Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
European Geologist nº 30 - Dec. 2010
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

European Geologist nº 30 - Dec. 2010


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. N° 30 Dec 2010European Geologist Revue dé la Fédération Européenne des Géologues Journal of the European Federation of Geologists Revista de la Federación Europea de Geólogos Higher Education in Geology Euro-Ages
  • 2. Not Just Software. . . RockWare. For Over 27 Years. RockWorks® LP360™ PetraSim™ LogPlot® 3D Data Management, LIDAR Extension for ArcGIS A Preprocessor and Postpro- Powerful, Flexible, Easy-to-Use Analysis and Visualization • Requires only a standard cessor for TOUGH2, T2VOC, Borehole Log Software • Powerful measured-section/ ArcView™ license TMVOC and TOUGHREACT • Dozens of templates borehole database for and TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE available or design your • Creates a LIDAR data layer managing: in ArcMap™ • Model multi-component own in the drawing-style log - Lithology - Geophysics fluid flow, heat transfer and designer window • Blends imagery or other - Stratigraphy - Fractures reactive transport process • Tabbed data sheets - Hydrology - and more data layers with LIDAR - Hydrochemistry • Saturated and unsaturated • Import/Export data from • Blazing fast on-the-fly (e.g. Contaminants) conditions LAS, Excel, RockWorks contouring and tinning • Create striplogs, cross- • Fractured and porous media • Paginated and continuous • Optimized cross-section/ sections, fence diagrams, profile data viewer • Mesh generation, parameter logs at any vertical scale and block models definition, and display of • Export to a variety of formats • 3D data viewer • Contour data in 2D and 3D results • Exports customizable • Free viewer can be distributed (isosurfaces) • Now supports TOUGH-MP to clients contours • Extensive on-line help and (parallel version of the sample data sets • Offers advanced breakline TOUGH2 simulator) integration options • Includes RockWorks Utilities Free trial available at Free trial available at Free trial available at Free trial available at $2,499 $2,990 Call for pricing $699Follow us on: European Sales ++41 91 967 52 53 • F: ++41 91 967 55 50 MapInfo Professional® 2 US Sales European Geologist 30 303.278.3534 • F: 303.278.4099
  • 3. Contents European Geologist 30 PageForeword...Ruth Allington 4 Advertisers Rockware (pages 2 and 48); SLR (page 13);Euro-Ages Stump Foratec AG (page 22); Polymetra Gyro Services (page 29); Geoscience Data Manage-Euro-Ages...André Rieck 5 ment (page 38); Golder Associates (page 40); Geobrugg (page 47).The Bologna Process...Paul D. Ryan 9 Cover photo:Mapping the European geological qualification 14 Main photo: Bologna, which houses the oldest continuously operating university in the world, ...Isabel Fernandez and David Norbury established probably in 1088 (Photo: D. Harper). Smaller photos, from left: Graduation day atThe Euro-Ages programme and Ireland...Ben Kennedy 18 Bologna University (Photo: D. Harper); Student on practical training in a mine, Hungary.Learning outcomes and skill levels...David Norbury 19 Photos this page: From left: Participating countries in mappingAcademia and industry, Hungary...Janos Foldessy and Ferenc Madai 23 European Qualification; Students on mining practical training, Hungary; Students at theHigher education in geology in Hungary...Éva Hartai 26 GeoMining Museum, Geological Survey of Spain (Photo: A. Calonga).Geological higher education in Serbia...Vladica Cvetković 28The higher education system in Italy...M. Trimboli and E. Nucci 30 © Copyright 2010 The European Federation of Geologists All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy orProfessional registration in Canada...O. Bonham and G. Finn 35 transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No responsibility isPerspective from employers...Luca Demicheli 37 assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence, or otherwise,Euro-Ages and geology in Sweden...Vivi Vajda and Linda M. Larsson 39 or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in theEFG News material herein. Although all advertising mate- rial is expected to conform to ethical (medical) standards, inclusion in this publication does notOn regulations and renewals...David Norbury 41 constitute a guarantee or endorsement of the quality or value of such product or of the claimsOther News made by its manufacturer. ISSN: 1028 - 267XFirst Spanish Geological Olympiad...Amelia Calonga Garcia 41News from GsF. The Togo project...Carlo Enrico Bravi 43Book ReviewIntroducing Patrick Wyse Jackson 45 ... review by D. Harper p. 41 p. 14 p. 23European Geologist 30 3
  • 4. Foreword EUROPEAN GEOLOGIST Euro-Ages is published by the by EurGeol. Ruth Allington, President T European Federation of Geologists his edition of European GeologistC/O Service Geologique de Belgique is a thematic issue on higher educa- Rue Jenner 13 tion and lifelong learning to mark B-1000 Bruxelles, Belgium the conclusion of the Euro-Ages project1. Tel:+32 2 6270412 The final conference took place on 22 October 2010 and the final report will be completed during December 2010 and the early part of 2011. THE BOARD OF EFG The principal objective of the Euro- Ages project has been to review quality PRESIDENT standards and criteria for the assessment EurGeol. Ruth Allington of higher education study programmes in geology across Europe and to propose a framework for Europe-wide standards. This is not a project about develop- VICE-PRESIDENT ing and attempting to impose prescrip- Nieves Sanchez tive Europe-wide curricula for geological professional qualification (such as study programmes, but about articulating European Geologist (EurGeol.)) a set of high level learning outcomes (the - Facilitating mutual recognition of higher SECRETARY-GENERAL quality standards) based on existing qual- education programmes and professional Elisabeth Däcker ity frameworks, and defining appropriate qualifications through programme vali- levels of attainment in terms of learning dation and certification on a Europe- outcomes achieved on completion of each wide basis TREASURER of the key Bologna cycles (including cycle - Supporting the mobility of geology grad- Leonard Luzieux 4, the stage at which professional qualifica- uates and professional geologists tions may be attained). The vision is for the - Providing a ‘quality label’ for accred- establishment of a Europe-wide accredita- ited geology programmes of first and EU DELEGATE tion scheme for geological programmes second cycle. Marino Trimboli (based on assessment/certification against delivery of the Euro-Ages learning out- Intermediate results of the project are available on the Euro-Ages website: comes) that can sit alongside national and regional accreditation schemes that (, or via the EFG EDITOR website: ( determine content and course structures in Maureen Mc Corry accordance with national laws and norms. As the final results become available, they The potential advantages of developing will also be posted on this website. Feed- a shared understanding of an appropriate back on all these materials and an ongo- EDITORIAL BOARD set of high level learning outcomes from ing discussion within the wider geological Maureen Mc Corry geological programmes of study across community will be welcomed both now Marino Trimboli Europe (and elsewhere in the World), and and when the project is finished. This will Éva Hartai of agreeing the progression of skills and be co-ordinated via the EFG and reported Gareth Ll Jones experience appropriate at the end of each periodically in this magazine. Edmund Nickless Bologna cycle include: Manuel Regueiro 1 Project Partners: ASIIN Consult - Supporting university teachers of geol- GmBH; European Federation of Geolo- ogy in designing and developing their gists; Official Spanish Association of Pro- Translations by programmes having regard not only to fessional Geologists (ICOG); Hungarian Antoine Bouvier the Bologna requirements (inputs and Geological Society (MFT); Swedish Nat- Manuel Regueiro credits) but also to ensuring that gradu- ural Scientists Association - Geological ate geologists possess the appropriate Section. Layout by skill sets and experience to go on and Advisory Board: Dr. Hans-Jürgen Maureen Mc Corry become professional geologists Weyer (German Professional Associa- - Providing a common framework within tion of Geoscientists - BDG); Dr. Paul which geologists can demonstrate pro- Ryan (Tuning Educational Structures in gression and development from first Europe); Dr. Luca Demichelli (EuroGeo- cycle graduation to attainment of a Surveys).4 European Geologist 30
  • 5. Euro-Ages Euro-Ages A leap towards transparency, comparability andmobility in geology in higher education across Europe by André Rieck1Combining the common interests and Combinant les intérêts communs et la Al combinar los intereses comunes yindividual strengths of ASIIN (Ger- motivation de l’engagement individuel las fortalezas de ASSIN (Alemania),many), EFG (Belgium), ICOG (Spain), de l’ASIIN (Allemagne), EFG (Belgique), FEG (Bélgica), ICOG (España), MFTMFT (Hungary) and SACO (Sweden), ICOG (Espagne), MFT (Hongrie) et SACO (Hungria) y SACO (Suecia), el proyectoEuro-Ages provides important refer- (Suède), le dossier Euro Ages fournit des Euro-Ages aporta importantes puntosence points for the development and points de référence importants en mat- de referencia para el desarrollo y elquality assurance of geology and ière de développement et d’assurance aseguramiento de la calidad en lageosciences in tertiary education. qualité pour l’enseignement supérieur educacion terciaria de la geologia yWithin the scope of the project life- de la géologie et des géosciences. las ciencias de la tierra . Dentro de lostime (2009-2011) this was primarily Dans l’optique du projet de toute une objetivos del proyecto, que cubre unimplemented by compiling a set of vie (2009-2011), un premier pas a été periodo de 2009 a 2011, esto se llevóoutcome descriptors for Bachelor’s réalisé en compilant une série de fichiers fundamentalmente a cabo compilandoand Master’s degree programmes. rendant compte des programmes con- un conjunto de descriptores de losThis reference framework can be used duisant aux diplômes de Licence et de resultados de la formacion para losfor programme development by indi- Maîtrise. Ce système de référence peut programas de Licenciado y Master.vidual higher education institutions, être utilisé pour le développement de Este marco de referencia se puedefor the establishment of national sec- programmes par des institutions indivi- utilizar en el desarrollo de los progra-toral qualification frameworks in geol- duelles en enseignement supérieur, pour mas por instituciones de educacionogy and geosciences as well as for la création de cadres de qualifications superior concretas, para el establ-the improvement of accreditation and sectorielles nationales en géologie et ecimiento de marcos sectoriales deevaluation efforts across Europe. géosciences et aussi pour plus de réus- cualificaciones en geologia y ciencias site dans les efforts en accréditation et de la Tierra asi como para la mejora évaluation consentis en Europe. de los esfuerzos de acreditación y evaluación en toda Europa.E uro-Ages aimed at developing a of the EQF. The persistent lack of compara- qualification framework for geol- ble subject-specific tools for assessing and ogy, based on learning outcomes enhancing the quality of geology degreerather than input factors on the European programmes on a national or transnationallevel, thereby increasing transparency level in the past has proven to be a potentialof the Earth Sciences qualifications and obstacle to the mobility of geologists, geol-ultimately facilitating academic and pro- ogy students and graduates. In response tofessional mobility across Europe while at this need, and in line with previous effortsthe same time stimulating students and undertaken by EU-supported projects, thisgraduates in the field of geology as well as joint project has involved the major stake-professional geologists to pursue Lifelong holders in the field of higher education inLearning. The project allowed a structured geology in order to develop a Europe-wideexchange of best practices, expertise and applicable qualifications framework andcountry characteristics of professional descriptors for the EQF level 6 (“Bachelor/ procedural guidelines for the assessmentpractices in geology in the different Euro- 1st cycle”), and 7 (“Masters/2nd cycle”) of geology degree programmes.pean countries. The project moreover serves as a reference framework for pro- The manifold obstacles to academicprovided important reference points for gramme development by individual higher and professional mobility are key chal-quality assurance and related recognition education institutions, for the establish- lenges for the achievement of the Lisbonissues focused on learning outcomes. At the ment of national sectoral qualifications goal of making the EU the most com-same time, a pan-European set of outcome frameworks in geology and for the devel- petitive knowledge-based economy in opment of a sectoral qualification frame- the world. In many countries geology is 1 ASIIN Consult GmbH work for geology encompassing all levels a regulated profession, the exercise ofEuropean Geologist 30 5
  • 6. which is dependent on predefined aca- the B.Sc. in Earth Science & Engineering. - The geology section of the Swedish demic achievements (frequently defined Valuable information for both the Euro- Association of Scientists (SACO) is a in input factors), practical experience and Ages peers and the programme manag- rapidly-growing professional associa-Euro-Ages continuous professional development. ers at Miskolc were gathered during this tion in Sweden. As a professional asso- Thus mobility will greatly be facilitated process so that the feedback will continue ciation SACO is working with questions by the existence of tools for the recog- to flow in the development of the qualifica- related to their members’ professional nition of qualifications and competences, tion framework in the months ahead. career status. Important issues are qual- such as the Tuning Education Structures in Also, on 22 October, the final project ity control of education and training, Europe Initiatives, the European Qualifica- conference was held in Budapest, Hun- professional and ethical criteria, career tion Framework, ECTS as a Euroepean gary. On this occasion, participants from coaching and the progress of science “academic currency”, accreditation bodies across Europe (and even beyond) had the and research development. acting as strong and independent systems chance to discuss the results, actively par- Additionally, an international advisory of external quality assurance, and mutually ticipate in the development of the qualifi- board, consisting of three members with respected standards and guidelines such as cation framework and exchange ideas for the ones developed by the European Asso- the future of geology in higher education. ciation for Quality Assurance in Higher Education and adopted by the Bergen The partners Conference in 2005. While the Frame- The project was initiated and carried out work for Qualifications of the European by a consortium of five partners: Higher Education Area, as adopted by the - ASIIN Consult is a subsidiary of ASIIN European Ministers of Education in 2005, e.V., a not-for-profit accreditation provides a generic tool for the recogni- agency carried by an all-embracing tion of higher education qualifications, it grand alliance of academic and profes- needs to be translated into the specific sional associations and higher educa- fields of study in order to be applicable tion institutions in Germany. All activi- to the individual degree programme. For ties of ASIIN are aimed at securing degree programmes in some disciplines, and further expanding high standards notably engineering, chemistry and infor- and the quality of higher education in matics, sectoral qualifications frameworks the fields of engineering, informatics, have already been developed by pan-Euro- mathematics and the natural sciences, pean networks to fit the needs of specific including geology. disciplines. For geology this gap remained - The European Federation of Geolo- to be closed by this project. gists (EFG) with its 22 member coun- try organizations is a Belgium-based The roadmap organization. Its mission is to represent The Euro-Ages project started in Febru- the geological profession in Europe and ary 2009 within the scope of a meeting at to safeguard and promote the present the EFG office in Brussels, Belgium. On and future interest of the profession as this occasion the initial survey about geol- well as to promote best practice policies ogy study programmes across Europe was with regard to the responsible use of the prepared. After refining the questionnaires Earth´s natural resource. and improving the approach of the survey in Lund, Sweden in May 2009, the ques- - The Ilustre Colegio Oficial De Geologos tionnaires were distributed to all major (ICOG) is a professional association stakeholders and the survey started to yield of geologists, a non-profit organization valuable information. These results were created to defend and support the inter- then compiled and edited to benefit the ests of geologists in Spain. Its main first draft of the qualification framework objectives are to promote activities and which was adapted in the aftermath of the studies regarding geology and facilitate third project meeting in Madrid, Spain in the associated members the practice of November 2009. The final project meet- the profession and to carry out stud- ing took place in Düsseldorf, Germany ies, produce reports and assessments, in February 2010 and brought together elaborate statistics and other activities. the various aspects of Euro-Ages. Further- - Magyarhoni Földtani Társulan (MFT), more, planning for the test evaluation as was established as the Hungarian Geo- well as the final conference was started in logical Society in 1848. It represents Düsseldorf. the Hungarian experts and students Ultimately, in October 2010, the quali- involved with geology. Its main activi- fication framework including a first draft ties are bringing together professionals of the accreditation standards could be from geology and related sciences, rep- tested within the scope of an evaluation resenting their interests and presenting at the University of Miskolc, Hungary for and disseminating practical and scien- tific achievements 6 European Geologist 30
