the source or on thestructural elements. This paper starts by giving a short theoretical description of the method.Then, the steps of the experimental procedure applied, the tools used, and the exploitation ofthe data are described based on an experimental case realized in controlled conditions. Finally,the range of application of the method and of the tools used is described based on a real case.Method of measuring transmission paths.F.X. Magrans, Journal of Sound and Vibration 74 (3), pp. 321-330 (1981)AbstractA theoretical explanation and experimental proof are presented of a method for localizing andevaluating the transmission paths of any signal in a “black box” among a set of points previ-ously defined in it. The signal should behave linearly and the system should be able to receiveexternal excitations separately at each of its points. Such excitations need not be the signal un-der study but they should be linearly related to it. Also presented are the equations that, oncethe transmission paths have been determined, allow the evaluation of the excitations which acton the system.Definition and calculation of transmission paths within a SEA framework.F.X. Magrans, Journal of Sound and Vibration 165 (2), pp. 277-283 (1993).AbstractGenerally, the problem of soundproofing buildings has employed the concept that energy istransmitted along different paths from the source to the receiver. The S.E.A. systematizes theexistence of acoustic and mechanical coupling in mechanical complexes. This study intends tosystematize the concept of transmission paths, its numerical treatment and its classification,taking the equations of S.E.A as a reference framework.Direct transference applied to the study of room acoustics.F.X. Magrans, Journal of Sound and Vibration 96 (1), pp. 13-21 (1984).AbstractIn a recent article Kruzins and Fricke [1] applied the method of Markov chains to represent the“random walk” of phonons inside an enclosed space and to predict stationary state acousticpressure levels, at sufficiently high frequencies, in geometrically complex spaces. In this paperit is demonstrated that with the same initial hypothesis the exact solution can be obtained di-rectly by using the method of direct transference. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of thesolution matrix are found, their physical significance is made evident, and a simple method forcalculating the solution is presented.PAPERS
  21. 21. The Global Transfer Direct Transfer method applied to a finite simply supported elasticbeam.O. Guasch & F.X. Magrans, Journal of Sound and Vibration 276 (1-2), pp. 335-359(2004).AbstractThe Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) method is a two-step transmission path analysismethod. It is used to analyse the signal transmission among subsystems from a general N-dimensional linear network, representing a physical model under study. In the first step, theGlobal Transfer Functions (GTFs) are measured and the Direct Transfer Functions (DTFs) arecalculated from them. In the second step, the signal vector is measured for the network run-ning under the desired operational conditions. It is then possible to reconstruct the signal atany subsystem from the contributions of all other subsystems plus its own external excitation.This is done by means of the previously calculated DTFs.This paper is intended to clarify how the GTDT method works. This is done by means of an ana-lytic study of the bending wave transmission between three points in a simply supported finiteelastic beam. This problem constitutes a particular 4-dimensional example of the general N-dimensional network. Concerning the first step of the method, special emphasis is given to therelationship among the DTFs and the GTFs, as well as to elucidate the role of the DTF matrix asa connectivity matrix. As for the second step of the method, the particular case of a correlatedforce vector acting on the beam is addressed. It is shown how the signal at any subsystem canbe reconstructed from the signals at all the other subsystems. In practical implementationsthis allows to identify problematic subsystems in order to perform appropriate design modifica-tions and avoids the necessity of having to measure operational forces.The role of the direct transfer function matrix as a connectivity matrix and application tothe Helmholtz equation in 2D: relation to numerical methods and free field radiationexample.F.X. Magrans & O. Guasch, Journal of Computational Acoustics 13(2), pp.341-363(2005).AbstractThe Direct Transfer Function (DTF) matrix was developed in the framework of the Global Trans-fer Direct Transfer (GTDT) method of transmission path analysis. This method aims at solvingthe problem of transmission paths among subsystems from a general N-dimensional linear net-work, representing a vibro-acoustical model under study. The DTF matrix can be calculatedfrom the Global Transfer Functions (GTFs), which are measurable quantities, and it is builtfrom all the Direct Transfer Functions (DTFs) between subsystem pairs. The DTFs allow to de-fine transmission paths by relating the signals between two network subsystems when the re-maining ones become somehow blocked. In this paper, the role of the DTF matrix as a connec-tivity matrix is first shown by solving the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional grid. Theresults are compared with those arising from the analysis of the stencils of various numericalmethods. Some finite difference and finite element methods have been considered. The con-nectivity role of the DTF matrix is also elucidated by means of a free field radiation example.A compact formulation for conditioned spectral density function analysis by means ofthe LDLHmatrix factorization.O. Guasch & F.X. Magrans, Journal of Sound and Vibration 277 (4-5), pp. 1082-1092(2004).PAPERS
  22. 22. AbstractSeveral methods have been developed in the last decades to deal with the subject of TPA(Transmission Path Analysis) in noise and vibration problems. A distinction can be made be-tween the so called one-step methods and two-step methods. The MISO method is a one-stepTPA method because it only requires operational measurements among subsystems in a linearN-dimensional network. That is to say, the method allows to factorise the signal (usually accel-eration, velocity or displacement in a given direction, or the acoustic pressure at a given loca-tion) at one network subsystem in terms of the signals or forces at the remaining ones, with theonly use of operational measured data. This is to be compared with two-step TPA methods likethe GTDT method (Global Transfer Direct Transfer) or the FTF method (Force Transfer Func-tions), which require to measure transfer functions in a first step, with the network stationary.Operational measurements are carried out in a second step and the previously measured trans-fer functions are then used to obtain the desired signal factorisations.The basis of most TPA methods were developed in the mid 70’s. Since then much work hasbeen done in order to solve some of their numerical problems, as well as to enlarge their rangeof applicability. In this paper attention will be paid to the MISO method. It will be shown thatthe conditioned spectral density functions analysis developed to deal with partially correlatedsignals on a linear network corresponds in fact, to the LDLHfactorisation of the network signalcross-spectra matrix. Although this may be a known result because the MISO method datesfrom the 70’s, the authors have not found any published proof of