Introduction to PES and REDD+Implications for participating land managersTraining Workshop on Payments for Ecosystem Servi...
Payments for Ecosystems services<br />Accesses markets and new financing for conservation<br />Provision of incentives or ...
REDD - Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation ‘plus’<br />REDD-plus seeks to reward governments, comp...
Somekeyconcepts<br />Baseline– A referencescenariopredictingwhatthesituationwouldbewithoutprojectintervention<br />Additio...
Conditions for PES<br />Profitability of PES exists compared to existing landuses<br />The beneficiaries have the capacity...
Actors<br />WHO PAYS?<br /><ul><li>Companies: Airlines, courier; Coca cola; breweries; Mining; Water bottling; Irrigation
Banks: World Bank – Ug, Tz
Governments: Norway, US, South Africa, Zambia
Events: CHOGM; World cup
Celebrities in music and film</li></ul>WHO GETS PAID?<br />Communities<br />Governments<br />Industry<br />Large-scale inv...
Brokers
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Introduction to PES and REDD+: Implications for participating land managers

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Presentation by Sara Namirembe. PES has the added advantage of enhancing efficiency in natural resource conservation.

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  • Profitability of PES exists compared to existing landuses, risks, price fluctuations, expected future returns, legality of use, security of land tenure etc.
  • Public schemes (e.g. in Costa Rica, Mexico, China, South Africa, Zambia).Public schemes tend to be generally larger in scope and have the state providing legitimacycan become overloaded with side objectives Use-restricting schemes e.g., setting aside protected habitat. Landowners are paid for their conservation opportunity cost, plus other project implementation costsare less flexible vis-à-vis targeting of strategic ES sellerstend to be less efficient in securing additional ES provision
  • Introduction to PES and REDD+: Implications for participating land managers

    1. 1. Introduction to PES and REDD+Implications for participating land managersTraining Workshop on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+)Nairobi, Kenya - August 8th, 2011SARA NAMIREMBEWorld Agroforestry Center<br />
    2. 2. Payments for Ecosystems services<br />Accesses markets and new financing for conservation<br />Provision of incentives or rewards to land managers for implementing practices that conserve or enhance a clearly defined natural or ecological benefit(s).<br />Not a win-win solution - hard trade-offs<br />Voluntary<br />Conditional – Buyer makes direct payments based on performance<br />
    3. 3. REDD - Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation ‘plus’<br />REDD-plus seeks to reward governments, companies or forest owners in developing nations for keeping tropical forests instead of cutting them down <br />Reservoirs: forests store about 638 GtC<br />
    4. 4. Somekeyconcepts<br />Baseline– A referencescenariopredictingwhatthesituationwouldbewithoutprojectintervention<br />Additionality–Provingthat ES fromprojectimplementation are improvedover and abovethebaselinescenario<br />Leakage–Risk of ecosystemdestructionresultingfromprojectimplementation<br />Permanence– Emissionreductionsfromprojectimplementation are sustainedfor ‘longenough’<br />
    5. 5. Conditions for PES<br />Profitability of PES exists compared to existing landuses<br />The beneficiaries have the capacity and are willing to pay for these actions<br />A defined group of people is willing to undertake these actions – sellers. <br />Certain actions can be taken to conserve, restore or enhance that environmental service<br />The service is of great importance to a well defined group of people - beneficiaries<br />Access to a clearly defined environmental service is not optimum, or is under threat or declining – baseline<br />
    6. 6. Actors<br />WHO PAYS?<br /><ul><li>Companies: Airlines, courier; Coca cola; breweries; Mining; Water bottling; Irrigation
    7. 7. Banks: World Bank – Ug, Tz
    8. 8. Governments: Norway, US, South Africa, Zambia
    9. 9. Events: CHOGM; World cup
    10. 10. Celebrities in music and film</li></ul>WHO GETS PAID?<br />Communities<br />Governments<br />Industry<br />Large-scale investors<br />WHO FACILITATES?<br /><ul><li>Regulators
    11. 11. Brokers
    12. 12. Project developers
    13. 13. Researchers</li></li></ul><li>Mechanisms of payment<br />
    14. 14. PES schemes<br />Public schemes: the state acts on behalf of ES buyers by collecting taxes and grants and pays ES providers.<br />Private schemes are more locally focused and buyers pay providers directly<br />Use-restricting schemes rewards for capping resource extraction and land development; or for fully setting aside protected areas<br />Asset-building schemes: Aimed at restoring or building ES from bare or degraded landscape.<br />
    15. 15. Challenges for PES<br />Conditionality or contingent periodic payments : <br /><ul><li>Difficult to achieve
    16. 16. Requires that funding is sustained
    17. 17. Regular monitoring is expensive</li></ul>Demand for ES is low<br />PES costs are high for project start-up and running<br />Risk of crowding out culturally rooted conservation values.<br />PES maydecouple conservation from development<br />Uneven power relations - providers can only be paid what beneficiaries give; Risk of elite capture<br />PES may discriminate against those with weak tenure rights – biased towards better off<br />New institutional linkages may be needed<br />New skills required: land-use and service monitoring, facilitating negotiation, and financial intermediation; trust-building<br />PES mechanisms are context-dependent – scaling up may be challenging<br />
    18. 18. Conclusions<br />PES has the added advantage of enhancing efficiency in natural resource conservation<br />It enables accessing of new finances for natural resource management<br />It is additional to other NR approaches<br />Expectations from PES should be realistic: Primarily to deliver on ES and not be burdened with development agendas<br />Potential service buyers should understand and be confident about PES in order to create the necessary demand<br />A range of PES mechanisms should be considered to determine what fits the context<br />
    19. 19. Thank You<br />For more information, contact<br />Sara Namirembe <br />s.namirembe@cgiar.org<br />World Agroforestry Centre<br />http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org<br />

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