  • 7. backgrounds in the educational as well as Appropriate knowledge of other disciplines of information sources (e.g. textual,professional field, supported the project relevant to geology. numerical, verbal, graphical)throughout the entire project lifespan with Ability to conduct appropriate experi- Analysis, design and implementation Euro-Agesvaluable advice and critical comments: ments, to analyze and interpret data Ability to create simple geological and draw conclusions- Prof. Dr. Luca Demicheli (EuroGeo- models Basic awareness of relevant state-of-the- Surveys) Some understanding of the complexity of art technologies and their application- Prof. Dr. Paul Ryan (Tuning Educational geological problems and the feasibility Basic ability to solve numerical problems Structures in Europe) of their solution using computer and non-computer- Dr. Hans-Jürgen Weyer (BDG - German Understanding the need of a rational use based techniques Professional Association of Geoscien- of Earth resources Basic knowledge of the application of tists). Basic ability in the formalization and information technology to geologicalThe outcomes specification of problems whose solu- scienceWithin two years, two sets of learning tion involves the use of geological Ability to use spreadsheet and word-outcomes as well as criteria and proce- methods processing software.dural guidelines for both the internal qual- Knowledge of appropriate solution pat-ity management and external assessment terns for geological problems Other professional skillsof geological degree programmes have Basic ability to describe a solution at an Ability to complete assigned tasks in abeen developed for EQF level 6 and 7 and abstract level range of technical, economical andmade public ( These social contexts Knowledge of the range of applicationsEuropean outcome descriptors will serve of geology Ability to learn and study including effec-as a reference framework for programme Ability to integrate field and laboratory tive time management and flexibilitydevelopment by individual higher educa-tion institutions in the process of conceptu- evidence with theory following the Awareness of the concept of professional-alizing or remodelling Bachelor and Mas- sequence from observation to recogni- ism and professional ethicsters programmes in the discipline. tion, synthesis and modelling Knowledge of the economic, social, Graduates having completed a First Appreciation of issues concerning sample environmental and legal conditionsCycle degree should have demonstrated selection, accuracy, precision and expected in professional practicethe following capabilities: uncertainty during collection, record- Basic awareness of project management ing and analysis of data in the field and and business practices and understand-Underlying basis laboratory ing of their limitations Ability to formulate and test hypotheses. Ability to work effectively as an indi-Basic knowledge and understanding of the natural sciences (Physics, Chemis- Technological, methodological and trans- vidual and as a member of a team try, Mathematics) underlying the study ferable skills Recognition of the need for, and engage- of Geology ment in self-managed and life-long Basic ability to become familiar with new learningKnowledge and understanding of the geological methods and technologies essential features, processes, materi- Ability to organize their own work inde- Ability to select and use relevant analytic pendently als, history and the development of the and modelling methods Earth and life Basic ability to formulate an acceptable Basic ability to apply appropriate technol- problem solution using geologicalBasic knowledge and understanding of ogy and use relevant methods the key aspects and concepts of geol- methods in a cost-effective and time- Ability to use simple quantitative meth- efficient way ogy, including some at the forefront of ods and to apply them to geological Basic knowledge in estimating and meas- that discipline problems uring costs and productivityKnowledge of the common terminology Basic ability to independently analyze Basic ability to communicate effectively and nomenclature and the use of bibli- earth materials in the field and labora- in written and verbal form with col- ography in geoscience tory and to describe, process, document leagues, other professionals, customersAwareness of the wider spectrum of geo- and report the results logical disciplines and the general public about substan- Ability to undertake field and laboratory tive issues and problems related to theirAwareness and understanding of the tem- investigations in a responsible and safe poral and spatial dimensions in Earth chosen specialization manner, paying due attention to risk Basic ability to prepare, process, inter- processes assessment, rights of access, relevantAwareness of the applications and respon- pret and present data, using appropriate health and safety regulations, and sensi- qualitative and quantitative techniques sibilities of geology and its role in tivity to the impact of investigations on society including its environmental and packages. the environment and stakeholders aspects Basic ability to combine theory and prac- Graduates having completed a SecondAwareness of major geological para- tice to complete geology tasks Cycle degree should have demonstrated digms, the extent of geological time Ability to undertake literature searches, the following capabilities: and plate tectonics and to use data bases and other sourcesKnowledge and understanding of the of information Underlying basis complex nature of interactions within Ability to receive and respond to a variety Advanced knowledge and understanding the geosphereEuropean Geologist 30 7
  • 8. of the principles of geology the development of knowledge, wealth educational objective. From this perspec- Deeper knowledge of a chosen speciali- creation and improving quality of life tive the framework descriptors would zation Ability to evaluate performance as an serve as departing point for further amend-Euro-Ages Critical awareness of the forefront of their individual and a team member ments describing competencies also for the specialization Ability to identify individual and collective related fields of study and the respective Advanced understanding of Earth system goals and responsibilities and to perform interdisciplinary combinations. The Euro- relevant to their specialization in a manner appropriate to these roles Ages framework is thus intended as a broad Ability to critically evaluate professional common denominator, or overarching ref- Appreciation of the learning capacity and research papers erence point, for the variety of geology needed to progress to independent programmes. In order to allow for possible research. Ability to plan an appropriate programme inclusion of existing geology speciali- of continuing professional develop- Analysis, design and implementation zations within European Higher Educa- ment. tion Institutions, the framework must be Ability to specify and complete geologi- Further, within the scope of the surveys, formulated in rather general terms. The cal tasks that are complex, incompletely a state-of-the-art report concerning the Standards and Criteria represent a quality defined or unfamiliar current status of geology in higher educa- threshold. All graduates of programmes Some ability to formulate and solve prob- tion across Europe has been developed. assessed against the Euro-Ages standards lems in new and emerging areas of their Accordingly, the project provided benefits are expected to achieve the programme discipline to departments of geology and the aca- learning outcomes stated therein. Accredi- Ability to apply state-of-the-art or innova- demic community by engaging them in tation of a geology degree programme is tive methods in problem solving, possi- the most important endeavour of defining the primary result of a process used to bly involving use of other disciplines leaning outcomes in geology. Also, in this ensure the suitability of that programme as Ability to think creatively to develop new process, the employment side, companies, providing the education base for the entry and original approaches and methods. and corporate members and further stake- route to professional practice. It involves Technological, methodological and trans- holders were able to feed in their expec- a periodic assessment against accepted ferable skills tations about the qualification profile of standards of higher education in geology. their future employees. The Standards and Independent, third-party accreditation is Ability to design appropriate experiments, Criteria are intended to provide a means essentially based on a peer review proc- to analyze and interpret data and draw for reviewing the quality of higher educa- ess, undertaken by appropriately trained conclusions integrating knowledge tion geology qualifications in the Euro- and independent teams comprising peers from different disciplines, and handling pean Higher Education Area (EHEA), in from both academia and geology practice, complexity a way that encourages the dissemination in accordance with agreed principles. It is Ability to use advanced, and develop cus- of good practice and a culture of continu- important that accreditation processes go tomized, quantitative methods ous improvement of geology programmes. beyond judgement on the achievement of Comprehensive understanding of appli- Given the great diversity of education in a minimum standard, and effectively pro- cable techniques and methods for a geology across Europe, the attempt to mote the idea of continuous improvement particular specialization, and of their create framework standards comprising of the quality of higher education pro- limits all areas of the geology discipline appears grammes. The Standards for Accreditation Awareness of the limits of current knowl- ambitious. In the course of the project can be used in both the design and the eval- edge and the practical application of the the traditional education of geologists at uation of programmes in all specializations state-of-the-art technology European universities appeared to be in of geology. They are expressed as broad Knowledge and understanding of geology a transition period. The design of study generic programme-learning outcomes to create geological models of complex programmes in geology actually drifts that describe in general terms the capa- systems and processes to more interdisciplinary and/or special- bilities required of graduates from accred- Basic ability to contribute to the further ized focuses and “classical” geology is ited First Cycle and Second Cycle geology development of geology in practice and inserted in a selective way in new pro- programmes, as defined in the Framework research. grammes under different titles. Therefore for Qualifications of the European Higher the number of mere geological study pro- Education Area. Consequently, they can Other professional competences grammes decreases all over Europe whilst be interpreted and elaborated by users to Ability to produce independent work in the interdisciplinary approach focusing on reflect the specific demands of different their professional and scientific fields “geosciences” gains strength. Despite this cycles and specializations. Ability to manage and work effectively as observation the project partners decided a leader of teams that may be composed to continue the work on sectoral geology This project has been funded with sup- of different disciplines and levels outcome descriptors as they would also port from the European Commission. This be useful for the design, implementation publication reflects the views only of the Basic ability to work effectively and com- and quality control of study programmes author, and the Commission cannot be held municate in national and international following a broader and or more inter- responsible for any use which may be made contexts disciplinary and or more specialized of the information contained therein. Appreciation of the role of geology in 8 European Geologist 30
  • 9. The Bologna Process: an introduction Euro-Ages by Paul D. Ryan1The Bologna Process, initiated in 1999 Le Processus de Bologne, initié en El proceso de Bolonia, que comenzóand not yet completed, aims to create 1999 et pas encore achevé, vise à en 1999 y todavía no ha terminado,a single European Higher Education créer un Espace européen unique de tiene como objetivo crear un Área deArea in which degrees and diplomas l’enseignement supérieur dans lequel les Educación Superior Europea en queare transparent and transportable. niveaux de qualification et les diplômes los títulos y diplomas sean transpar-The degrees will be based upon a sont clairement définis et validés d’un entes y transportables. Los gradosBachelor, Masters, Doctoral system pays à l’autre. Les qualifications seront se basarán en un sistema de Licen-and should be described in terms of basées selon un système comprenant ciaturas, Másteres y Doctorados y sewhat the student is expected to know, trois niveaux : la Licence, la Maîtrise et deberían describir en términos de lounderstand and demonstrate after a le Doctorat et devraient être présentées que se espera que un estudiante sepa,course of study. Mechanisms are de manière à préciser ce que l’on attend entienda y pueda demostrar que sabe,being put in place which will facilitate de l’étudiant en matières de connais- tras un curso de estudio. Se estándegree recognition throughout the 47 sances, de compréhension et de mise poniendo en marcha mecanismos quesignatory states. There will also be a en application, à l’issue de son cursus facilitarán el reconocimiento de títu-Europe wide system of quality assur- d’études. Des mécanismes sont mis en los entre los 47 estados firmantesance to ensure standards. The Tuning place qui faciliteront la reconnaissance del acuerdo. Habrá también un sis-Project has developed tools to facili- des qualifications dans les 47 états sig- tema europeo de aseguramiento detate the development of such degrees nataires. Il existera aussi un système la calidad para garantizar la calidadat the Institute level and has produced européen complet d’assurance qualité de los estudios. El proyecto Tuning haa template for the Earth Sciences. pour garantir des niveaux standard. Un desarrollado herramientas para facili-The Bologna Process will be of great Projet d’Harmonisation a mis au point tar el desarrollo de dichos grados avalue to the Geoscience Profession as des outils pour faciliter le développe- nivel de facultad y ha producido unait will facilitate professional mobility ment de ces trois niveaux de qualifica- plantilla o modelos para el caso dethroughout Europe. tion et a créé un système référent pour las Ciencias de la Tierra. El proceso les Sciences de la Terre. Le Processus de Bolonia será de gran ayuda para la de Bologne aura une valeur importante profesión de geólogo ya que facilitará pour les professionnels des Géosciences la movilidad profesional en Europa. car il va faciliter leur libre circulation en Europe.T he Bologna Process, adopted cur- reform is still needed today if Europe is signed or were in the process of signing rently by 47 European Nations, to match the performance of the best per- this Convention by 2009. The ultimate aim aims to reform higher education in forming systems in the world, notably the is that a graduate from one country hasEurope and is best summarized by the fol- United States and Asia. The three priorities a degree that is recognized in 46 otherlowing statement: “The Bologna Process of the Bologna process were: introduc- European countries. In the geoscienceaims to create a European Higher Edu- tion of the three cycle system (bachelor / profession, involving large amounts ofcation Area by 2010, in which students master / doctorate), quality assurance and trans-national working, such as that of thecould choose from a wide and transparent recognition of qualifications and periods geologist, these reforms are long overduerange of high quality courses and benefit of study.” (European Commission, 2009a). and are to be welcomed.from smooth recognition procedures. The This Process requires substantial changes This Bologna process is supervised byBologna Declaration of June 1999 has in the structure of degrees in countries not a conference of Government Ministersput in motion a series of reforms needed already using the three cycle system, the from the signatory States who meet everyto make European Higher Education more implementation of quality assurance pro- second year to measure progress and setcompatible and comparable, more com- cedures and of standardized mechanisms priorities for action. After Bologna (1999),petitive and more attractive for Europeans to ensure recognition of qualifications they met in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003),and for students and scholars from other throughout the signatory states. The legal Bergen (2005), London (May, 2007) andcontinents. Reform was needed then and framework for recognition of degrees is the Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve (April, 2009) Lisbon Recognition Convention (Council (see the Official Bologna Process website, 1 Earth & Ocean Sciences, NUI Galway, of Europe, 2010) which states that signa- 2010, for details). At the London meeting Ireland. Tuning area coordinator Earth tories must recognize each others’ degrees Ministers adopted a strategy on how to Sciences unless substantial differences can be dem- reach out to other continents. They also onstrated. Thirty seven countries had either gave the green light to create a RegisterEuropean Geologist 30 9
  • 10. 100%Euro-Ages 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% % of degrees Non-Bolog na Doctora te 40% Ma ste rs 240 ECTS 30% 180 ECTS Sh ort Cycle 20% 10% 0% m m ny li c al rl a n d s li c Ita ly rk Sta te s y ry Spa in e Ir e la n d Kor e a P ola n d ia li a d d r la n d Au s tr ia e Es ton ia e d n Norw a F ra n c Ic e la n e a la n v e ra g a v e ra g Swe d e F in la n Kin g d o B e lg iu Slov e n Hu n g a P ortu g D e n ma R e pu b R e pu b Ge rma Au s tr a Switze Ne th e Un ite d Ne w Z EU1 9 a OEC D Slov a k Cze c h Un ite d Figure 1. The proportion of Three Cycle System degree types in some Bologna signatory nations and in other countries worldwide. The data is extracted from OECD Education at a Glance (2010). The degrees that are ‘non-Bologna compliant’ do not correspond to the Three Cycle System (see text) of European Quality Assurance Agen- of the European Universities in which the or in six years, whilst most do so in the cies. These meetings define the action subject of Earth Science has been an active prescribed five years. Also, some countries lines that each nation needs to undertake area of investigation since its inception in allow students to proceed from a Bachelor to establish the legislative, administrative 2000. This article will review the role of directly to a Doctorate, although increas- and academic framework to implement Bologna action lines and Tuning in imple- ingly the Masters is deemed to be covered in the Process. The action lines have been menting the Bologna Process within Earth a programme of certified Doctoral training revised with time, making the Bologna Science Higher Education in Europe. which is in addition to the research require- Process a vital and ongoing process. It was ment of that degree. Whilst there has been originally intended that this process should Principle components of the Bologna considerable debate within Europe these be completed by 2010. However, in spite of Process matters are not yet fully resolved. Figure considerable progress being made at insti- The ‘Three Cycle System’ 1 shows the proportion of degrees awarded tutional, national and international levels, The Bologna Process requires that higher by countries both within and outside the these reforms are not yet complete. On education in signatory states follows the Bologna Process that correspond to the 12 March 2010, Ministers from the coun- so-called ‘Three Cycle System’. The basic ‘Three Cycle System’ (OECD Education tries participating in the Bologna Process Bachelor (Cycle 1) degree should take at a Glance, 2010). The number of non- adopted the Budapest-Vienna Declara- either three or four years with the Masters Bologna compliant degrees will decrease tion and officially launched the European (Cycle 2) degree being attained after a total with time as new courses are initiated. Higher Education Area. In this declaration of five years of study. The Doctorate or they note “further work, involving staff Cycle 3 degree should then take another Quality Assurance and students, is necessary at European, three years after having completed both The development of a pan-European Qual- national, and especially institutional levels Cycles 1 and 2. There is, however, some ity Assurance system for higher education to achieve the European Higher Education variation in this system. There is a ‘Short will be the driver which monitors and pro- Area” (see the Official Bologna Process Cycle’ degree, usually available after two motes the implementation of the Bologna website, 2010, for details). Much work has years, in some professional courses. Also, reforms. This is currently a work in progress taken place outside of these conferences, the length of Masters programmes varies with, in 2009, about one third of signatory in particular the Tuning Project (Tuning, from one to two years to complement nations still only embarking on the proc- 2010) has developed tools to assist change the three to four years of Bachelor pro- ess. In general, the model that is followed at the level of the Institutes of Higher Edu- grammes. In a community in which free is that where the discipline, programme, cation and professional programmes. The movement is a fundamental right some department, office, or institute produces Tuning Project is an EU-funded project students may achieve a Masters in four a self-assessment report that is critically 10 European Geologist 30