it. A proof is derived in thispaper that might be found interesting by itself and serve as a compendium to obtain the MISOfactorisations in a compact and straightforward way.CONTROL APPLICATIONSApplication for measuring material acoustic properties in an impedance tube.D. Castro. Customer Solution, National Instruments site. (2005).AbstractThe two-microphone transfer function method has been implemented to find the acousticproperties of materials using an impedance tube. The application generates a broadband noiseinside the tube, while it acquires the acoustic pressure at two microphones located at the tubeshell. Then, the Frequency Response Function (FRF) between the two channels is computed. Amathematical procedure allows obtaining the following acoustic parameters:1. Reflection coefficient.2. Absorption coefficient.3. Acoustic impedance.4. Acoustic admittance.Finally, all interesting process data is transferred to an Excel worksheet (via ActiveX) to bestored and to let the user generate a report.Automated noise test bank for the quality control of isolation pulleys.D. Castro, “Worldwide Conference on Virtual Instrumentation. National Instruments DaysFall 2002 - Spring 2003” , pp. 22-23.AbstractIsolation pulleys are submitted to noise tests in order to detect any manufacturing fault. Thepulley real operational conditions are simulated inside an insulated cabin and the overall soundPAPERS
  23. 23. PAPERSpressure level (SPL) in dBA is measured for a one second period. A comparison with a previ-ously selected threshold value decides whether the pulley is acceptable or not. Three parame-ters depending on the pulley type are fixed before carrying out each noise test:1. Maximum allowed SPL in dBA (threshold value).2. Pulley strap tension.3. Pulley revolutions per minute (r.p.m.).This paper presents an application that automatically manages the whole pulley validationprocess. The application controls the noise measurement equipment, the testing conditions(parameter values), the PLC (Logical Programmable Controller) communication and the datapost process. The results are automatically stored in an Excel data sheet by means of ActiveX.An additional storage in a main computer is also performed using a serial port communica-tion.AERODYNAMIC NOISECalculation of aerodynamic noise generated by the airflow around a body. Simulationwith stabilised finite element methods.O. Guasch & R. Codina, Proceedings of Métodos Computacionais em Engenharia, incor-porant VIII Congresso Nacional de Mecánica Aplicada e Computacional i VI Congreso deMétodos Numéricos en Ingeniería APMTAC_SEMNI, Lisboa, Portugal (2004).AbstractThis article presents a methodology to carry out computational aeroacoustics subsonic calcula-tions. The method is based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy, which involves three stages: In thefirst one, Navier-Stokes equations are solved for an incompressible flow, with the aim of obtain-ing the term that acts as a source of sound (Reynolds tensor is used as an approximation toLighthill’s tensor). In the second stage, this source is transformed into the frequency domainand, in the third stage, the corresponding Helmholtz differential equation is solved, in order toobtain the acoustic pressure field. All the equations are solved with stabilised finite elementmethods. The case of air flow round a cylinder for different Reynolds numbers is presented as anumerical application. In cases when the Kármán vortex street is formed, we observe that thesimulations reconstruct the dipolar side of the generated acoustic field with no problems.Time depend subscales in the stabilized finite element approximation of incompressi-ble flow problems.Ramon Codina, Javier Principe, Oriol Guasch and Santiago Badia, Computer Methods inApplied Mechanics and Engineering. (2007)AbstractIn this paper we analyze a stabilized finite element approximation for the incompressible Na-vier–Stokes equations based on the subgrid-scale concept. The essential point is that weexplore the properties of the discrete formulation that results allowing the subgrid-scales todepend on time. This apparently ‘‘natural’’ idea avoids several inconsistencies of previous for-mulations and also opens the door to generalizations.
  24. 24. An algebraic subgrid scale finite element method for the convected Helmholtz equationin two dimensions with application in aeroacoustics.Oriol Guasch, Ramon Codina, CMAME_196 (45_48) pp 4672-4689,(2007)AbstractAn algebraic subgrid scale finite element method formally equivalent to the Galerkin Least-Squares method is presented to improve the accuracy of the Galerkin finite element solution tothe two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation. A stabilizing term has been added to thediscrete weak formulation containing a stabilization parameter whose value turns to be the keyfor the good performance of the method. An appropriate value for this parameter has been ob-tained by means of a dispersion analysis. As an application, we have considered the case ofaerodynamic sound radiated by incompressible flow past a two-dimensional cylinder. FollowingLighthill’s acoustic analogy, we have used the time Fourier transform of the double divergenceof the Reynolds stress tensor as a source term for the Helmholtz and convected Helmholtzequations and showed the benefits of using the subgrid scale stabilization.A heuristic argument for the sole use of numerical stabilization with no physical LESmodelling in the simulation of incompressible turbulent flows.O. Guasch & R. Codina, Journal of Computational Physics (2007).AbstractWe aim at giving support to the idea that no physical LES model should be used in the simula-tion of turbulent flows. It is heuristically shown that the rate of transfer of sub-grid kinetic en-ergy provided by the stabilization terms of the Orthogonal Subgrid Scale (OSS) finite elementmethod is already proportional to the molecular physical dissipation rate (for an appropriatechoice of the stabilization parameter). This precludes the necessity of including an extra LESphysical model to achieve this behavior and somehow justifies the purely numerical approachto solve turbulent flows. The argumentation is valid for a fine enough mesh with characteristicelement size, h, so that h lies in the inertial sub-range of a turbulent flow.PAPERS
  26. 26. Then, you will find some projects carried out by ICR in every sector that it works.RAILWAYPROJECTSAcoustic study and protocol measurements of 4.000 (C4K) train units for NIR, NorthIreland Railways. CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Development of a numerical model of airborne noise and acoustic prediction in order to determine fu-ture compliance with current legislations as TSI Rolling Stock-Noise 2006/66/EC, British standard andcustomer requirements. Protocol measurements and post-process: measurement of RASTI according toIEC60268-16 and measurements of airborne and structure-borne noise.LEViS (Launcher for the Equipment Vibration Specification): Ingeniería para el Controldel Ruido SL. and Alstom Transport have developed a calculation tool for determining themaximun level of vibration of an auxiliar equipment under specific conditions in a train. Als-tom Transport.Noise and vibration path analysis of the different compontents which form the coachprototype of the new AVE model of CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.  Consulting services for acoustic study based on noise level reduction produced byimpulsion nozzle of air conditioning units of trains. Merak.