  • 11. evaluated with feedback. The evaluation when the student passes all the assess- Few countries yet have fully implementedprocess also involves a site visit. This ments for that year. A Bachelor degree, externally validated NQFs and about oneprocess must involve students and should therefore, requires a minimum of 180 and third of signatory states are only embark- Euro-Agesbe externally, preferably internationally, a maximum of 240 ECTS credits. It should ing on the process. An example of thevalidated. A set of guidelines have been also be noted that these credits must be mapping between an NQF and the EQF ispublished by the European Association cumulative, in other words the student provided in Ireland where Cycle 1 degreesfor Quality Assurance in Higher Educa- needs to acquire them at the level of each can be either of 180 ECTS credits (Level 7tion (ENQA, 2009) whose purpose is to year of study. Some ECTS credits can be or ‘Ordinary Bachelors Degrees’) or 240establish European standards for internal acquired at a lower level, but this limited ECTS credits (Level 8 or ‘Honours Bach-and external quality assurance, external facility exists only to allow students to elors Degrees’ or ‘Higher Diplomas’) inquality assurance agencies and a European take other ‘minor’ subjects. The European the NQF (see which map toregister of quality assurance agencies. The Commission may award an ECTS Label to Level 6 (Bachelors Degrees) of the EQF.quality of degree programmes in all signa- an institution of higher education that ‘hastory states will, therefore, follow similar, shown excellence in applying the European Mobilityregular, validated assessments, effectively Credit Transfer and Accumulation System The Ministers responsible for Higherremoving the argument that degrees in one (ECTS) and the Diploma Supplement (DS)’ Education in the countries participatingstate are of a different quality from those (see below). At the time of writing only 65 in the Bologna Process in the communi-in another. IHEs (approximately 1% of the total) have que following the London Conference in been awarded such Labels, but this number May 2007 issued the following statement.Recognition of Degrees and Diplomas is bound to grow especially as it will give a “Mobility of staff, students and gradu-The main international legal text that aims competitive advantage to those IHEs who ates is one of the core elements of theto further the fair recognition of qualifica- possess such Labels in terms of attracting Bologna Process, creating opportunitiestions is the Council of Europe/UNESCO international students. for personal growth, developing interna-Convention on the Recognition of Quali- tional cooperation between individualsfications concerning Higher Education in Diploma Supplement and institutions, enhancing the quality ofthe European Region (Lisbon Recogni- The Diploma Supplement is the instrument higher education and research, and givingtion Convention, see Council of Europe, whereby an institution of higher education substance to the European dimension”.2010). The recognition of qualifications is gives a full and transportable account of athe responsibility of each country, mean- student’s achievements. It accompanies a Workplace and societying that higher education institutions are locally awarded higher education diploma In the Leuven Communiqué of 2009 theresponsible for the recognition of quali- and provides a standardized description of Ministers identified a list of priorities forfications for the purpose of further study the nature, level, context, content and status the coming decade, which included: thewhereas professional bodies or employers of the studies completed by its holder. This social dimension of higher education;are responsible for recognition for the pur- product should not only make it easier for lifelong learning; employability. A recentposes of the labour market. There are many students to study abroad, but also should Eurobarometer Survey, FLASH 260,aspects to the recognition of higher educa- assist with professional mobility. IHEs can (European Commission, 2009b) amongtional qualifications throughout Europe; be awarded a Diploma Supplement Label students in higher education reported thathowever, the European Credit Transfer and in addition to the ECTS label. the vast majority of students want: widerAccumulation System, the Diploma Sup- access to higher education; universitiesplement and Qualification Frameworks are National and European Qualification to further develop cooperation with theessential requirements for this to happen. Frameworks world of work; wider access to lifelong These Frameworks (NQF/EQF) describe learning. In particular: 97% wanted theThe European Credit Transfer and Accu- the qualifications of an education system knowledge and skills they needed to bemulation System and how they interlink. National qualifica- successful in the labour market, 91% rec-The European Credit Transfer and Accu- tions frameworks describe what learners ognized the need for personal develop-mulation System (ECTS) is the fundamen- should know, understand and be able to do ment; 87% supported the principal thattal tool that allows comparison of courses on the basis of a given qualification as well education should facilitate people to playand degrees across Europe. ECTS grew as how learners can move from one quali- an active role in society; a similar propor-out of the need for transportable certifica- fication to another within a system. They tion agreed that higher education shouldtion for students who took part of their apply to all levels of educational attainment “foster innovation and an entrepreneurialcourse work abroad under such schemes covering school, workplace training, and mindset among students and staff, and thatas Erasmus Mundus. However, this system higher education. The European Qualifica- there should be a possibility to undertakemust now be applied to all courses and tions Framework (European Commission, work placements in private enterprises asprogrammes and a comprehensive set of 2008) provides a meta framework through part of a study programme” (Europeanguidelines for the correct implementa- which individual NQFs can be compared. Commission, 2009b). The Bologna Proc-tion of ECTS has recently been published The NQFs take priority and may differ ess should provide a platform for better(European Commission, 2009). A year of in detail from the EQF, but must have an cooperation between IHEs, industry andstudy, which comprises about 1500 hours agreed mapping onto the EQF. The aim is society. Something that may prove crucialof total student commitment (not to be to provide both individuals and employ- if the geoscience profession is going toconfused with formal timetabled contact ers with a tool to compare the qualifica- meet the challenges of the future.hours), permits the award of 60 ECTS tions levels of different countries, different The recognition of prior learning (RPL)credits on satisfactory completion, that is education and different training systems. and lifelong learning (LLL) are also essentialEuropean Geologist 30 11
  • 12. in this regard. RPL will allow a profes- completed the full programme should obtain to demonstrate after completion of a learning sional to apply to an IHE to have their a degree awarded jointly by the participat- experience’ (Tuning, 2008). Competences, prior learning assessed. RPL provides a ing institutions, and fully recognized in all be they subject specific or generic andEuro-Ages mechanism by which individuals with countries. Whilst the current development more related to life and the workplace, prior learning obtained through life experi- of Joint Degree programmes is relatively ‘represent a dynamic combination of cog- ence and/or formal education and/or work slow, mainly because many countries are nitive and meta-cognitive skills, knowl- experience are assessed for entry onto, for still in the process of implementing the edge, and understanding, interpersonal, credit towards and/or for exemption from Bologna reforms at institutional level, intellectual and practical skills and ethical components of a higher education quali- this exciting development will undoubt- values’ (Tuning, 2008). This model for a fication. Correct implementation of RPL edly become very important in the future, programme of study requires careful defi- should well provide a platform for better especially for careers in geoscience, which nition of the competences the student must industry-IHE cooperation and, by allowing require workers to be mobile and able to acquire, the outcomes they must success- access to educational programmes, will work in different societies and under dif- fully demonstrate at the end of the course, contribute significantly to a professional ferent conditions. the exact profile and level of the course and geologist’s lifetime programme of con- the student commitment required in terms tinuous personal development. Lifelong Tuning higher educational structures in of total workload, not just contact hours. learning, which will now be integrated Europe It not only gives students a clear idea of into the NQFs is also very important in This started in 2000 as a project to link the what is expected from them but it also pro- this context, as well as helping serve the political objectives of the Bologna Proc- vides a platform whereby outcomes other needs of an ageing population and the ess and the Lisbon Strategy to the higher than exam scripts, for example publicly economic requirement to move towards educational sector. Over time, Tuning has presenting the results of project work, can ‘knowledge based economies’. Both RPL developed into a Process, adopted by 58 be assessed and assigned ECTS credits. and LLL require more flexible, student- countries world-wide, designed to assist in Whilst there is considerable variation centred modes of delivery (for example, the (re-)design, development, implemen- between educational traditions, students part-time course work at times convenient tation, evaluation and quality enhancement can expect to receive 1 ECTS credit for for in-job training and new methods of in first, second and third cycle degree pro- every 25 ± 5 hours of study satisfactorily distance learning) and the widening access grammes. The motto of Tuning is “Tuning completed. to higher education. of educational structures and programmes The SAGs have developed internation- The London Ministerial Communiqué, on the basis of diversity and autonomy”. ally validated templates to assist in the May, 2007, (see UK Government, 2007) This project was initiated by Julia development of courses following this states “Higher education should play a Gonzalez, University of Duesto, Bilbao model. The template for the Earth Sci- strong role in fostering social cohesion, and Robert Wagener, Groningen Univer- ences (Ryan et al., 2010) is available from reducing inequalities and raising the level sity. Whilst funded by the EU, Tuning was the Tuning website. This template recog- of knowledge, skills and competences in in effect the Universities’ response to the nizes the enormous breadth of subjects that society. Policy should therefore aim to challenges of the Bologna Process. Sub- fall within the remit of Earth Science (let maximize the potential of individuals in ject area groups of experts from across alone the wider Earth System Sciences) terms of their personal development and Europe, which included geoscience from and is extremely careful not to recom- their contribution to a sustainable and the outset, were set up to try to develop the mend a ‘standard curriculum’. However, democratic knowledge-based society”. educational tools required by the Process. it does elucidate the fundamental under- These groups also met in plenary session to lying Generic and Subject Specific com- Joint Degrees develop the broader language and policies petences which are required to study the The Bologna Process has paved the way required. Tuning has been highly influential Earth. The template also requires that any for increasingly innovative, cooperative, within the Bologna Process. The adoption Earth Science training programme should cross border study programmes. The so- by the Ministers in their Berlin Commu- include an appropriate amount of field called “Joint Degree” has recently become niqué of 2003 of the following statement work, particularly at the Cycle 1 level, one of the most cited examples, and such “Ministers encourage the member States as “it is impossible to properly analyze joint degree programmes are springing up to elaborate a framework of comparable and interpret field-based data, whether across Europe. The programmes leading to and compatible qualifications for their collected directly or remotely, without an Joint Degrees are developed or approved higher education systems, which should understanding of its inherent limitations” jointly by several institutions. Students seek to describe qualifications in terms of (Ryan et al., 2010). from each participating institution study workload, level, learning outcomes, com- Although the Tuning Europe Project for a significant part of the programme petences and profile. They also undertake formally ended in 2009, a Tuning Academy (as opposed to short exchanges) at insti- to elaborate an overarching framework of was launched in September 2010 whose tutions other than the one in which they qualifications for the Higher Education aim is to promote training and research register. Teaching staff from each partici- Area” was directly a result of this work. to support the Bologna Process. The Min- pating institution devise and administer This policy required a move from ‘input, sters state in 2009 (see: http://www.ond. the curriculum together and participate in teacher oriented’ programmes such as mobility for teaching purposes. Periods defining a degree by giving a list of topics conference/documents/Leuven_Louvain- of study and exams passed at the part- to be studied, to ‘outcome, student ori- la-Neuve_Communiqu%C3%A9_April_ ner institution(s) are recognized fully ented’ programmes. A learning outcome is 2009.pdf) that “the potential and wide- and automatically by all institutions and defined as ‘statements of what a learner is spread significance of learning outcomes countries involved. The students who have expected to know, understand and be able is only just beginning to be realized .... For 12 European Geologist 30
  • 13. this sort of bottom-up approach there is a Conclusions qualified. The need to restructure degree need for fundamental change at institutional Although there is still a lot more work to do, programmes in a manner that is more level”. It is the aim of the Tuning Academy the Bologna Process is creating a European student centred and takes into account the Euro-Ages to meet this challenge. The Earth Sciences framework in which professional geolo- needs of society and the workplace pro- will be represented in this endeavour. gists should find it much easier to work vides our profession with a unique oppor- in countries other than the one where they tunity to contribute towards high training standards in European higher education. References and resources European Commission. 2009b. Stu- bell, B., Weiszburg, T. 2010. Reference Council of Europe. 2010. (http:// dents and Higher Education Reform: Points for the Design and Delivery of Survey among students in higher edu- Degree Programmes in Earth Science. recognition/1rc_EN.asp). cation institutions in the EU Member ( States, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and ingeu/index.php?option=com_docman ENQA. 2009. ESG Standards and Turkey. ( &task=docclick&Itemid=59&bid=113 Guidelines for Quality Assurance in opinion/flash/fl_260_en.pdf). &limitstart=0&limit=5). the European Higher Education Area - 3rd edition. ( OECD Education at a Glance. 2010. Tuning. 2008. Universities´ contribu- ESG_3edition%20(2).pdf). ( tion to the Bologna Process: An intro- tion/highlights-from-education-at-a- duction (2nd Edition) (http://tuning. European Commission. 2010. (http:// glance-2010_eag_highlights-2010- en). ries/Publications/Tuning_General_ education/doc1290_en.htm). Brochure_english.jpg). Official Bologna Process website. European Commission. 2009a. ECTS 2010. ( Tuning. 2009. (http://tuning.unideusto. Users’ Guide, third edition. (http:// hogeronderwijs/bologna/). org/tuningeu/index.php). ing-policy/doc/ects/guide_en.pdf). Ryan, P. D., Pereira, E., Anceau, A., UK Government. 2007. (http://www. Beunk, F., Boulton, G., Canals, A., Del- European Commission. 2008 The pouve, B. Dramis, F., Gehör, S., Greil- documents/LondonCommuniquefinal- European Qualifications Framework ing, R., Tvis Knudsen, N., Mansy, J-L., withLondonlogo.pdf). for lifelong learning (EQF). (http:// Meilliez, F., Nogueira, P., Petrakakis, K., Roeleveld, W., Sanderson, D., Sta- general/eqf/broch_en.pdf). SUSTAINABLE NATURAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENTSLR Consulting Ireland has over 25 geoscience professionals based in Dublin who are part of the700+ strong SLR Group with offices in the UK, Canada, USA, Australia and SE Asia.SLR provides a full range of services in the following areas: · Minerals & Mining · Energy Resources · Geothermal Energy To find out more, please contact: · Environmental Management Deirdre Lewis / Róisín Goodman · Infrastructure / Geotechnics SLR Consulting (Ireland) Limited 7 Dundrum Business Park, Windy Arbour · Competent Person / Independent Reporting Dundrum, Dublin 14 · Carbon Management T: +353 1 296 4667 F: +353 1 296 4676 · Management Waste · Strategic Planning / Valuations European Geologist 30 13