  27. 27. PROJECTSVibration study on the ground of the Borges Solar Thermal Plant, property of Abantiaand Comsa Emte. Comsa Emte.Elaboration of vibrational predictive model through finit elements (FEM) for determining the vibrationallevel on the turbine of the plant caused by the rail circulation.Consultancy engineering services in Alstom Transport Savigliano, Italy, for a 3 monthperiod. Alstom Transport.Consultancy engineering services in Alstom Transport Savigliano, Italy, for a 8 monthperiod. Alstom Transport. Consultancy engineering services in Alstom Transport Belford, France, for a 18 monthperiod. Alstom Transport.Vibrations Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) of railway bridge in Contreras. InecoTifsa.Based on the measurements made by the customer, ICR analyses the vibrations of the bridge in realoperating conditions by techniques of Operation Modal Analysis, and thus get a model more valuable.
  28. 28. PROJECTSSound pressure level measurements AVR 121 train in order to fulfil noise regula-tionsaccording to technical specifications as defined by RENFE and European regulations(TSI). CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Definition of the acoustic and vibration specifications for the equipments from externalsuppliers. Project: Chennai Metro. Consultancy engineering services in Alstom TransportSao Paulo, Brazil. Alstom Transport. Research project “EVS (Equipments Vibration Specification)”; design anddevelopment a new tool that specify maximum noise and vibration levels to railwayequipment which are installed in the trains. Alstom Transport.Prediction of the structural-borne noise pressure levels within a realistic range of uncertainty. For agiven maximum SPL, specify the maximum vibration levels measured under certain conditions. Basedon experimental measurement (results coming from numerical models would be considered as well).Static Teston TrainStatic Teston BenchMaximumStructureborneSPL(w)Maximum ForcesAppliedon the TrainTBImpedancesTB + EqImpedancesTrainImpedancesTrainP/FMaximum TB + EqOperationalResponsesEq (Free)ImpedancesTrain + EqImpedancesMaximumTrain + EqOperationalResponsesMaximum External Forcesof the EquipmentTransmission Path Analysis of one unit of the suburban train CIVIA model. CAF, Con-strucciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.
  29. 29. PROJECTSNoise and vibration Transmission Path Analysis in a prototype high speed train (AGV).Alstom Transport.Static and dynamic vibro-acoustic measurements on the high-speed train, following the TPA method inorder to know the contribution to the overall noise of each one of the noise sources of every element oftrain.Experimental tests of vibration in the power motor system of diesel units carried out inthe laboratory of Voith in Hamburg, Germany. CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar deFerrocarriles.Characterization of diesel power unit system vibrations for the RENFE-TDMD project units. Accelerationmeasurements, by measuring the operation of the tensile modulus in several conditions ( in the testbench, with different configurations).
  30. 30. Acoustic study and Transmission Path Analysis of RENFE 251 electric locomotive forAtenasa. Transmission Path Analysis of the cabin of two diesel units series 333 and 334 ofVossloh. Atenasa.Development of complete vibro-acoustic numerical model . Consultancy services fortrain air conditioning and test measurements of Madrid subway. CAF, Construcciones yAuxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Noise and vibrations Transmission Path Analysis in Chamartín railway station andproposal of solutions. Project 051180. Ineco Tifsa.Development of a numerical model for the interior and exterior noise forecast of thenew Madrid subway. CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.PROJECTSSignal processing and reporting custome made software. Ineco Tifsa.Frequency analysis and visualisation of bridge vibration signals software development. Main functions:synthesis and application of all kinds of digital filters, polynomial interpolations or with splines, re-randomisation of signals, conversion of data formats, management of the group of signals as a project,establishment of the main frequencies and associated damping, calculation of remaining and stabi-lised values, etc.The software includes sub-programmes for mass data treatment and generation of personalised sum-mary reports.
  31. 31. Noise and vibration Transmission Path Analysis of the driver’s cab of the 250 -028 - 8Renfe electric locomotive 250 -028 - 8. Atenasa.Complete aerodynamic acoustic study of the mid-high speed train TAV – S104 . Studyof the influence of the non-stationary aerodynamic load on the noise levels inside the highspeed train TAV – S104. Lanzaderas project. Alstom Transport.PROJECTSExperimental Modal Analysis in the power motor system of diesel units ADR. CAF,Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Experimental Modal Analysis in order to know the different real modes existing and take part in themovement of the assembly, which includes the support frame joined elastically with the car, the pro-pulsion unit and the turbo-compressor unit on the engine.Study of the flow influence separation and pressure fluctuations beneath the turbulentboundary layer of the new generation high speed trains AGV (Automotrice à GrandeVitesse), France. Alstom Transport.Acoustic study of the aerodynamics generated by the noise and excitation of the mechanisms of thenew high-speed train.The study has three main parts: noise located in the cabin by the aerodynamic excitation of glass,noise located in the cabin caused by the ventilation system, and noise located in the passenger areabehind the cabin.
  32. 32. Transmission Path Analysis and vibro-acoustic study for the West Coast Main LineTrain in Asfordby, United Kingdom. Alstom Transport.Noise and vibrations Advanced Transmission Path Analysis of a diesel train in South ofIreland. CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Complete acoustic study of the CIVIA 2.000 Train. CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar deFerrocarriles. Advanced Transmission Path Analysis of the Warsaw subway, Poland. AlstomTransport.PROJECTSMuffler design for the exit of foul air in the Rome subway and comparison of the soundinsulation between two types of doors for the underground train provided by the client.CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Design of the elements required to reduce the noise level generated by the extraction of foul air systemin a box under the base of the Rome subway.Acoustic study of three different door designs carried out with dBKAisla ICR software to calculate multi-ple insulations and to compare the sound insulation of each door. Vibro-acoustic advanced design tools for the noise characterization of the train.Alstom Transport.Development of testing techniques that define the vibro-acoustic features of the different trainsubsystems —interior and exterior noise when the train is non-operating.Evaluation of the contributions to the interior noise of the different subsystem of a train in normaloperating conditions.Evaluation of the contributions to the exterior noise of the subsystems of a train in static operatingconditions.
  33. 33. Acoustic tudy of the “floating floors” of the units Line 5 subway of Metro Barcelona.Alstom Transport.PROJECTSComplete acoustic study of a diesel train of Northern Ireland Railways, Ireland. Modeland study of the engine coupling by experimental and theoretical methods. CAF,Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Acoustic study of the diesel units for N.I.R. Based on the calculation of rolling noise, the levels ofnoise and establishment of solutions to reduce the vibrations caused in the train by the auxiliaryengine. Description of the results of the model carried out in order to evaluate the predictions of thenoise pressure level inside the N.I.R. diesel trains.Complete acoustic study of the Xin Min Line train. Alstom Transport.Vibro-acoustic tests on a similar train, including an analysis of the ways noise and the vibrations of thetrain are transmitted, and measurement of the equipment and components. Development of a numeri-cal model in order to predict noise and vibrations of the new Xin Mine Line train model.Monitoring of the first model unit manufacturing and vibro-acoustic test to check the estimated predic-tion and re-design of the cabin doors and intercommunicating doors of the train.
  34. 34. PROJECTSComplete acoustic study of the Northern Spirit (Leeds-Skipton) and noise transmissionpath analysis of the Heathrow Express (Heathrow-Paddington) in United Kingdom. CAF,Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Estudio acústico completo del Northern Spirit (Leeds-Skipton) y análisis de las vías detransmisión de ruido del Heathrow Express (Heathrow-Paddington) en Gran Bretaña. CAF,Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles. “META W: Advanced vibro-acoustic analysis in railways. New technologies andcomputing methods.” Alstom Transport ATPA Technology transfer project for CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.The following tasks were carried out for this project:1. Development of the testing procedures to obtain the vibro-acoustics specifications of thedifferent subsystems of any train (for internal noise contributions).2. Evaluation of the interior noise contributions of all train different subsystems under normaloperating conditions.3. Training: ICR trained CAF employees in the application of the ATPA procedures.During this project, the following trains were tested: ATPA of Metro Ligero of Sevilla, Spain. ATPA of the TRDMD (Middle Distance Regional Train Diesel) in Alcázar de San Juan, Spain. ATPA of the structural contributions of the TDMD (Middle Distance Train Diesel) in Sevilla,Spain. ATPA of CAF AVE (High Speed Train) prototype in Beasain, Spain. ATPA Technology transfer project for Alstom Transport. The following tasks werecarried out for this project:1. Development of the testing procedures to obtain the vibro-acoustics specifications of thedifferent subsystems of any train (for internal noise contributions).2. Evaluation of the interior noise contributions of all train different subsystems under normaloperating conditions.3. Training: ICR trained Alstom employees in the application of the ATPA procedures.During this project, the following trains were tested: ATPA of the Weast Coast Main Line train in Asforby, GB. ATPA of the Vectus train in Salzgitter Depot, Alemania. ATPA of the Coradia train in Salzgitter Depot, Alemania.
  35. 35. Determination of the rail roughness affection to the train inside noise with the train inoperation. Ireland. Alstom Transport.Identification of noise and vibrations origin in the Barcelona subway. CAF, Construc-ciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Acoustic study of the “floating floors” of the 8.000 Madrid subway series. CAF, Con-strucciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Complete acoustic study of the new 6.000 Madrid subway series. CAF, Construc-ciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.Study of the contributions of every subsystems to the overall noise perceived in thedriver’s cab for Line 2 Barcelona subway units with the Advanced Transmission Path Analy-sis (Direct transference approach) method. CAF, Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.PROJECTS
  36. 36. WIND POWERAcoustic study in ABB transformer, glogal leader in power and automation technolo-gies, in its factory located in Shangai. ABB. Full specialised course to study the environmental noise impact of a wind farm.Vestas.Course specially designed to client needs. The course syllabus, prepared by ICR, is based on theprediction of the acoustic impact calculation of a wind farm. It has three parts: an introduction toacoustics, an environmental noise impact study of the installation of a wind farm, and practicalexamples.Environmental acoustic impact course in wind farms due to the installation of a newwind farm. Suzlon Wind Energy España.PROJECTSExperimental Modal Analysis (EMA) of the wind turbine interior equipments in order toestablish structure vibration modes. This study was conducted at the customer’s plant.Alstom Wind.