  • 14. Mapping the European geological qualificationEuro-Ages by Dr. Isabel Fernández Fuentes1 and David Norbury2 European geologists sometimes ask Les géologues européens se posent Los geólogos europeos a veces se themselves how their qualification parfois la question de savoir à quoi cor- preguntan en qué medida su título is related to similar qualifications in respond leur niveau de qualification par académico se relaciona con títulos other European countries. The Euro- rapport à des qualifications comparables, similares en otros países de Europa. pean Federation of Geologists has tried délivrées dans d’autres pays européens. La Federación Europea de Geólogos to answer this and other questions La Fédération Européenne des Géologues ha tratado de responder a esta y otras on European qualification in Geology a essayé de répondre à cette question et à inquietudes sobre las titulaciones under Euro-Ages, a European project d’autres interrogations touchant la qualifi- europeas de geología con el proyecto funded by the European Union, DG cation des géologues en Europe, à travers Euro-Ages, un proyecto financiado por Education and Lifelong Learning Pro- Euro-Ages, un Projet européen financé par el Programa de Aprendizaje de por gramme. One of the first challenges of l’Union européenne, le Programme pour Vida de la DG de Educación y Cultura this project has been to map geologi- l’Education et la Formation, tout au long de de la Comisión Europea. Uno de los cal qualifications within the EU coun- la vie. L’un des premiers défis de ce projet primeros retos del proyecto ha sido tries. The main data from this study a consisté à recenser les qualifications en cartografiar las titulaciones geológicas are presented in this article. géologie pour chaque pays européen. Cet en los países de la UE. Los principales article présente les principaux résultats datos de este estudio se incluyen en tirés de cette étude. este artículo. O ver the past year, the partners in the A precedent of this study is the Report •Universities offering geological pro Euro-Ages project have worked on Education, Professional Activity and grammes towards developing a European Recognition of Qualifications, EFG Office, •Number of freshman students and qualification framework for geology, in the July, 2005. The objective of this document graduates in the country first and second cycles defined by the Bolo- was to report on the status of Earth Sci- - Learning outcomes; gna Process, based on learning outcomes ences education and professional training, •Definition of learning outcomes rather than input factors (course curricula). with the aim of achieving the harmoniza- •Academic and professional learning The objectives of the work are to increase tion of Earth Sciences curricula, to inform outcomes and competence profiles for transparency of Earth Sciences qualifica- on general aspects of Earth Sciences pro- study tions across Europe and therefore to facili- fessional activities, to establish the map of tate improved academic and professional different specialties and to promote the rec- •Programmes in geology mobility across Europe. At the same time, ognition of qualifications and the mobility •Example of programme structure for the project aims to encourage students and of professionals. The data analyzed in this education graduates in the field of geology, as well as report were derived from a questionnaire - Professional input to course structure professional geologists, to pursue Lifelong on education and training that was sent to - Teaching course accreditation systems. Learning. The project objectives are being the EFG National Associations. The full report with the 27 summary coun- achieved through a structured exchange of The present article is based on the report tries is available on the Euro-Ages Project best practices, expertise and characteristics for European Accredited Geological Study website, European Accredited Geological of professional practices in geology in the Programmes, Euro-Ages project, 2010. Study Programmes, Euro-Ages project, different European countries. Important The data come from the summary reports 2010. reference points have been identified for produced by 27 European Countries: This article is focused on the imple- quality assurance and related recognition Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Den- mentation of the Bologna Process, educa- issues focused on learning outcomes. The mark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, tion in geology, professional prerequisite project is supported by the European Com- Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, and accreditation systems. The Learning mission, DG Education and Culture. Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Outcome is presented in this magazine One of the first steps was to map the Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slo- (p. 19). existing qualifications for geology in vakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and formal, non-formal and informal settings United Kingdom (Fig. 1). Status of implementation of the Bologna and to link these to national qualification Each country has produced a summary Process systems. The European Federation of Geol- with the following structure: In most European counties the establish- ogists was the coordinator of this study. - Status of implementation of Bologna ment of education in accordance with the process Bologna process is well advanced. Most 1 EFG Office Director - Education in Geology, including; geology degree courses have switched to 2 Chairman, EFG Registration Authority •The structure of education the three cycle style of courses and the first 14 European Geologist 30
  • 15. students are now undergoing this training.Figure 2 presents the Bologna implementa-tion status in the 27 countries of this study, Euro-Agesindicating the year for first graduates fromBologna in the different countries. The implementation of the Bolognaagreement in tertiary education is nowbeing achieved. At national level this hasresulted in the consolidation of the numberof Higher Education Institutes (HEI) and inthe number of courses taught. The amountof change to the existing education frame-work has varied from minimal in countriessuch as the UK, to very substantial in coun-tries such as Germany and Italy.Education in GeologyThe structure of educationThe implementation of the Bologna agree- Figure 1. Participating countriesment has resulted in most countries now in mapping European Geologicaloffering three cycles of tertiary education: Qualification (in green) Figure 2. (Left) First graduates from the Bologna implementation For the second cycle, Masters degrees are mostly of two years dura- tion. The exceptions are the UK with 1 year and Estonia with 1.5 years. The total years of study for first and second cycles can vary from 4 years in the UK to 6 years in countries such as Estonia, Greece, Lithuania or Spain. The content of courses is more accurately and transparently measured by the credit scheme (European Credit Trans- fer System, ECTS). It is generally accepted that a year of study equates to 60 ECTS credits and thus to graduate at B.Sc. level, the student needs to have collected 180 ECTS credits, with the exception of Ireland (210) and Spain (240). The number of ECTS credits required for the award of an M.Sc. varies Figure 3. Duration of first and second cycle courses from 120 to 180.- The first cycle B.Sc. is generally now of The duration of these courses is shown by The requirement for award of a degree three years duration, although in some country in Figure 3 and by percentages in is shown by country in Figure 6. countries longer courses still operate Figures 4 and 5. It also notable that there is not univer-- The length of second cycle M.Sc. courses The responses show that, in 80% of the sal agreement on the number of hours of is mostly two years, but remains at one countries involved in this study, the first work that make up a single credit: in 86% year in some countries cycle in Geology is 3 years. The excep- of countries this figure is 30 hours, but in- There is also then the third cycle Ph.D., tions are Hungary with 3.5 years, Greece, the remaining 14% the requirement is 25 which is also generally of three years Lithuania and Spain with 4 years and Esto- hours (Fig. 7). duration, but this is not covered further nia with 4.5 years. Russia still has a 5 in this report. year first cycle but has not implemented Universities offering geological programmes Bologna. The number of education institutions hasEuropean Geologist 30 15
  • 16. Euro-Ages Figure 4. Duration of the first cycle (%) in the countries Figure 5. Total duration of the first and second cycles (%) in the involved in mapping European Geological Qualification countries involved in mapping European Geological Qualification Number of freshman students and graduates The number of freshmen taken onto B.Sc. geology courses varies widely, as might be expected. The number of freshmen is generally lower than the number of places available nationally to study geology. The number of graduates per year is markedly lower than the number of freshmen. The number of B.Sc. graduates with respect to B.Sc. freshmen per year ranges from 92% in the UK to 35% in Germany. Figure 6: Credits required for first and second cycle degrees The number of places on M.Sc. courses is lower and the fall-off rate is also lower generally reduced as a result of implemen- (Fig. 9). tation of the Bologna agreement, although The UK is the country with the larg- this may have been due to other factors. For est number of B.Sc. graduates in geology instance, in Denmark, the number of HEIs (1300/year), of which just over 11% con- has reduced from 12 to 8, but there is a view tinued to the M.Sc. degree. However in that this has contributed to a strengthening other countries, students continuing to the of teaching and research activities. second cycle is over 80%. The number of universities offering Incomplete information has been pro- geology degree courses varies widely from vided on employment of graduates, but it country to country (Fig. 8). The number of appears that the countries with the larger places available is usually higher than the number of students achieve lower employ- Figure 7. Numbers of hours per ECTS credit intake of students each year. ment rates in geology than smaller coun- tries. Professional prerequisites It is generally the situ- ation across Europe that the requisite knowledge and skills are set by the course developers within the universities rather than by the institu- tions that represent the profession in post graduate practice. There is however likely to be an implicit linkage in that the course designers and providers are them- selves practising pro- fessionals and will be aware of the require- Figure 8. Number of universities teaching geology ments of professional 16 European Geologist 30
  • 17. practice and incorporate these matters intotheir teaching programmes. This linkageis most apparent in Finland in connection Euro-Ageswith the strong mining influence, in Italyand Spain where the profession is regulatedby law, and in the UK where degree coursesare accredited by the professional body(Geological Society of London).Accreditation systemsMost countries offer some form of accredi-tation of their degree programmes. The Figure 9a. Numbers of freshmen and graduates (full scale)level of accreditation varies from inter-nally within the university, to review by thegovernment education ministry to nationalquality agencies. In addition, the accredi-tation is provided by the relevant profes-sional institution in Italy and UK.The dis-tribution of use of the various accreditationproviders is shown in Figure 10.ConclusionUsing the information obtained in the 27summaries of national reports on the Bolo-gna process, higher education in geology, Figure 9b. Numbers of freshmen and graduates (expanded scale)professional pre-requisites and accredi-tation, the following conclusions can bereached:- In most European counties the establish- ment of education in accordance with Figure 10. Use of course the Bologna process is well advanced accreditation providers- Most geology degree courses have switched to the three cycle style of courses and the first students are now undergoing this training- The cycles of education being delivered are in accord with the Bologna three geology degree courses varies widely Bibliography levels, namely Bachelor (normally 3 from country to country. The number Report on Education, Professional years), Masters (1 – 2 years) and Ph.D. of places available is usually higher than Activity and Recognition of Qualifica- (3 years). The data collected in this the intake of students each year tions, EFG Office. July, 2005. (http:// study show that the duration of each - The number of graduates per year is cycle varies between different coun- markedly lower than the number of tent/Documents/Geo-Job_Market_ tries freshmen Survey.pdf).- The required number of ECTS credits - Accreditation of course materials is car- for a Bachelor degree in Geology varies ried out by a variety of agencies includ- European Accredited Geologi- between 180 and 240, and the number ing internally in the university, external cal Study Programmes, Euro-Ages of ECTS credits at Masters level varies quality agencies, the relevant govern- project. 2010. (http://www.euro-ages. between 120 and 180 ment ministry and national professional eu/media/Survey_Results_Country_- The number of universities offering bodies. Abstracts.pdf).European Geologist 30 17
  • 18. The Euro-Ages programme and IrelandEuro-Ages by Michael J. [Ben] Kennedy1 Irish Universities provide taught and/ Les Universités irlandaises délivrent des Las universidades irlandesas imparten or research degrees at B.Sc., M.Sc. diplômes d’enseignement et de recher- formación docente y en investigación and Ph.D. levels which accord with the che aux niveaux Licence, Maîtrise et para licenciaturas, másteres y docto- Bologna process. The Irish Geoscience Doctorat, qui sont en conformité avec rados que cumplen el proceso de Bolo- Graduate Programme, launched in le Processus de Bologne. Le Programme nia. El Programa Irlandés de Gradu- September 2010, allows students to diplômant irlandais en Géosciences, ados en Ciencias de la Tierra, que se acquire credits for modules in generic lancé en septembre 2010, permet aux lanzó en septiembre de 2010, permite or research topics which may be taken étudiants d’acquérir des unités de valeur a los estudiantes conseguir créditos in any Irish University. The Institute de modules appartenant à des mat- para módulos en temas genéricos o of Geologists of Ireland, a member ières génériques ou de recherches qui de investigación que luego pueden of the EFG, accredits graduates from peuvent être reconnues par n’importe utilizarse en cualquier universidad approved universities with sufficient quelle Université en Irlande. L’Institut irlandesa. El Instituto de los Geólogos professional experience. des Géologues d’Irlande, membre de la irlandeses, que es miembro de la FEG, FEG, accrédite les diplômes d’Universités acredita a los graduados de las uni- agréées, tenant compte d’une expéri- versidades oficiales que demuestren ence professionnelle suffisante. suficiente experiencia profesional. I reland has had a professional body for Earth Science, one in Earth and Ocean lecture / seminar, laboratory and field- geoscientists, the Institute of Geolo- Science, one in Climate and Earth System based training. Irish geoscience depart- gists of Ireland [IGI], since 1999. It Science and four in Environmental Sci- ments / schools are typically small with was therefore very appropriate that the ence. Geology can also be combined with up to ten academic staff, many with unique Euro-Ages programme was initiated when another science or Archaeology. In North- specialities. IGGP is intended to develop it was. The Bologna process has had an ern Ireland, geology forms part of degrees as a virtual graduate school. Although it increasing influence on university educa- in Environmental Science and in Geogra- was conceived to support Ph.D. students, tion in Ireland and this is no better seen than phy. All courses have specified learning it can be developed in the future to include in developments in geological education. outcomes and courses in mathematics and M.Sc. students as well. This may be a way Geology is offered in Irish universities other sciences are required as a foundation. to reintroduce taught M.Sc. programmes as part of Bachelor degree programmes in Particular subjects in geology are compul- by combining the expertise of two or more Science [B.Sc.] and at the Masters [M.Sc.] sory for all degree programmes. institutions to mount a particular single and Ph.D. levels. There are presently no At the M.Sc. level, students submit a programme. taught M.Sc. programmes though there dissertation but there are no formal course The IGI would demand that universi- have been in the past. requirements as it forms part of the Bolo- ties produce graduates who would expect At the B.Sc. level, geology is included gna 3+2 combination, but some students to become professionally accredited after in 3-year [level 7] and 4-year [level 8] may be required for some courses, to fill 5 years professional experience. Those degrees. In the 3-year degree, geology gaps in their backgrounds. The B.Sc. and whose work takes them abroad, a large is included with one or two other sci- M.Sc. combination takes 5 years of which number in Ireland, would also expect ences whereas in the 4-year degree there 4 come from the Honours B.Sc. and one to apply for the professional European is increased specialization in the last two for the M.Sc. Taught M.Sc. programmes accreditation of European Geologist (Eur- years and the final year is entirely or almost in geoscience were discontinued several Geol.). Geologists can be accredited by IGI completely concentrated on geology. The years ago due to staff shortages. and/or EFG. Both organizations require a final year is dedicated to enhanced spe- At the Ph.D. level, all universities are minimum of 3 years academic training at cialized teaching in the main areas and introducing structured Ph.D. programmes an approved 3rd level institution, 5 years exposure to specialities that may be unique wherein students are required to attend professional experience and a demonstra- to a particular institution. All programmes courses that are considered necessary tion of their professional competence with contain elements of Applied / Economic by their supervisors. The loads will vary submission of professional client reports Geology. The 4-year geology degree according to the needs of the individual and/or published peer-reviewed papers programmes are only offered in four uni- and will normally be completed in the early and they will be called for interview versities in the Republic of Ireland but part of the Ph.D. programme. Universities awarding geology degrees programmes with some geological content The Irish Geoscience Graduate Pro- to geologists who are applying for the Pro- are also available in Northern Ireland. In gramme [IGGP] was launched in Sep- fessional Geologist title (PGeo) have been the Republic the proliferation of choice tember 2010 and is designed to develop examined to ensure that they are of a suffi- has resulted in a variety of degrees with complimentary to structured Ph.D. pro- cient standard. IGI maintains a list of these significant geological content. There are grammes. Sixteen modules are presently approved academic bodies. IGI does not three 4-year degrees in Geology, two in offered which are generally valued at 2.5-5 accredit particular degree programmes but Retired Dean of Science, University 1 ECTS credits. Modules offer both generic accredits individuals based upon academic College Dublin and speciality-based skills and include background and professional experience. 18 European Geologist 30