  37. 37. Modal Experimental Analysis (EMA) on Alstom Wind wind turbine power train ECO100 in its factory located in Buñuel. Alstom Wind.Experimental tests to characterise an acoustic tonal problem in the prototype of a windturbine nacelle. Alstom Wind. Course of acoustics and aeroacoustics of rotors based on basic acoustics,aeroacoustics principles and applications in rotary engines. Alstom Wind.Environmental noise impact course suited to client needs for the installation of a newwind farm. Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica S.A.PROJECTSICR develops a software for the Operational Modal Analysis. Alstom Wind.Software design and formation of Asltom Wind engineers in the us of the software. This software, whichis part of the project Invent, allows automate the OMA process. From temporal registers, in differentwind speeds, the software generates automatically evolution diagrams of the wind turbine frequencies inrelation to wind speed.
  38. 38. Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) in a wind turbine. Alstom Wind.Modal Analysis in a wind turbine gearbox to determinate its vibration modes in situ.Alstom Wind. Acoustic measurement in a prototype wind turbine in order to evaluate thecontribution to overall noise of the ventilation systems. Alstom Wind.PROJECTSExperimental Modal Analysis (EMA) in rear frame in a wind turbine prototype. AlstomWind.Determination of the frame structure vibration modes of a wind turbine and local modes of somecomponents, using Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) in order to compare with the modes whichhave been calculated and to know the frames dynamic behaviour. Environmental impact study prior to the operation of a future wind farm. GamesaCorporación Tecnológica S.A.Noise analysis in pre-operational stage and estimation of noise level in post-operational stage. Assessingthe environmental noise impact expected in the wind farm and to identify potential solutions.
  39. 39. Acoustic impact prediction for the operation of three future wind farms and proposal ofsolutions. Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica S.A.BUILDING Environmental noise impact evaluation in a wind farm. Gamesa CorporaciónTecnológica S.A.Environmental noise impact assessment in two phases: acoustic measurements in situ and proposal ofsolutions.Acoustic measurement and transmission path analysis of sound and vibration of windturbine refrigeration system. Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica S.A.Acoustic measurements and transmission path analysis (TPA) in order to quantify the noise radiateddirectly for each one of mouths (aspiration and expulsion), and quantify the noise radiated by windturbine structure.PROJECTSControl measurements in order to evaluate the vibrations produced by the insertion ofcontainment plates to channel water in the buildings next to the works. Acsa Sorigué.Vibration control mesures in the new solar termal plant located in Lebrija, for SacyrVallehermoso. Sacyr Vallehermoso. Monitoring and technical supervision in the Light Laboratory Synchrotron ALBA inorder to control the vibrations over a slab, and the vibrations caused by a crane bridge.Master de Ingeniería S.A.Evaluation of the vibrations in the construction works. Measurements with and without activity on site,vibrations analysis caused by the operation of a crane bridge and vibration levels characterization.
  40. 40. Environmental noise impact study for INITEC ENERGIA. Consultancy services for thedesign of a 450 MW combined cycle thermal plant for Endesa in Ireland. Initec Energia. Acoustic study to determine the necessary treatment in order to improve acousticcharacteristics of a sports centre in Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona. Emducsa. Diagnosis and prediction of noise and vibrations transmission path in building -VITRASO. FCC Construcción S.A. (Development project)The aim of Vitraso project is the detection of the path transmission of harmful noise and vibration in abuilding, as well as a new design and its implementation in order to void these paths. From the methodof Transmission Paths Analysis (TPA) it is possible to detect the paths with to better contribution and soit be facilitated localized intervention in the elements that conform them. The results obtained by thesemethods it will be compared with experimental tests and numerical simulations carried out.Furthermore, the contribution of different transmission paths will allow to evaluate the prediction limitsaccording to the standard UNE EN ISO 12354.Noise and vibration measurements in the facilities of the Microelectronics Institute ofMadrid in order to determine whether background levels comply the specifications of theequipment to be installed in a room. Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid.Vibration control for the construction of the white chamber in Nano-manufacturingunit. Contratas y Obras, Empresa Constructora S.A.Noise measurements in a parking area ventilation equipment in order to assess com-pliance with the environmental regulations of Barcelona (OGMAUB). And propose solutionsfor reduce it. Subcomunidad Propietarios Parking.PROJECTS
  41. 41. Acoustic study for the construction of the Thermal Centre Prestige Jafre in Jafre delTer, Girona. Bovis Lend Lease - Grupo Prestige.Acoustic study of Cetoss — Querétaro. Building in México. Rheinold & Mahla S.A.Acoustic conditioning project of Centre d’Art Santa Mònica in Barcelona. Generalitat deCatalunya. Vibration and noise prediction study for the project of the Light LaboratorySynchrotron ALBA in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona. Master de Ingeniería S.A.Vibration measurements, vibration prediction on critical area, vibrations insulation calculations of thiscritical area, acoustic analysis of machinery and the facilities, noise and vibration control of auxiliaryequipments, vibrations predictions caused by a crane bridge and insulation calculation of slab. Soil vibration characterisation for the future installation of a nano-manufacturingcentre for the Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica in the UAB-Bellaterra Campus. Designconsultancy to fulfil vibration criteria. CSIC-CNM y Master de Ingeniería, S.A.Assessment of the current charges to quantify the insulators methods necessaries and quantify thelimits allowable of exterior disturbance. Execution floating slab monitorization built in the works.PROJECTS
  42. 42. Vibration impact preliminary report of works in Gas Natural Headquarter in Barcelona.Gas Natural S.A.Sound pressure level measurements in Bikini discotheque in Barcelona. Sala bikini.Acoustic behaviour assessment for the new office building of CIBA GEIGY in Barce-lona. Master Ingeniería y Arquitectura S.A.Acoustic behaviour assessment for the water treatment plant PEMBROKE R.O. inMalta. Bureau-Veritas, Touluse.Vibro-acoustic consultancy services for Diagonal Mar shopping center in Barcelona(89.000 m2). Diagonal Mar S.A.Transmission paths analysis from exterior to interior through windows in a Hotel ofBarcelona. Hotels Rosincs.Measurements in two windows of the building to determine the noise transmission from outside thebuilding inside through the windows.PROJECTS
  43. 43. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACTVibration levels prediction at the IBM Data Processing Center in San Fernando due tothe partial demolition and amplification works. Master de Ingeniería y Arquitectura S.A.Determination of the vibration levels that will produce the future extension work of the IBM DataProcessing Centre San Fernando—Madrid. Acceleration measurements to obtain the direct vibrationtransfer between different subsystems of one specific sector of the centre.Development of building model through Finite Elements (FEM) for the calculation of vibration transferbetween sectors that are further away from the building and development of study for the low frequencyrange analysis. Vibration measurements caused by a hammer-robot to calculate the vibration levelpredictable in two areas of the building.Noise impact study of the shipyard repair and maintenance of yachts MB92, located inthe port of Barcelona.Noise measurements at different noise sources and different work situations for power acoustic charac-terization. Afterwards, definition of a numerical model able to adapt at the variability of the different worksituations identified at MB92 and to define solutions according to client’s necessities in every moment.Nocturnal vibration measurements of the activity produced by a tunnel drilling boringmachine in section 4 of the new line 9 of subway of Barcelona. Entorn S.A.Vibration measurements in two sections located in section 2 of new line 9 Barcelonasubway works subway according local, regional and statal standards. Ute Gorg.Noise level measurements produced by the commercial premise of client in order toassess compliance with current regulations. Barcelona. Metalistería J. RUIZ.Vibration analysis of unknown origin in a building in Bordeaux, France. Aplplication ofself-developed vibrography method: graphical localization of vibration sources. Bureau-Veritas in Toulouse, France.Development of a prior treatment of the temporary signal in order to obtain a cross-correlation betweenthe pairs of accelerometers with enough information. Determination of noise sources position in order ofimportance from a visual image.PROJECTS
  44. 44. Control and monitoring of vibration levels inside industry caused by the works of AVE(high speed train) in Montmeló, Barcelona. Confidential client.Sound level measurements to evaluate the noise impact caused by a diesel generatoroperation. Sociedad Mercantil Estatal TVE, S.A.Sound pressure levels measurements in the future High Speed Line Vitoria – Bilbao –San Sebastián in Durango, Bizkaia. Ineco Tifsa.Sound pressure levels measurements caused by the circulation of different trains in the viaduct of Du-rango Noise prediction according to DIA regulations previsions formulated by the corresponding infor-mative study of the New Railway Project in País Basco carried out by the General Environmental Depart-ment, on 22 October 2000.Signal processing and reporting custom made software. ICR-puentes. Ineco Tifsa.Custom made software for the treatment, analysis and visualization of the vibration signals of bridges.The software allows. modification and analyse the signals measured during the load tests of bridges. Inhindsight, it does automatically custom reports.PROJECTS
  45. 45.  Acoustic measurement of external environment on works of the Line 9 Train ofBarcelona Subway according to regulation . UTE Arquitectura.Development of the noise map of the council of Bezana, Asturias. Insotec.Acoustic impact measurements in the work stage of the Barcelona subway new line 9.Geocat Gestió de Projectes S.A.Environmental impact study of the Funosa foundry in Odena and proposal of aocousticsolutions. Funosa.Noise impact study in the factory surrounding area according to Department of environment regulationsfor the future practical application by Igualada town hall.Sound power evaluation of each noise source in order to design optimal acoustic solutions to reduce thelevel of sound pressure on the reception points. Control and monitoring of vibrations produced by the AVE works in the sectionbetween Sagrera and Nus Trinitat in Barcelona. Acciona infraestructuras.Vibration levels control in the works of the high-speed train AVE for 36 months according to currentstandards and weekly and quarterly report of problems during the control period. .PROJECTS
  46. 46. Environmental noise impact study caused by road traffic in a stretch (Canyelles indus-trial estate) of Ronda de Dalt in Barcelona. Optimisation of new solutions. Europroject.Study to reduce noise levels caused by traffic in a stretch of Ronda de Dalt, approximately 300 metreslong. Stages of the study: noise diagnosis, creation of an acoustic model and proposal of solutions forsound barriers.Sound pressure level measurements according with current regulations in new resi-dential zone located in Villalba Saserra - between Barcelona and Granollers. BarcelonaGranollers Edificis S.L.Noise impact produced by the operation of the C-31 near Mas Mortera house in Mont-Ras (Girona) and modeling with Cadna. Auding Intraesa.External noise measurements in the air conditioning unit of a hospital in Barcelona.Clinica IVI.Environmental acoustic impact study produced by the Levante AVE rail and proposalof solutions. Ineco Tifsa.Environmental acoustic impact study of the discotheque “Café Mambo” in Eivissa.Café Mambo.ZIMA-041189-ES project with Adjudication nº 041190. Vibration measurements ofthe subsoil and prediction of environmental impact though model of vibration propagationin terms of distance (calculations to predict the environmental impact of vibrations causedby the construction of airport Montflorite). Ineco Tifsa.Noise level reduction of rotary blower in the ENAGAS plant located in Cartagenathrough Model Inversion Method. Técnicas Reunidas S.A.Environmental Impact study produced by the extension of printing press room ofPrensa Española S.A. Diario ABC.PROJECTS