  • 19. Learning outcomes and skill levels for qualification as a Professional Euro-Ages Geologist by David Norbury1The primary aim of the Euro-Ages Le premier objectif du Projet Euro- El objetivo principal del proyecto Euro-project is the development of a Euro- Ages est le développement d’un cadre Ages es el desarrollo de un marco depean level qualification framework for européen de travail concernant le requisitos mínimos para la formacióngeology based on learning outcomes. niveau de qualification en géologie en geología, basado en los resultadosIn this context, learning outcomes basé sur les compétences acquises. del aprendizaje. En este contexto losare defined as statements of what a Dans ce contexte, ces compétences resultados del aprendizaje se definenlearner is expected to know, to under- sont définies comme le niveau de con- como aquellos conocimientos que sestand and/or be able to demonstrate. naissances qu’un étudiant doit pos- espera que un estudiante aprenda,The expectation of the level of learning séder, comprendre et être à même entienda o sea capaz de demostraror ability that a student should be able d’utiliser pratiquement. Le niveau de que sabe. Las expectativas del nivelto demonstrate will increase through connaissances acquises et la capacité de aprendizaje o de habilidad que unthe gathering of training and experi- de l’étudiant à les utiliser représen- estudiante sea capaz de demostrarence until such time as they apply for tent une forte attente qui augmentera aumentará a medida que va adquir-the award of a professional title. conjointement avec son niveau de for- iendo formación y experiencia hasta mation et son expérience jusqu’à ce que pueda llegar a solicitar un título qu’ils lui permettent d’obtenir un titre profesional. professionnel.T he learning outcomes identified in for the geologist to progress from one cycle order that the applicant will have been the programme have been defined to the next. These are given in Table 1. able to gather sufficient experience to be elsewhere (see Fernandez, I. and In general terms, the graduate at first able to demonstrate this depth and breadthNorbury, D., this magazine, p. 14) and cycle level is expected to be able to dem- of Ability.represent quality standards for competen- onstrate Appreciation or Knowledge in allcies, skills and knowledge. Graduates of an learning outcome categories. The second Learning outcomesaccredited course at first or second cycle cycle graduate will have progressed to a The requisite learning outcomes identifiedprogramme level (Bachelor and Masters demonstration of Knowledge or Experi- within the project are ranged under fourlevel respectively) would be expected to ence in nearly all categories. The applicant categories as shown in Table 2 which alsohave achieved initial levels of ability from for a professional title will be expected to identifies the relevant professional qualifi-their academic training and studies as the display Ability in all categories, as outlined cation criteria levels which are discussedbasis for starting to practise geology pro- in Table 2. This will normally require an below.fessionally. absolute minimum of three years post- This paper describes the learning out- graduate professional experience and more Professional qualification criteriacome level that would be expected when will usually be required, notwithstanding The demonstration of Ability in all of thesestudents have gained sufficient profes- the length of the academic training, in learning outcomes will be assessed by thesional post-graduation experience and areready to submit their combined training Symbol Title Explanationand experience profile for validation by Ap Appreciation Awareness and general understanding of a subject or antheir peers, in other words to apply for the appreciation as to how to undertake an activityprofessional title of European Geologist Kn Knowledge Knowing how to undertake an activity using observation(EurGeol.) or similar in their own coun- and recall of informationtry. Ex Experience A depth of knowledge of a subject or activity sufficient to enable it to be actually undertaken although generallyAttainment levels under supervisionFour levels of attainment are generally Ab Ability A sound knowledge of a subject or activity actuallyidentified which have to be demonstrated undertaken without supervision; ability to direct others in the activity 1 Chairman, EFG Registration Authority Table 1 Levels of attainmentEuropean Geologist 30 19
  • 20. Learning Outcome Categories Qualificaiton CriterionEuro-Ages Underlying Basis • Understanding of the natural sciences (Physics, Chemistry, 1 Mathematics) underlying the study of Geology • Understanding of the essential features, processes, materials, history and 1 the development of the earth and life • Understanding of the key aspects and concepts of geology, including 1 some at the forefront of that discipline • Understanding of the common terminology and nomenclature and the 1 use of bibliography in Geosciences • Awareness of the wider spectrum of geological disciplines 1, 4, 5 • Awareness and understanding of the temporal and spatial dimensions 1, 2 in earth processes • Awareness of the applications and responsibilities of Geology and its 3, 4, 5 role in society including its environmental aspects • Awareness of major geological paradigms, the extent of geological time 1, 5 and Plate Tectonics • Understanding of the complex nature of interactions within the 1, 2, 3, 5 geosphere • Understanding of other disciplines relevant to geology 1, 3, 5 • Knowledge of a chosen specialization 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 Analysis, Design and Implementation • Creation of geological models 2 • Understanding of the complexity of geological problems and the 2 feasibility of their solution • Understanding the need of a rational use of earth resources 2, 3, 4, 5 • Formalization and specification of problems whose solution involves 2 the use of geological methods • Awareness of appropriate solution patterns for geological problems 2, 3, 5 • Description of a solution at an abstract level 2, 3 • Awareness of the range of applications of Geology 1, 2, 5 • Integration of field and laboratory evidence with theory following the 1, 2, 3, 5 sequence from observation to recognition, synthesis and modelling • Awareness of issues concerning sample selection, accuracy, precision 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and uncertainty during collection, recording and analysis of data in the field and laboratory • Formulation and testing of hypotheses 2, 3, 4, 5 Technological, Methodological and Transferable Skills • Familiarization with new geological methods and technologies 1, 2, 5 • Selection and use of relevant analytic and modelling methods 1, 2 • Application of appropriate technology and use of relevant methods 1, 2, 5, 6 • Use of quantitative methods and their application to geological 1, 2, 5 problems 20 European Geologist 30
  • 21. • Independent analysis of earth materials in the field and laboratory 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Euro-Ages and description, processing, documenting and reporting of results • Undertaking field and laboratory investigations in a responsible and 1, 2, 4, 6 safe manner, paying due attention to risk assessment, rights of access, relevant health and safety regulations, and sensitivity to the impact of investigations on the environment and stakeholders • Combining theory and practice to complete geological tasks 1, 2, 3 • Undertaking literature searches, and using data bases and other 1, 2, 3 sources of information • Receiving and responding to a variety of information sources (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 textual, numerical, verbal, graphical) • Conducting appropriate experiments, analysis, interpretation of data 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and drawing conclusions 6 • Awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technologies and their 2, 4, 5 application • Solving numerical problems using computer and non-computer 1, 2, 3 based techniques • Application of information technology to geological science 1, 2 • Use of spreadsheet and word-processing software 1, 2, 3 Other Professional Skills • Completion of assigned tasks in a range of technical, economical and 3, 4, 5 social contexts • Learning and studying including effective time management and 1, 2, 4, 5 flexibility • Awareness of the concept of professionalism and professional ethics 4 • Consideration of the economic, social, environmental and legal 4, 5 conditions expected in professional practice • Project management and business practices and understanding of their 4, 5, 6 limitations • Working effectively as an individual and as a member of a team 4, 5, 6 • Recognition of the need for, and engagement in self-managed and life- 5 long learning • Organization of their own work independently 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 • Formulating an acceptable problem solution using geological methods 3, 4, 5, 6 in a cost-effective and time-efficient way • Estimating and measuring costs and productivity 2, 3, 5 • Communicating effectively in written and verbal form with colleagues, 3, 4 other professionals, customers and the general public about substantive issues and problems related to their chosen specialisation • Preparing, processing, interpreting and presenting data, using 3, 4, 5 appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques and packages Table 2. (pp 20 & 21) Learning Outcome categories mapped onto professional qualification criteriaEuropean Geologist 30 21
  • 22. peer reviewers in accordance with the fol- No Criterion lowing criteria which are set down by EFG 1 An ability to understand the complexities of geology and of geological processes regulation. in space and time.Euro-Ages Although these criteria are shown as 2 An ability to use geoscience information to generate predictive models and the applying to particular examples of learn- critical evaluation of geoscience information to generate predictive models. ing outcomes in Table 2, all criteria should 3 An ability to communicate effectively verbally and in writing. be taken as applying to all aspects of a 4 A clear understanding of the professional and ethical responsibilities of a professional competence. This applies in professional geologist. This includes a clear understanding of the Code of particular to criteria 3, 4, 5 and 6. Conduct and commitment to its implementation. Additional detail on the learning out- 5 A clear commitment to developing and maintaining expertise as a professional come categories and the professional geologist through a programme of Continuing Professional Development that is relevant to the speciality and professional work of the applicant. achievement levels is given at the follow- 6 A knowledge of and commitment to safe working practices in accordance with ing link: good practice and relevant statutory requirements applicable to the applicant’s intermediate-results.php discipline or area of work. The framework of criteria and achieve- Table 3. Qualifiation criteria as referenced in Table 2 ment levels developed within the Euro- Ages project should increase awareness Long Learning. The mapping carried out The major stakeholders in the field of of the Earth Sciences qualifications. This will provide important reference points higher education in geology can therefore is intended to facilitate academic and pro- for quality assurance and related recogni- use the results from this project to develop fessional mobility across Europe while at tion issues focused on learning outcomes, a Europe-wide qualifications framework the same time stimulating students and thereby adding value in the implementa- for the teaching and training of geologists graduates in the field of geology as well tion of the 2005 Directive on recognition to provide the qualified professionals that as professional geologists to pursue Life of qualifications. are needed by industry in Europe. Stump FORATEC AG Intelligent drilling and measuring technology. KEEPING YOU Drilling to 1500m IN THE LOOP ABOUT Water wells, Drainage MIT: Monitoring, Instrumentation, THE INNER VALUES. Technology Specialist services for geologists and the construction industry. Thermistor chains from Stump with tolerance of +/- 0.1°C are manufactured to customer specifications and can be supplied with or without a datalogger/alarm. For more in-depth information, please visit our website. 22 European Geologist 30
  • 23. How academia and industry create Professional Geologists Euro-Ages University of Miskolc, Hungary by Janos Foldessy1 and Ferenc Madai2The University of Miskolc is the only L’Université de Miskolc est le seul La Universidad de Miskolc es el únicoplace in Hungary where Earth Science endroit en Hongrie où l’enseignement sitio en Hungría donde se impartenfor engineers is taught at BSc, MSc des Sciences de la Terre au niveau Ciencias de la Tierra para ingenierosand PhD levels. Industrial relations are ingénieur respecte les niveaux de a nivel de licenciatura, máster y doc-very important for the university, the qualification : Licence, Maîtrise et torado. Las relaciones industriales sonstudents and industry. During recent Doctorat. Les relations avec l’industrie muy importantes para la universidad,decades several types of cooperation sont capitales pour l’Université, les los estudiantes y la industria. Durantehave been developed. Among these, étudiants et l’industrie. Durant les las últimas décadas se han desarrol-the compulsory company contribu- dernières décennies, plusieurs types lado varios tipos de cooperación, entretions for the Professional Education de coopération se sont dévelop- las cuales la contribución obligatoria alFund is perhaps the most important. pés. Parmi ceux-ci, la contribution Fondo para la Formación Profesional esThis contribution sets the financial obligatoire des compagnies au fond la más importante. Esta contribuciónbackground for practical training, stu- d’Education Professionnelle est peut- representa la base financiera para unadent internships and scholarships as être la plus importante. Cette contri- formación práctica con becas y prácti-well as acquisition of equipment and bution fixe le niveau de base du budget cas en empresas para estudiantes, asíprovision of laboratories. The universi- permettant de financer une forma- como para la adquisición de equiposties became entitled to this grant from tion pratique, des bourses d’études y materiales para los laboratorios.2003 onwards. All the various types of ainsi que l’acquisition d’un minimum Las universidades tuvieron derechocooperation play a significant role in d’équipements nécessaires aux labo- a esta financiación a partir de 2003.the training of students and the forma- ratoires. Les Universités ont le droit Todos los diversos tipos de cooper-tion of well-trained professionals. de bénéficier de cette manne depuis ación universidad-empresa juegan un 2003. Tous les types de coopération papel significativo en la educación de jouent un rôle significatif dans la for- los estudiantes y en la producción de mation des étudiants et aussi des pro- profesionales bien formados. fessionnels confirmés.T he predecessor of the University of the faculty. Since the industrial companies production and upstream activities. This Miskolc, the Bergschule in Schem- are our main customers, special attention B.Sc. programme in Hungary is offered nitz (now Banska Stiavnica, Slova- has always been paid to the industrial rela- uniquely in the University of is one of the oldest mining schools in tions of the Faculty. Several engineering M.Sc. coursesEurope. Since its foundation in 1735, we are linked to these basic courses, such asare now completing the 265th academic Earth Science Engineering curricula Hydrogeology, Petroleum and Gas Engi-year. The early focus on mining and metal- The Bologna system was introduced in neering, Applied Earth Sciences (Geologylurgical engineering has been widely diver- 2006. Before that date, 5-year courses and Geophysics) and Process Engineering.sified today; the teaching now extends to offered a Diploma from the different The Faculty is affiliated to internationaleight faculties and one institute of music. branches of Earth Science Engineering, M.Sc. programmes, such as the FederationThe Faculty of Earth Science Engineering with the possibility of continuing with 3 of European Mining Programmes (in con-preserves the mining traditions and deals years of PhD studies. sortium with TU Wroclaw, TU Freiberg,with both the traditional and pioneering Since that time Earth Science and Engi- U of Exeter, TU Delft, TU Aachen andbranches of Earth Sciences and technolo- neering subjects have been taught at B.Sc., TU Helsinki). At the Ph.D. level severalgies, from mining through petroleum engi- M.Sc. and Ph.D. levels. Three curricula students graduate each year, from Geol-neering to environmental engineering and are offered at a B.Sc. level (Earth Science ogy, Geophysics, Mining Engineering,geoinformatics. To date, there are more Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Hydrogeologythan 1,000 students and 60 teaching staff in Geography). The Earth Science and Engi- and Environmental Engineering. neering B.Sc. covers all main areas of the extractive industry with minor specializa- Training of geologists and geophysicists 1 Professor, Head of Department tions in: exploration geology and geophys- In these training schemes geologists and 2 Vice-dean, Faculty of Earth Science ics, mining and geotechnical engineering, geophysicists graduate as Earth Science Engineering process engineering, as well as oil and gas Engineers, with Geology, Geophysics,European Geologist 30 23
  • 24. Hydrogeology or Geoinformatics as major subjects. The number of students vary widely, from 1-3 graduates to 6-10 gradu-Euro-Ages ates annually in each major line. The B.Sc. training includes compulsory 6 weeks practical work in industry and institutes; generally this work is the intro- duction to the problems of the thesis work by the student (Figs 1&2). Legal framework and incentives Law supporting professional training Governments have uniformly recognized the utmost importance of practical profes- sional training at medium and higher levels of education, and the industrial involve- ment in the practical training has been supported by different legal measures. Of these the most important is the Law 86/2003 which has obliged every industrial stakeholder to contribute to the Profes- sional Training Fund by 1.5% of its wage and salary expenditures. Of this amount, 70% is collected centrally, and 30% can be offered directly to schools and universities for medium and higher level professional education. Tax allowances The accumulated sums in the 30% portion of the Professional Training Fund can be used in several ways: - internal training schemes in companies given by accredited institutions - purchase of high value equipment and instruments related directly to the prac- tical courses - offering internship programmes and practical training to medium and higher level education students. Since these forms of utilization are tax deductible, i.e. organized practical training programmes reduce the amount of payable corporate tax, the costs for the participating companies are borne by the Fund. Only those high schools and universities which provide at least six weeks practical training outside the university at industrial partners or in the tertiary or agricultural From top: Figure 1. Students working on ore explora- sector are entitled to obtain funds. tion mapping, Rudabanya This form of support provides a con- stant and significant financial source for Figure 2. Students on industry site visit at the University to keep its instrumentation the Boda exploration site (Radioactive waste and practical training facilities up-to-date disposal storage development) (Fig. 3). Figure 3. JEOL 8600 EDX-WDX Microprobe Forms of industry involvement in the Institute of Mineralogy and Geology. Corporate involvement in European The instrument has been purchased through courses the Professional Training Fund Strong international industrial support 24 European Geologist 30