  47. 47. Sound impact study of the high-speed train when travelling through Guadarramamountain range (Segovia - Soto del Real). Prediction of the noise levels, pressure pulse inthe mouth of the tunnel, environmental noise impact of the construction works of the tunneland rails, and design of solutions. Inimasa.Noise impact study in a textile factory through model inversion method. Girona. Antex.Vibration measurements in the facilities of NorControl in Tarragona caused by thecirculation of train . Norcontrol.Carrying out multiple measurement of insulation and absorption of sound barriers onsite according to the France Regulations.Environmental acoustic impact study of the Girona train circulation in the city centre.Noise and vibration prevision and proposal of solutions. Ajuntament de Barcelona. Environmental acoustic impact study to reduce the noise level in two zones ofPROQUIMED plant and proposal of solutions. Productos Químicos del Mediterráneo S.A.Environmental acoustic impact study caused by the operational performance of 8multipurpose rooms in the village Montauban. PZ Toulouse.Model inversion method to the AGA factory-Toulouse (Portet sur Garonne) , France, inorder to determine the contributions of acoustic sources to various external control pointsand neighbours. The study was performed while the factory was in full operation. BureauVeritas.Measurements of the sound pressure level in the factory surrounding area and in the most affectedareas. Model inversion method to determine the sound power of the exterior noise emitters in the AGAproduction plant in Toulouse.PROJECTS
  48. 48. INDUSTRY Acoustic consultancy for the project design of new audiovisual security controlcentres . LOOP Business Innovation.Acoustic study to define a sound emitter system that guarantees optimal listening conditions that donot bother people in the surrounding area. ICR analysed the current system by characterising thesystem’s emission features in terms of directivity: frequency response, and consequently, defining andevaluating intelligibility indicators adapted to the application Study and categorization of noise potential sources in the client’s facilities.Confidential client.Acoustic measurements while the factory is running, separation of sources through own theoreticalmethods, development of computerized acoustic model in order to be able repeat the real situation andthe modified situation. Proposing solutions, specification of materials and testing for final installation. Study and acoustic assesment in the desing stage of a new blower of Roca,manufacturer of toilets. Roca.ICR has asseset the client during all the desing stage with the proposal of acoustic improvements andalternative prototypes. The goal has been conditioning the motor in order to reduce the noise emittedand the anonying sounds.PROJECTS
  49. 49. Transmission Path Analysis and acoustic photography in a large format plotter. TajMahal Project. Helwet Packard.Study for reducing the noise of a small industrial pump. Laboratorios Grífols S.A.Reduction of noise generated by a pump that is part of a piece of equipment used in the laboratory andvibratory measurements. Characterization of the noise source well as determination of the structuraland acoustic transmission paths.PROJECTSAcoustic study through Model Inversion in KAO Corporation S.A. subsidiary locatedin Barberà del Vallès. KAO Corporation S.A.The present study has had the objective to study and offer acoustic solutions in order to reduce the interiornoiseproduced in KAO factory through a Model Inversion study.The Model Inversion is a mathematic technique technique born in geophisics and transfered to the field ofvibro-acoustics by ICR. This calculation method allows obtein, from the study of cause-effectrelationship, the caus of a vibro-acousticproblem from the analysis of its inmedate effect.Acoustic study to reduce noise level an engine of Abamotor by designing a newmore effective muffler. Tekniker-Abamotor.
  50. 50. Assessment of potential noise impact, both internal and external facilities in Ashland.Ashland Chemical Hispania S.l.Study of the vibratory behaviour of a machine-tool for Recman. Applus.Study of the dynamic behaviour of the production plant floor, PURAC Bioquímica,induced by the product elevator machinery. Proposal and calculations of the necessarymodifications to correct this behaviour. Technip Coflexip & Purac Bioquímica.Absorption coefficient (alpha energy) measurements of different materials with Kundttube. Texa.Noise characterisation (acoustic impedance and absorption ratio) of different materials from thecompany Texsa S.A., based on the UNE-EN ISO 10534–2 specifications for measurements with a Kundttube according to the transfer function method.Vibration characterization of a crane. Industrias Electromecánicas GH.Transmission Path Analysis in one of the pulley equipments made by Industrias Electromecánicas GHin order to quantify each one of the noise and vibration sources that compose it. So that, it is possibleto determine optimal processing to reduce of noise level generated by the whole assembly. A posteriori,proposing modifications to reduce noise.PROJECTS
  51. 51. AUTOMOTIVEAcoustic study in order to characterize a reverberation chamber. Ficosa.Study of the contribution of each one of the noise sources in the external points of CH-350 vehicle AUSA to overall noise and proposal of solutions. AUSA, Automóviles UtilitariosS.A.Noise emission study of elevator automatic doors. Selcom Aragón.Acoustic measurements and study of noise and vibration transmission paths with TPA method on anautomatic door of elevator in order to determine the origin of noise. Propose of solutions to reduceoverall noise.Interior noise reduction for an hybrid bus . Castrosua.Vibration levels measurements above the pump and its supports on the vehicle exterior as well asacoustic pressure measurements at various points in both interior and exterior. This allowed diagnosingthe causes of the noise transmission from its origin to its final receiver point. Proposal of the optimalsolutions for improving the bus acoustic quality.PROJECTS