  • 25. backs up the Federation of European programmes, which are used to fulfil the programme, have been proved to be usefulMining Programmes (FEMP), in which 6-weeks practical training requirement at in opening doors for our students towardsMiskolc is a participating partner. The B.Sc. level. the European industry. In 2009 the Envi- Euro-Agestravel costs and accommodation costs of Scholarships for students ronmental Centre Kjeøy (Norway) pro-students are sponsored by the supporting Several national and international com- vided places for our students, thus pro-companies. Among the industrial partners, panies offer scholarships for the students, viding them access to highly specializedsuch global mining companies as Rio such as Nabors Industries Ltd (scholar- knowledge in treating acid mine drainageTinto, BHP Billiton, Barrick Gold, Anglo ships for B.Sc. and M.Sc. students special- problems related to ore and coal extrac-American, RWE, Outukumpu and Boliden izing in oil engineering); RWE (joint train- tion.are encountered. The companies open job ing programme with the TU Bergakademieopportunities for the students graduating Freiberg). Participation in student chapters of thein these courses. major global professional associations Consultancy on thesis work The professional student associations haveIndustry representatives on the Faculty Normally the industrial relationships do become increasingly active with the struc-Board not stop, rather are intensified, at higher, tural changes in education. Student chap-The Faculty Board has 5 members (out of M.Sc. and Ph.D. levels. It is now increas- ters of the American Association of Petro-27) representing the industry, industrial ingly frequent to have industry develop- leum Geologists, the Society of Petroleumassociations and professional authorities. ment and innovation problems announced Engineers and the Society of EconomicThe Board meets 10 times a year. These as Ph.D. thesis topics, with adjoining Geologists have been founded in recentmeetings are excellent opportunities to financial support to carry out the labo- years. The national societies play similarlyexpress opinions about the academic train- ratory investigations related to the thesis important roles in the students’ develop-ing as well as to request assistance from the work. The Institute of Mineralogy and ment. In this field the annual joint meetingsindustry players when needed. Geology now cooperates with exploration of the Hungarian Geological Society and firms working on metallic and non-metal- the Hungarian Society of GeophysicistsRoad-shows lic projects. These projects are now run should be mentioned. Students take partThe most frequent contact between stu- partially by students whose theses relate in other international student networks fordents and industry is provided by the to one of the unsolved scientific ques- engineers, such as AIESTE.periodical road-show events organized tions arising during the execution of theby the companies which are interested in project. Such involvement is being real- Significant gains for the students/ strongrecruiting students from our faculty. Such ized in ongoing base-metal Pb-Zn-Cu benefits for the companies/vital for uni-meetings were organized in 2009 by both explorations at Rudabanya (Hungary), and versitiespetroleum companies and service compa- Cu-porphyry supergene mineralization at Industrial involvement in university edu-nies (Exxon-Mobile, RWE DEA, MOL, Zafranal (Peru). cation programmes creates significantSchlumberger, etc) and mineral mining advantages for students, companies andcompanies (Rio Tinto, RWE). Support for competitions the university. In the first place, the gradu- In some cases, non-traditional forms of ates obtain practical experience, while stillMOL department cooperation are proven to be fruitful. One in the academy, and learn about the eco-The first Department devoted to indus- example of these relations is the different nomic side of their profession, corporatetry-oriented training was organized by the competitions offered for student teams. behaviour and ethics. They encounter andMOL in 2009. Its objective is better organ- A very good vehicle to carry high pro- learn to solve real problems.izing and focusing MOL activities amongst fessional knowledge to students was the The internship schemes provide oppor-the students as well as providing specially AAPG initiative of the Imperial Barrel tunities for the companies to find the rightfocused industry-oriented training courses Award, in which our student teams have candidates for the different jobs and respon-in-house and in the field. The department participated. Although they were not sibilities, while tax allowances help reduceis actively involved in the starting M.Sc. amongst the winner teams, the training the financial burden of these activities. Theprogramme in Petroleum Engineering. and preparation work was far more effi- tutoring of thesis work and participationFurther modules in Petroleum Geology cient than normal classroom lectures. This in course work has also advantageousand Geophysics are planned. world-wide competition is for teamwork feedback for industrial geologists, who on geological evaluation of petroleum can refresh their theoretical backgroundSummer internships exploration projects, from discovery to during the intense communication withOne of the key factors of high quality pro- economics, based on real databases. A the university staff. Finally, by havingfessional training is the direct and real-life similar competition is organized annually industry representatives on the Board, theinvolvement of students in company prac- by the MOL as Fresssh competitions. Our University may and can fine-tune the dif-tices. The summer internship programmes B.Sc. student team won this in 2008, out ferent education programmes and courses,offer very good opportunities for the stu- of 270 teams from 20 countries. adjusting them to the ever-changing needsdents to get acquainted with possible future of the market.employers, industry practices and disci- Leonardo programmeplines. Several companies offer internship EU-funded schemes, such as the LeonardoEuropean Geologist 30 25
  • 26. Geology-related higher education programmes in HungaryEuro-Ages by Éva Hartai1 In Hungary there are four universities En Hongrie, il existe quatre Universités En Hungría hay curto universidades where geology-related programmes où sont enseignés des programmes de que ofrecen programas relaciona- are offered. The traditional ten-semes- cursus géologique. Les programmes dos con la geología. El programa ter academic programmes started for académiques traditionnels, de durée 10 académico tradicional de diez semes- the last time in 2005. Since 2006 the semestres, ont eu cours pour la dernière tres empezó por última vez en 2005. Bologna System has been adopted. fois, en 2005. Depuis 2006, le Processus El sistema de Bolonia se ha adoptado The programmes at B.Sc. level take 6 de Bologne a été adopté. Les programmes desde 2006. El programa de grado or 7 semesters. A full year of studies au niveau licence représentent un cursus ocupa 6 o 7 semestres. Un año com- equals 60 ETCS; 1 ECTS equals 30 de 6 à 7 semestres. Une année com- pleto de estudios es equivalente a 60 hours of workload. At B.Sc. level there plète d’études correspond à 60 ETCS ; 1 ECTS, 1 ECTS equivale a 30 horas de is no separate ‘geology’ profession; ETCS représente 30 heures de travail. Au carga de trabajo. A nivel de grado no the graduates get their diploma as niveau Licence, il n’existe pas de qualifi- se producen profesionales de geología Bachelor of Earth Sciences or Earth cation professionnelle bien individualisée individualizados, los graduados reci- Science and Engineering. About 60 en Géologie, les diplômés obtenant un ben el título de Licenciado en Ciencias % of B.Sc. graduates enter the M.Sc. titre de Licencié en Géosciences ou en de la Tierra e Ingeniería. Aproximad- cycle, which started in 2009 and 2010. Géosciences et Sciences de l’Ingénieur. amente un 60% de los graduados The “Earth Science” B.Sc. courses offer Le cursus de licence comprend des cours entran en el ciclo de máster, que geology, geophysics, meteorology, de géologie, de géophysique de météo- empezó en 2009 y 2010. Los cursos geoinformatics, mining engineering, rologie, de géo informatique d’ingénierie de los grados en “Ciencias de la Tierra” oil engineering, etc. The M.Sc. courses minière et du pétrole, etc. Environ 60% ofrecen geología, geofísica, meteor- are more specialized. The expected des diplômés en licence suivent le cycle ología, geoinformática, ingeniería de annual number of graduates special- de Maîtrise qui a commencé en 2009 et minas, ingeniería del petróleo, etc. Los izing in geology (including engineering 2010. Les cours en Maîtrise sont plus cursos de máster son más especiali- geology and hydrogeology) is about spécialisés. Le nombre annuel total de zados. El número anual previsto de 30. The curricula are rather input-ori- diplômés en Maîtrise incluant les domai- graduados especializados en geología ented, with no official expectations on nes de la géologie de l’ingénieur et de (incluyendo ingeniería geológica, learning outcomes from the employ- l’hydrogéologie est de 30 environ. Les geología e hidrogeología) es de unos ers’ side. programmes d’étude dépendent plutôt 30. El currículo es bastante orientado des débouchés offerts sans contrôle offi- a lo impartido, más que hacia los ciel des connaissances acquises du côté resultados del aprendizaje desde la des employeurs. perspectiva del empleador. T he conventional ten-semester aca- Hungary in 2006. In the new system there for students specializing in geology and demic programmes in geology are four universities where geology-related in the M.Sc. programmes in geology the started for the last time in Hungary programmes are offered (Fig. 1). The pro- most important subject areas are as fol- in 2005. There were two universities which grammes are validated and accredited by lows: mathematics, chemistry, informa- offered these programmes. At the Eötvös the Ministry of Education and Culture. tics, mineralogy, petrography, geochemi- Loránd University, Budapest the graduate The workload of a full-time student for stry, palaeontology, physical, structural students were certified geologists. At Uni- one academic year of study is defined as 60 and historical geology, environmental geo- versity of Miskolc they were certified engi- ECTS credits, normally 30 ECTS credits logy, applied geology, geology of mineral neering geologists. The last students in for each semester. 1 ECTS credit equals ~ deposits and mineral exploration. these programmes completed their studies 30 hours of workload. The Bachelor pro- For Earth Science and Engineering pro- mostly in 2010 but there are some students gramme in Earth Science and Engineering grammes the B.Sc. students specializing in in the conventional programmes whose involves 210 ECTS credits and the Earth geology the subject areas are: engineering studies last more than ten semesters. Science programmes involve 180 ECTS physics, applied chemistry, economics, credits. The Masters Programmes include informatics, mineralogy, petrography, Programmes in the Bologna System 120 ECTS credits. The curricula in the geochemistry, physical, structural and The Bologna System was implemented in geology-related programmes are rather historical geology, environmental geo- input-oriented and there are no outcome- logy, geophysics, engineering geology, 1 University of Miskolc, Hungary oriented requirements. hydrogeology, mineral exploration, mine- In the B.Sc. in Earth Science programmes ral resources. In the M.Sc. programmes in 26 European Geologist 30
  • 27. Euro-Ages Figure 1. Location of the universities offering geology-related programmesGeo-Engineering and Hydrogeology the M.Sc. programmes all last for 4 semesters. university which offers the programme tosubject areas are more detailed. These programmes are offered in the fol- define the learning outcomes. This defini- B.Sc. programmes are offered in the lowing universities: tion is necessary for the accreditation offollowing universities: - Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest: the offered programme.- Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest: M.Sc. in Geology B.Sc. in Earth Sciences (6 semesters). Geology as a profession in Hungary - University of Szeged: M.Sc. in Earth Specialization starts in the 3rd semester. Geology is a regulated profession and the Sciences Students can specialize in astronomy, officially recognized geological body is the - University of Debrecen: M.Sc. in Earth Hungarian Geological Society. The Soci- cartography and GIS, meteorology, Sciences geography, geophysics or geology. ety has about 1000 members and from this - University of Miskolc: M.Sc. in Geologi- about 500 are practising geologists, the- University of Szeged: B.Sc. in Earth cal and Geophysical Engineering others are students or retired persons. Sciences (6 semesters). Specialization - University of Miskolc: M.Sc. in Hydro- Graduates do not need to pass an exam starts in the 3rd semester. Students can gelogy and Engineering. to join the Society. The Hungarian Geo- specialize in applied earth sciences or logical Society does not have continuous geology. As the Bachelor programmes embrace a development programmes. These are- University of Debrecen: B.Sc. in Earth large spectrum of specialities the number offered by universities. It is the specific Sciences (6 semesters). Specialization of freshmen students is relatively high. company which can require improvement starts in the 3rd semester. Students can In the four universities which offer geol- of professional knowledge by postgradual specialize in meteorology, geography ogy-related programmes their numbers are courses. There are no professional prere- or geology. about 300. The number of graduate Bach- quisites for entering a job as a geologist, the- University of Miskolc: B.Sc. in Earth elor students (including all specializations) academic degree is sufficient to practise. Science and Engineering (7 semesters). is about 200. The number of graduates spe- In the Bologna System about 25 geo- Specialization starts in the 5th semester. cializing in geology-related programms is logy-related Bachelor and 25 Masters gra- Students can specialize in mining and about 50. From this, about 25 enter the duates enter the labour market annually. geotechnical engineering, processing geology-related M.Sc. programmes. About 80% of these are expected to get a engineering, oil and gas engineering or In Hungary there is no national defini- job in the profession, the rest will work in Earth sciences. tion or standard for learning outcomes in other fields. the field of geology; it is the right of eachEuropean Geologist 30 27
  • 28. Geological higher education in SerbiaEuro-Ages Between demand and capability by Vladica Cvetković1 Serbia is a relatively small country La Serbie est un pays de taille relative- Serbia es un país relativamente located at the crossroads between ment petite, au carrefour de l’Europe pequeño situado entre la Europa cen- central and south-eastern Europe. centrale et du Sud-Est. Le pays a tral y la Europa sur-este. El país ha The country experienced severe politi- traversé une période d’isolement experimentado un aislamiento político cal and scientific isolation during the sévère du point de vue politique et y científico en los 90 y pasó por una 1990s entering into a turbulent tran- scientifique dans les années 1990, transición turbulenta tras octubre sition after October 2000. In 2005 entrant dans une phase de transition 2000. En el año 2005 Serbia aprobó la Serbia adopted a new Law on Higher tumultueuse après octobre 2000. En nueva Ley de Educación Superior para Education to enable the reforms in line 2005, la Serbie a adopté une nou- permitir las reformas del proceso de with the Bologna Process but there velle loi concernant l’Enseignement Bolonia, pero hay una serie de eviden- is a line of evidence suggesting that Supérieur pour pouvoir mettre les cias que sugieren que la implement- the implementation is not progressing réformes en phase avec le Processus ación no progresa adecuadamente. La smoothly. Higher education in the de Bologne mais il est clair que cette educación superior en las ciencias de earth sciences is also facing many dif- mise en œuvre n’avance pas de façon la Tierra también se enfrenta a muchas ficulties and some of them are given régulière. L’enseignement supérieur dificultades, algunas de las cuales se here. en Sciences de la Terre rencontre incluyen a continuación. beaucoup de difficultés dont certaines sont explicitées ici. T he only institution in Serbia in of curricula following simple rules. It was if the number of students substantially charge of higher education in geol- a milestone at which we had to observe decreases, this inevitably causes a propor- ogy is the Faculty of Mining and ourselves through a prism of European tional decrease of financial contribution Geology. Although formally belonging to standards and to think seriously about how from the State. This is exactly the present the University of Belgrade (the Faculty’s to continue further. However, as Musselin situation with the UB-FMG: a continuous official name is ’University of Belgrade, (2005) pointed out, change in higher educa- loss of annually enrolled students causing Faculty of Mining and Geology’ - hereafter tion is more about layering the new on top gradually poorer financing from the Minis- UB-FMG), it is a single legal entity as are of the old than about substituting the old try. Indeed, this is valid for most technical most state faculties in Serbia. The UB- with the new. Therefore, it is not surprising and natural science faculties of the Univer- FMG consists of two Divisions: one for that many goals of the Bologna Agreement sity of Belgrade. They are all going to share Mining and one for Geology, each enrolling still need to be achieved. Higher education the same destiny until something happens around 120 students per year. At present, in geology suffers some general problems either with the system of financing higher the whole Faculty has around 1000 active that are common for other sciences and for education or with the structure of Belgrade students and about 125 teaching staff. The other state higher education institutions University. Naturally, the UB-FMG may Geology Division encompasses all geo- in Serbia. Some difficulties, on the other try to attract more students and that is logical disciplines, which are distributed hand, are typical for geological education what we desperately do. However, this is throughout eight Departments: Regional in Serbia, because they are related to the not by definition a perfect idea because the Geology, Palaeontology, Mineralogy and history of geological schools in Serbia and attempt to have more students usually leads Crystallography, Petrology and Geochem- to the internal structure of the Faculty of to erosion of studying criteria. On the other istry, Economic Geology, Hydrogeology, Mining and Geology. hand, the number of c. 120 students that are Geotechnics and Geophysics. The most important general problem is presently being enrolled at the UB-FMG In spring 2007 the Faculty completed related to the fact that the decision to join is roughly balanced by the recent needs the first stage of the Bologna Process and the Bologna agreement was not followed in Serbia. Hence, do we need a common- was successfully accredited by the Serbian by a change of the system of financing sense number of better educated geologists Ministry of Education. In some respect, the higher education in Serbia. This means and geological engineers or many more of ’Bologna story’ helped very much because that the system remained to be entirely them who will be more poorly educated? it was more than a blind re-organization controlled by the input criteria, which has The first should belong to the priorities of important implications given that the state higher education in Serbia but the second faculties are legal entities. Albeit the fac- may easily be important for the UB-FMG 1 Dean, University of Belgrade ulties have full financial independence, employees who claim their salaries. Faculty of Mining and Geology they are left on their own. For instance, Apart from this labyrinth that can be 28 European Geologist 30
  • 29. solved only by a ‘New Deal’ in higher which continuously lack students and have In spite of the mentioned difficulties, we education in Serbia, there are some prob- low potential of attracting extra funds - and are continuously improving our educa- lems which are typical for geological edu- that, indeed, from a pure (and blind) man- tion process and trying to bring Earth sci- Euro-Ages cation. Geology has a long tradition in agement point of view might be a rational ence to everyone. Our best students have higher education in Serbia dating back to idea - this would practically signify the end long been recognized as of good quality 1880. Ever since that time the structure of the given geological discipline in Serbia. and to have no problems obtaining Ph.D. of geological education underwent many One can decide to shut down the chair in or post-Doc positions worldwide - from changes. The last one occurred in the mid- petrology or palaeontology at the Univer- UBC in Vancouver to Macquarie Univer- 60s when the decision makers decided to sity of Salzburg (in order to prioritize some- sity in Sydney. Now we want our average attach natural science-oriented geological thing else) because there are other Aus- students to be better because they will departments to the Faculty of Mining and trian Universities with good petrologists or be among the very significant players in Geology. From that moment onwards, palaeontologists. However, if it is done in building a sustainable society in Serbia. these departments never felt at home at Belgrade then these disciplines will die out the UB-FMG which became a single insti- in Serbia completely. The fact that geologi- tution in Serbia for teaching and research cal departments are not only providing the in all branches of geology. What is strange study programmes but they are also a sort Reference in having natural science and applied geo- of oasis of particular scientific disciplines is Musselin, C. 2005. Change or Con- logical disciplines (along with mining) almost unique. This situation induces many tinuity in Higher Education Govern- together? Nothing, except that they are difficulties in the UB-FMG organization ance? Lessons Drawn from Twenty together in the single geological school in including those in successfully applying the Years of National Reforms in Euro- the country! So that, if the predominating Bologna Agreement. pean Countries. In. Bleiklie, I., Henkel, engineers of the UB-FMG decide to close These are circumstances under which M. (eds). Governing Knowledge, 65- some apparently unattractive departments Earth scientists are being taught in Serbia. 79. Springer. ? ? ?? Where does your borehole ? go Gyro-Sevices • You lead site investigation in a tunneling project. • You explore mineral resources using diamond core drilling. • You use raise boring techniques for shaft excavation. • You are responsible for horizontal directional drilling. Do you know where your boreholes go? GYRO-SERVICES S W I T Z E R L A N D We will tell you! www.gyro-services.comInserat-gyro-services-186x132-sw.indd 1 15.10.10 09:10 European Geologist 30 29
  • 30. The higher education system for professional geologists in ItalyEuro-Ages by Marino Trimboli1 and Enrico Nucci1 The application of the Bologna Agree- L’application du Processus de Bologne La aplicación del Acuerdo de Bolonia ment in Italy was approved in 1999- en Italie a été approuvée en 1999-2000. en Italia se aprobó en 1999-2000. La 2000. The structure of the new courses Le cadre des nouveaux cursus en Géol- estructura de los nuevos cursos de in Geology is divided in two cycles: a ogie comprend deux cycles: un niveau geología se divide en dos ciclos: una 3 year Bachelor level and a 2 year Licence obtenu en 3 années d’études licenciatura de 3 años y un máster de Masters degree. After five years, 28 et un diplôme de Maîtrise obtenu en 2 años. Tras cinco años las 28 univer- Universities in Italy offer higher edu- 2 années. Après 5 ans d’études, 28 sidades italianas ofrecen programas cation programmes in geology with c. Universités italiennes offrent des pro- de educación superior en geología 900 graduates per year. Regulation grammes d’enseignement supérieur que producen 909 graduados al año. of the professions in Italy follow a en géologie avec 909 diplômés par La regulación de las profesiones en Government Agency Model and the an. La régulation de la profession en Italia sigue un modelo de Agencia government administers state exams Italie est conforme aux critères étab- Gubernamental y el Gobierno admin- for entry into the profession. The State lis par l’Agence gouvernementale et istra los exámenes de estado para el examination in geology is the final test le gouvernement reste en charge acceso a la profesión. El examen de with a complete check of skills and des examens d’état pour une admis- Estado en geología es la prueba final competences. sion comme professionnel. L’examen con una comprobación exhaustiva de national en Géologie représente le test las habilidades y competencias de los final contrôlant les connaissances pra- candidatos. tiques ainsi que les compétences. T he Italian higher education system of several different study programmes at the history of the planet, of geological has complied with the Bologna both the Bachelor and Masters levels. processes and phenomena in the forma- Agreement since November 1999, Some examples of these are: Geological tion of rocks; of recognizing geometry when the Ministry of University and Sci- Sciences and Technology, Geophysical and composition of rock bodies entific Research & Tecnology adopted Sciences, Engineering Geology or Applied - Applying knowledge and understanding: Decree n.. 509/99. One year later, a new Geology, Georesources & Geomaterials, of analysis and description of geological Decree of the Ministry of the University, Geohazards (Tables 1&2). materials in field and laboratory activi- defining the different classes of titles, Since 1999 the National Council of ties, in the application of professional was adopted by the Italian Government. Italian Professional Geologists has been instruments, mathematical instruments According to these two Decrees higher involved with the Italian Government and GIS education is based on a three-level scale; during the implementation of the new - Making judgements: in the evaluation “Laurea Triennale” Bachelor (3 years), higher education programmes in geology of the complexity of natural systems, “Laurea Specialistica o Magistrale” Mas- according to the Bologna Agreement; in in the design of ground investigations ters (2 years) and Ph.D.-level (Dottorato di this period many documents and propos- programmes, in data collection with Ricerca) (3 years). Every degree has a fixed als were sent to the Ministry of Education. analysis of quality and reliability; in number of credits and a full year of studies These proposals were studied according the evaluation of the importance and equals 60 ECTS credits (European Credit to the structure of the Italian market for responsibility of geological sciences Transfer System).The workload of a full- professional geology. in land protection and management, in time student for one academic year of study the evaluation of geological hazards, is defined as 60 ECTS credits, normally 30 Universities offering geological programmes protection and sustainable use of raw ECTS credits for each semester. 1 ECTS After the approval of the National Decree, materials and georesources, in the con- credit equals ~ 25 hours of workload. The the structure of different courses, as well as servation and protection of stone built Bachelor programme involves 180 ECTS the learning outcomes and goals of educa- monuments and geoheritage credits and the Masters Programme 120 tion, were re-written by the Universities. - Communication skills: for information, ECTS credits. In Italy there are 28 Universities currently ideas, problems, solutions in geological offering higher education programmes in sciences, writing and discussing these The structure of education in geology Geology and Geosciences. aspects in Italian and other European The usual modus operandi is the existence The typical outcome of an Italian Bach- languages (especially English) with the elor learning programme in Geology is: application of principal instruments of 1 Members of the Italian Council of - knowledge and understanding: on sci- informatics and internet Professional Geologists (CNG) entific basis and in Earth Sciences, of - Learning skills: using advanced publications, 30 European Geologist 30
  • 31. ACTIVITIES GROUPS UNIT DESCRIPTORS ECTS Logical Mathematics Euro-Ages Algebra Geometry Complementary Mathematics Mathematics Calculus Probability & Statistics Mathematical Physics Numerical Methods Experimental Physics Theoretical Physics Atomic Physics Physics Astronomy & Astrophysics Physics of the Earth 18 Applied Physics Basic knowledge Physics History Computer Science Computer Programming Computer Applications Physical Chemistry Chemistry General and Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Palaeontology & Palaeoecology Geology & Palaeontology Stratigraphical Geology and Sedimentology Geological Structural Geology knowledge Applied Geomorphology & Physical Geography Geology Applied Geomorphology & Engineering Geology 50 Geology Mineralogy, Petrology, Mineralogy Geochemistry & Geophysics Petrology & Petrography Geochemistry & Volcanology Raw materials environmental applications, mineralogy and petrography for monuments and geoheritage Geophysics & Applied Geophysics Oceanography & Physics of the Atmosphere Field Hydraulics and slope engineering Pedology Environmental Chemistry Hydraulics Topography & Mapping Geotechnics Complementary Complementary Sciences, Engineering Theory & Structure Design 18 knowledge Tecnologies, Legislation & Estimation Economy Legislation Economics Knowledge & Skills Thesis 9 Training 9 European Language 9 Table 1. Specific Unit Descriptors of the Bachelor in Geosciences (Class n. 16 of the National Decree)European Geologist 30 31
  • 32. ACTIVITIES GROUPS UNIT DESCRIPTORS ECTS Logical MathematicsEuro-Ages Algebra Geometry Complementary Mathematics Mathematics Calculus Probability & Statistics Mathematical Physics Numerical Methods Experimental Physics Theoretical Physics Atomic Physics Physics Astronomy & Astrophysics Physics of the Earth 30 Applied Physics Basic knowledge Physics History Physical Chemistry Chemistry General and Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Palaeontology & Palaeoecology Geology & Palaeontology Stratigraphical Geology and Sedimentology Geological knowledge Structural Geology Applied Geomorphology Physical Geography & Geology Applied Geomorphology Engineering Geology 78 & Geology Mineralogy, Petrology, Mineralogy Geochemistry Petrology & Petrography Geochemistry & Volcanology Raw materials environmental applications, mineralogy and petrography for monuments and geoheritage Geophysics Solid Earth Geophysics Geophysics & Applied Geophysics Oceanography & Physics of the Atmosphere Field Hydraulics and slope engineering Pedology Environmental Chemistry Hydraulics Complementary Sciences, Topography & Mapping 30 Tecnologies, Legislation & Geotechnics Economy Complementary Engineering Theory & Structure Design knowledge Estimation Legislation Economics Knowledge & Skills Thesis 30 Facultative Training 15 Table 2. The specific Unit Descriptors of the M. Sc. in Geosciences (Class n. 86 of the National Decree) 32 European Geologist 30
  • 33. FIRST YEAR database and information available on COURSE ECTS the net to improve personal knowl- edge. Calculus 12 Euro-AgesTable 4 shows the structure of the Bachelor Physics 12course in Geological Sciences at Milano Informatics for Earth Science 4Bicocca University. General and Inorganic Chemistry 8 The outcome of an Italian Masters pro-gramme in Geology is: Principles of Geology 8- knowledge and understanding: at a high Physical Geography 8 scientific level in Earth Sciences, with Introduction to geological mapping 2 skills in the original application of research methods Mineralogy 8- Applying knowledge and understanding: Field activities 2 solving geological problems in several and multidisciplinary fields applying European language 3 special techniques in various new situ- Total: 67 ations Table 4a. First Year- Making judgements: solving complex SECOND YEAR situations with incomplete dataset COURSES ECTS (hazard management, active proc- esses study, geological evaluations in Petrography 12 civil engineering). Special skills in the Introduction to computer science 4 analysis of consequences from personal judgements and evaluations made Structural geology 4- Communication skills: with communica- Geological maps and cross-sections 4 tion of results and personal evaluations Field geology and mapping 8 with national or foreign specialists and citizens in Italian and other European Geochemistry 8 language (especially English). Field geological mapping 1 4- Learning skills: using advanced publica- tions, database and information avail- Total 44 able on the net improving personal Table 4b. Second Year knowledge in the resolution of geo- Bachelor in Geological Sciences and Geotechnology programme from Milan Bicocca university logical and technical problems.Number of freshman students and graduates the profession and is one of two coun- different professional titles for B. Sc.The evolution of the number of students in tries in Europe that requires registration (Junior Geologist) and M.Sc. (Geologist).geology in the Italian Universities is shown of geologists by law. Regulation of the The State Examination is the final testin Figure 1. professions in Italy follow a Govern- with a complete check of skills and com- Prior to the introduction of the Bologna ment Agency Model and the government petences; exams are managed by the State.programme in Italy the number of gradu- administers state exams for entry into the A candidate can apply to register and takeates in geology each year was 1240; in profession. Italian Law prescribes two the exams at any time but in practice, a2007, after 5 years of the application, Ital-ian universities graduated 632 Bachelorsand 277 Masters. One quarter of Bachelorgraduates did not continue to the MastersHE programmes. The total number of gar-duates at both levels is only 73% of thetotal before Bologna; also the number offreshman compared to graduates shows amarked decrease. The explanation of theseresults is not to be found in the changesintroduced by the Bologna Process; HEprogrammes in geology have not the sameappeal as others (e.g., EnvinronmentalEngineering). Only 51% of Masters gradu-ates in geology has a job after three years(27% for Bachelors).Professional Prerequisites Figure 1. Geological Sciences students in ItalyItaly has a long tradition of regulatingEuropean Geologist 30 33
  • 34. Euro-Ages Figure 2. Geology State Examination statistics Figure 3. Number of new professionals after Bologna minimum of 2-3 years of work experience of 30 points to advance to the oral exami- Practical Test is needed to acquire an adequate level of nation. The practical exam requires the candidate knowledge to pass the 35-40% range. to complete a report based on a problem Oral examination related to the topics listed in the published Structure of the State Examination The oral interview will be related to the legislation decree. Written Examinations topics listed in the published legislation In case of a negative result the candidate The written test is related to the fields of decree, plus professional ethics, CNG rules can repeat the test, but not before 6 months knowledge listed in the published legisla- and regulations. The candidate should col- have elapsed. tion decree. lect a minimum of 30 points to advance to The candidate should collect a minimum the practical test. 34 European Geologist 30
  • 35. Professional registration in Canada Euro-AgesGeoscience knowledge and experience requirements by Oliver Bonham1and Gregory Finn2In April 2009, Geoscientists Canada En avril 2009, les professionnels cana- En abril de 2009, la organizaciónpublished the document “Geoscience diens en Géosciences ont publié le doc- Geoscientists Canada publicó el docu-Knowledge and Experience Require- ument intitulé ‘‘Obligations en matière mento “Conocimientos y experienciaments for Professional Registration in de connaissances et d’expérience en en ciencias geológicas requeridosCanada”. This paper is a summary of Géosciences pour une reconnaissance para el registro de profesionales ena presentation describing the develop- professionnelle au Canad’’. Cet article Canadá”. Este artículo es un resumenment and content of this document est un résumé de ce document avec de una presentación que describe elmade at the Euro-Ages Final Confer- description de son développement et desarrollo y los contenidos de dichoence in Budapest, Hungary on October contenu, tel que présenté à la Con- documento y que se expuso en la22, 2010. férence Euro-Ages, tenue le 22 octo- conferencia final del proyecto Euro- bre à Budapest. Ages en Budapest, Hungría el 22 de octubre de 2010.G eoscience is a regulated profes- at Canadian universities. CGSB collabo- be viewed in either English or French by sion in 11 of Canada’s 13 prov- rates closely with admissions officials of visiting the Geoscientists Canada website inces and territories. Professional the regulatory bodies. at: It is recognized that, withregistration and governance of practice in further changes and improvements, newCanada is the responsibility of the inde- Geoscience Knowledge and Experience versions will be released over time. A briefpendent regulatory body set up under legis- Requirements for Professional Regis- synopsis of the requirements follows:lation in each province and territory. There tration in Canadaare approximately 8,900 P.Geos registered The Geoscience Knowledge and Experi- Geoscience knowledge requirementsacross Canada. ence Requirements for Professional Reg- Geoscience education in Canada generally In recent years, annual graduations istration in Canada (GKE) is a consensus falls into three distinct streams: Geology,from geoscience programmes at Canadian document that has been agreed to across Environmental Geoscience and Geophys-universities averaged 800 B.Sc., 200 M.Sc. the profession and among the regulatory ics. The geoscience knowledge require-and 100 Ph.D. degrees. bodies in Canada. It must be emphasized ments are based on a typical 4-year hon- however that it is only a summary and ours degree in geoscience from a CanadianGeoscientists Canada and the Canadian requirements are set out under legislation university. The basic unit of counting is theGeoscience Standards Board in each jurisdiction. Education Unit (EU) which is defined asThe Canadian Council of Professional With the decision by the profession not formal instruction equivalent to one termGeoscientists Canada - now operating to pursue national accreditation for degree (one semester), amounting to 3 hours ofunder the business name Geoscientists programmes in Canada, the need was rec- lecture time or equivalent, with or withoutCanada - is the national organization of ognized to develop and publish clearly a lab component, for a 13 week term.the regulatory bodies. The mission of Geo- articulated information on expectations Identical requirements, for all threescientists Canada is to develop consistent concerning both the knowledge (formal streams exist in Compulsory Foundationhigh standards for licensure and practice of geoscience education) and experience (on- Science (Chemistry, Physics and Math-geoscience, facilitate national and interna- the-job geoscience practice skills) consid- ematics: - 3EUs); and Additional Founda-tional mobility and promote the recogni- ered necessary to be suitably qualified for tion Science (Biology, Computer Sciencetion of Canadian professional geoscience. independent professional practice. and Statistics plus Chemistry, Physics or The Canadian Geoscience Standards Geoscientists Canada’s GKE origi- Mathematics: - 6EUs) with no more than 2Board (CGSB) is a national standing com- nated as a preliminary set of requirements additional EUs in any one subject area.mittee reporting to Geoscientists Canada. initially released in 2000. After use for Similarly, for all three streams thereIt is made up of appointees - one from each admission purposes for a 5-year period, are identical requirements in Compulsoryof the regulatory bodies. Typically those a revision process commenced in 2005. Foundation Geoscience (Field Techniques,appointed to CGSB are P.Geos, who are The revision took 4 years to complete, and Mineralogy and Petrology, Sedimentologyfaculty members of Earth Science departments benefited enormously from experience and and Stratigraphy, and Structural Geology: - feedback from usage of the earlier docu- 4EUs). Additional Foundation Geoscience ment. Multi-stage consultations occurred totals 5 EUs, from listed sub-groups of sub- 1 Geoscientists Canada, 2010 Regent both internally (with all the regulatory jects that differ, depending on the stream, St., Burnaby BC, V5C 6N2, Canada bodies) and externally (with stakehold- with a minimum I EU countable from any 2 Earth Sciences, Brock University, 500 ers in the broader geoscience community) one sub-group. Glenridge Avenue, St. Catharines ON, during the revision process. The remaining geoscience knowl- L2S 3A1, Canada A full text version of the GKE can edge is made up of Other Geoscience/European Geologist 30 35