  52. 52. Advanced Transmission Path analysis of noise and vibration sources in the driver’scab and in external control point. AUSA, Automóviles Utilitarios, S.A.Evaluation of the contributions of the different subsystems of the model CH-150 to the noise received inthe driver’s position and in an exterior spot, with the aim of establishing the modifications that the vehi-cle needs in order to reduce the sound pressure level received in both points.Measurements with the vehicle stopped, following the TPA methodology, in order to know how muchnoise comes directly from the holes and how much comes from the structure vibration.Reduction of the noise levels generated by one of trailers carrying freight containers inSant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona. Llinás e Hijos S.l.Measurements of noise emitted by the trailer carrying both the empty container and full container andoperating at different appropriate distances. Propose solutions for reduce this noise level.Characterisation of the engine following the mobility method and source descriptor.Vibration power injected in the bodywork. AUSA, Automóviles Utilitarios S.A.Determination of the vibration power transmitted from the engine to the bodywork of the vehicle CH-150by AUSA, through the different points of attachment.Evaluation of the power transmitted by the main engine-bodywork points of attachment, using theMobility and Source Descriptor Method, which enables us to find a solution to reduce the currentvibration level.PROJECTS
  53. 53. Acoustic solutions design for the final check cabins at the VW factory in Pamplona,Iruña. Volskwagen. Complete vibro-acoustic study of car gear changes (characterization, numericalmodelling and design solutions). Ficosa.Development of a computer application in Matlab language to calculate for the characterisation of thegear changes and representation of the results obtained.Full characterisation of a gear changing system that establishes the required modifications to achievethe vibroacoustic requirements that the client establishes for these mechanisms.Development of an Inversion Modelling Method to determine the panel contributionsto the Ferrari 456 cabin noise at the mid-high frequency range. Ferrari.Sound pressure measurements of the Ferrari 456 model. Application of the model inversion methodol-ogy with the aim of obteining the noise level of each of the interior surfaces and proposal of acousticalsolutions.PROJECTS
  54. 54. R+D projectsPublic funded projectsPrivat funded projects
  55. 55. R+D PROJECTS˜ Public funded projects1-“ECO-PLAK: Phase 1”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de CatalunyaDuration: 1996-19972-“Portable Sound Imaging”Project ESPRIT of the European CommunityRef: ESPRIT 21 040Duration: 1995-19983-“STBM: Tunnel Boring Machines”Project BRITE of the European CommunityRef: BRITE BE95-1735Duration: 1995-19984-“ECO-PLAK: Phase 2”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de CatalunyaDuration: 1999-20005-“PAASC: Transmission Loss software for complex enclosures”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de CatalunyaDuration: 2000-20016- “Noise reduction in railways using advanced experimental methods. Phase 1.”Project PROFIT of the Ministerio de Ciencia y TecnologíaRef: FIT-020300-2002-24Duration: 2001-20027- “Noise reduction in railways using advanced experimental methods. Phase 2.”Project PROFIT of the Ministerio de Ciencia y TecnologíaRef: FIT-020300-2002-24Duration: 2002-20038- “MACIM: computational aeroacoustics models to reduce the environmental noise gener-ated by vehicles aerodynamic noise.”Project P4 of the Ministerio de Ciencia y TecnologíaRef: DPI2000-0431-P4-03Duration: 2001-20049- “AEROSIVE: interior noise prediction due to unsteady aerodynamic loading on vehicles:airplanes and high-speed trains.”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de CatalunyaRef: RDITCRD04-0074Duration: 200410- “Metallic Acoustic Materials.”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de CatalunyaRef: RDITCRD05-1-0010Duration: 2005
  56. 56. 11- " Development of new acoustic materials”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de CatalunyaRef: RDITCINN05-1-0023Duration: 200512- “SAERVE: Computational evaluation of aerodynamic noise generated by air-planes and high-speed trains.”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de Catalunya”Ref: RDITCRD05-1-0010Duration: 2005– “FOTACU: Development of acoustic photography technology”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de Catalunya”Ref: RDITSIND06-1-0211Duration: 2006-2007– “Ciudad Multidimensional”Project CIDEM of the Generalitat de Catalunya”Duration: 2005-2007R+D PROJECTS
  57. 57. Privat funded projects1-“Cabin noise reconstruction at the mid-high frequency range”Company: Ferrari Auto (Italy)Duration: 19982-“META X: Advanced vibro-acoustic analysis in railways. The GTDT method”Company: Alstom Transport (France)Duration: 2001-20043-“ORNVS-ATPA: OROS NVGate Solution-Advanced Transfer Path Analysis”Company: OROS (France)Duration: 2003-20054-“Acoustic Blockage Detection Project”Company: ENI Tecnologie (Italy)Duration: 2003-20045-“META W: Advanced vibro-acoustic analysis in railways. New technologies andcomputing methods.”Company: Alstom Transport (France)Duration: 2004-20056- “META W: Advanced vibro-acoustic analysis in railways. New technologies andcomputing methods.”Company: Alstom Transport (France)Duration: 2005-20067-“EVS: Equipments Vibration Specification”: design and development a new toolthat specify maximum noise and vibration levels to railway equipment which are in-stalled in the train.Company: Alstom Transport (France)Duration: 2010-20128- “Research project Vitraso: Prediction of noise and vibration transmission path inbuildings.”Company: Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas (Spain)Duration: 2010-20129- Research project “Invent for the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA)”: determina-tion of the own wind turbine modes automatically from noise measurements with thewind turbine in operation. Tailored made software.Company: Econtecnia Energías RenovablesDuration: 20-2012.10-“SOME-ECO (Sound Meteorological Environmental Correlation)”: study of the cor-relation between climatic conditions and the external background noise and the quan-tification of the data obtained in a short term period with its long term value equiva-lent.Duration: 2012-present.R+D PROJECTS
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