  • 36. Science for 9 EUs. These are Groups: 1A - Compulsory Foundation Science and 1B - Additional Foundation Science obtaining through choices from StreamsEuro-Ages the normal range of upper year elective courses; this provides Groups Geology Environmental Geophysics for some specialization at the Geoscience undergraduate level, while at the 1A Compulsory Foundation Science* Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry same time ensuring a broad base Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics (Total 3 EUs - One EU in each area required) Physics Physics Physics of knowledge across the Earth Sciences, and other sciences. The Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry are the foundation sciences on which the principles document includes a list of Other and processes of geoscience are founded. A Geoscience/Science courses; but strong foundation in these sciences provides the grounding necessary to understand and this list is for illustration purpose apply geoscience concepts. only and is not exhaustive. º For all knowledge require- 1B Additional Foundation Science* Biology Biology Biology Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry ments listed in the document, (Total 6 EUs)(6 EUs required, no more than Computer Computer Computer there is a brief statement of the 2 EUs in any one subject.) Programming Programming Programming Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics learning outcome expected from A strong background in a range of sciences Physics Physics Physics each unit of study. allows the geoscientist to understand how the Statistics Statistics Statistics geosphere interacts with other parts of our This represents an overall world, to communicate and interact with requirement of 27 EUs in sci- scientists from other disciplines and with other professionals, and to adapt to the many ence/geoscience subjects. The challenges encountered in practice. "Geo" subject areas containing the foundational typical university requirement topics listed in the linked descriptors may be for a B.Sc. honours degree at a substituted - e.g. Geostatistics for Statistics, º etc. Biology is highly recommended for those Canadian university is 40 EUs, in the Environmental Geoscience stream with the remaining EUs needed to satisfy degree requirements for university graduation coming * NOTE – Requirements in this table must be met by EUs at a first year or higher university level course acceptable for from other study areas. credit towards a degree in science, applied science or engineering. Remedial secondary school level courses, such as algebra, chemistry, geometry, physics or trigonometry are not accepted. Geoscience experience Figure 1. Compulsory and Additional Foundation Science requirements as set out in GKE requirements Professional registration in Figure 1. Compulsory and Additional Foundation Science requirements as set out in Geoscience Groups: 2A - Compulsory Geoscience and 2B - Additional Geoscience Canada requires 48 months of Knowledge and Experience Requirements for Professional Registration in Canada. cumulative geoscience work Streams experience covering the follow- Groups Geology Environmental Geophysics ing areas: application of geosci- Geoscience ence theory and practical work 2A Compulsory Foundation Geoscience Field Techniques Field Techniques Field Techniques experience; understanding of geoscience processes and sys- (Total 4EUs)(1 EU in each area required). Mineralogy and Petrology Mineralogy and Petrology Mineralogy and Petrology tems; management of geosci- All geoscientists share common core knowledge around which the profession of Sedimentation and Sedimentation and Sedimentation and ence; communication skills; geoscience is practiced. These subject areas Stratigraphy Stratigraphy Stratigraphy and awareness of societal impli- define the common knowledge base in geoscience required to practice in all three Structural Geology Structural Geology Structural Geology cations of geoscience. Work streams of geoscience. experience is generally obtained following graduation; however 2B Additional Foundation Geoscience Geochemistry Geochemistry Digital Signal Geophysics Geophysics Processing there are provisions to allow (Minimum Total 5 EUs)(Geology and geoscience employment during Environmental Geoscience require – a Global Geophysics / minimum of 1 and at most 2 from each sub- Igneous Petrology Hydrogeology or Physics of the Earth the undergraduate programme group; Geophysics requires 1 EU from each Metamorphic Hydrology and post graduate thesis work sub-group) Petrology Engineering Seismology/Seismic Sedimentary Geology Methods to count towards these require- Beyond common foundation science and Petrology ments. geoscience knowledge documented above, training in geoscience generally falls into three Geomorphology or Exploration Work experience must be broad specializations or streams (geology, Sedimentology Soil Science Geophysics independently verified by a environmental geoscience and geophysics), Glacial Geology or Glacial Geology that reflect the basis of three broad sub- Geomorphology Remote Sensing Radiometrics/Gravity minimum of three referees (two disciplines of practice in the profession. Each of Remote Sensing & Magnetics of whom must be P.Geos), who these sub-disciplines requires a different set of foundational geoscience knowledge. are familiar with the applicant’s Electrical & work and can comment on their Electromagnetic Methods technical ability and suitability for licensure. Figure 2. Compulsory and Additional Geoscience requirements as set out in GKE Figure 2. Compulsory and Additional Geoscience requirements as set out in Geoscience Knowledge and Experience Requirements for Professional Registration in Canada. 36 European Geologist 30
  • 37. Other requirements - educators and trainers of geoscientists, and Skills Development Canada’s ForeignTo become registered all candidates must including professors, university coun- Credentials Recognition Program fundingsit and pass a Professional Practice and selors, and those developing geoscience for Geoscientists Canada’s International- Euro-AgesEthics Exam covering: ethics, profession- curricula Trained Geoscientists Framework Projectalism, business law, professional liability - persons migrating to Canada and interna- (Project #8556957). The authors wouldand responsibilities concerning protection tionally mobile professionals intending also like to thank Bruce Broster for assist-of the public. It is not a technical exam. to practise professionally in Canada ance in reviewing the text of this paper. - law and policy makers, governmentsConclusions and those involved in the registration ReferenceWhile the primary purpose of the Geo- and regulation of the geoscience pro- Canadian Council of Professional Geo-science Knowledge and Experience fession scientists. 2009. Geoscience Knowl-Requirements for Professional Registration - employers, or users of professional services edge and Experience Requirements forin Canada is to serve as a common refer- offered by geoscientists and the general Professional Registration in Canada.ence among the regulatory bodies, its other public.important purpose is to provide informa-tion to: Acknowledgements Support for travel to attend and participate- those studying to enter the profession at the Euro-Ages project final conference of geoscience, and those preparing to was covered through Human Resources become registeredQuality assurance of higher education in geology Perspectives from employers by Luca Demicheli1EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organi- Eurogeosurveys (EGS) est EuroGeosurveys es la organizaciónzation of the Geological Surveys of l’Organisation regroupant les Serv- que agrupa a los Servicios GeológicoEurope. Currently 32 national geo- ices Géologiques Européens. Actuel- de Europa. Actualmente son miem-logical surveys are members of EGS. lement, 32 Services Géologiques bros de EGS 32 servicios geológicos.The Geological Surveys of Europe are nationaux sont membres de l’EGS. Los servicios geológicos de Europapublic government organizations and Les Services Géologiques européens son organizaciones gubernamentalestheir staff is mainly hired through sont des organisations gouvernemen- y su personal se contrata por medio depublic competitions. The profiles tales, publiques, et leurs membres oposiciones públicas. Los perfiles derequired are continuously changing sont en majorité sélectionnés à l’issue los puestos solicitados cambian con-to meet the new priorities of Euro- d’un concours public. Les profils requis tinuamente en función de las nuevaspean geosciences. This implies that varient de façon continue pour tenir prioridades en las ciencias de la Tierraprospective employees are able to compte des nouvelles priorités des europeas. Esto implica que los futurosprovide a uniform level of education Géosciences en Europe. Cela impli- empleados de estas organizacionesacross Europe, and have a high degree que que les candidats soient aptes deberían tener un nivel de educaciónof flexibility in rapidly adapting to the à démontrer un niveau d’éducation uniforme en toda Europa y un mayorrequired changing skills. équivalent pour les pays européens et grado de flexibilidad para adaptarse soient à même, grâce à un haut niveau rápidamente a las cambiantes dest- de flexibilité, de s’adapter rapidement rezas que se requieren. aux compétences requises, en perma- nente évolution.E uroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organ- geosciences to European Union affairs ization of the Geological Surveys and action programmes to publish, or see of Europe. Currently 32 national its Members publishing, expert, neutral,geological surveys are members of EGS, balanced and practical pan-European tech-which promotes the contribution of nical advice and information for the Euro- Secretary General, EuroGeoSurveys - 1 pean Union Institutions. It also provides a The Geological Surveys of Europe permanent network between the GeologicalEuropean Geologist 30 37
  • 38. Surveys of Europe and a common, but EGS has a specific interest in education to respond to the rapidly changing geo- not unique, gateway to each of the Mem- systems and their level, especially in the scientific applications, and to be able toEuro-Ages bers and their national networks to jointly field of higher education. apply their competences in any country in address European issues of common inter- EGS is a particular type of employer, Europe, according to the priorities of each est in the field of geosciences. According being composed only of public organi- national Geological Survey. to its Statutes, EGS shall pursue activities zations. Nevertheless, the size, mandate The Young Earth Scientists (YES) Net- that lie exclusively in the public interest or and priority of the Geological Surveys of work is also seen as a major contributor to in the interest of public administration that Europe are not homogeneous. Each Geo- achieve these goals, as it indeed facilitates will benefit from the combined and coordi- logical Survey belongs to a specific min- exchange of experience and knowledge nated expertise of its members and in the istry in its own country. It is possible to among students and early career geosci- direct interest of the European Union and/ state, with a good level of approximation, entists, increasing their ability to operate or of the European Free Trade Association. that about 30% of the EGS members are internationally. EGS areas of expertise include: part of ministries in charge of environ- In order to increase the level of spe- - the use and the management of on- and mental protection; 30% of ministries in cialization of young geologists, the Geo- off-shore natural resources related to charge of research; 30% of ministries in logical Surveys of Europe are also active the subsurface of the Earth (minerals charge of economy/industry/energy; 10% in organizing postgraduate courses and and water, soils, underground space, in various others. Moreover, the size and highly specialized training. A recent nota- land and energy, including renewable mandate vary very much too. Some sur- ble example is represented by the National geothermal energy) veys have many hundreds of staff members School for Applied Geosciences (ENAG) with duties ranging from civil protection of the French Geological Survey (BRGM). - the identification of natural hazards of support to oil and gas exploration, while The school aims at completing the training geological origin, their monitoring and others are considerably small in size and of specialists in geosciences by developing the mitigation of their impacts (deficit operational capability. It has also to be the talents needed by governments, the or excess of trace elements in soils and considered that the hiring procedures are mining industry and international institu- waters, earthquakes, natural emissions very seldom straightforward, since public tions, such as geographic mobility (mul- of hazardous gases, landslides and administrations in most of the cases require tinational/national), cultural adaptability, rock falls, land heave and subsidence, the establishment of open competitions to knowledge of field geology, capacity for shrinking and swelling clays) fill vacant positions. synthesis from multiple-source data, inter- - the development of interoperable and Nevertheless the need for very highly- pretation of field (mining) data, expertise harmonized geo-scientific data at the qualified staff is continuously increasing in modelling tools, ability to manage European scale among Geological Surveys, at the same projects, ability to manage people (rela- - environmental management, waste man- rate of their joint activities at international tions/communication, …). agement and disposal, land-use plan- level. This situation tends to level towards On the other hand, secondary education ning the top the capabilities of the survey which sets the base framework to enable students - sustainable urban development and safe more and more operate at the forefront of to enroll in any European university and be construction European technological development. directly able to deal with the study matters - e-government and the access to geo- One the one hand this has led the Geo- in a comparable way with their colleagues scientific metadata and data. logical Surveys to further strengthen their from other countries. relationships with the universities for the For these reasons we look very much With an overall work force of over 20,000, preparation of graduates and post-gradu- forward to seeing the results of the Euro- the Geological Surveys of Europe can be ates, in a way that is more harmonized Ages project in the years to come and to considered a major employer in the field and flexible throughout Europe. Young benefit from them. of geoscience at continental level. As such, members of staff are expected to be able 38 European Geologist 30
  • 39. Euro-Ages and geology in Sweden Euro-Ages by Vivi Vajda1 and Linda M. Larsson2There are five Higher Education Insti- Il existe cinq Etablissements Hay cinco centros de educación supe-tutes in Sweden producing graduates d’Enseignement Supérieur en Suède, rior en Suecia que producen graduadosin geology. Besides these universities, à l’origine des diplômés en géolo- en geología. Además de estas universi-coursesandprogrammesarealsooffered gie. Outre ces universités, des cours dades, varias escuelas de Suecia ofrecenin technical geology and marine geology et programmes en géotechnique cursos y programas en técnica geológicaat several other schools in Sweden. et en géologie marine sont égale- y geología marina. Sin embargo estosHowever, these are usually offered to ment dispensés auprès de plusieurs últimos se ofrecen sólo a ingenieros. Lasengineers only. The Swedish universi- Ecoles suédoises. Cependant, ils universidades suecas adaptaron su sis-ties adapted their education towards sont d’habitude l’apanage des seuls tema educativo al proceso de Bolonia enthe Bologna process in 2007 and the ingénieurs. C’est en 2007 que les uni- 2007 y los centros de educación superiorHigher Education Institutes in Sweden versités suédoises se sont conformées suecos tienen el mismo marco de refer-have basically the same framework for au système d’éducation du processus encia para sus programas de educacióntheir geological education programmes. de Bologne, basé sur les trois niveaux en geología. Todos ellos están organiza-They are all organized according to the de qualification; Licence (3 ans), Maî- dos de acuerdo con el proceso de BoloniaBologna process where education in trise (2 ans) et Doctorat (3 ans). en el que la educación en geología se basageology is based on a three-level scale; Chaque niveau comporte un nombre en un sistema de tres niveles: Grado (3Bachelor (3 years), Masters (2 years), défini d’unités de valeur et une année años), Máster (2 años) y Doctorado (3and Ph.D. (3 years). Every degree has complète représente 60 unités. Au años). Cada grado tiene un número fijoa fixed number of credits and a full year total, 75 à 100 diplômés en géologie de créditos y un año completo de estu-of studies equals 60 ECTS credits. In sortent chaque année des universités dios equivale a 60 ECTS. Anualmente lastotal 75-100 geology graduates come suédoises. Le nombre d’étudiants en universidades suecas producen entre 75through the Swedish Universities per première année de cursus géologique y 100 graduados al año. El número deyear. The number of freshmen students est stable et le taux de chômage est nuevos estudiantes que se incorporan aentering the geological programmes is faible et en diminution. los programas geológicos esta establestable and unemployment rates are low, y las tasas de paro son bajas y siguenand continue to decrease. disminuyendo.S weden has with its 9.2 million five Higher Education Institutes (HEI) least 550/213), IELTS (at least 6.0) or inhabitants the largest population in Sweden producing graduates in geol- Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency. of the Nordic countries. It is sepa- ogy (Fig. 1). The institutions are locatedrated in the west from Norway by a range in Lund, Göteborg, Karlstad, Stockholm, The Bologna process in geologyof mountains and shares the Baltic Sea Uppsala and Umeå and are within tradi- The Swedish universities adapted theirwith Finland. Sweden joined the Euro- tional well-known universities in which education towards the Bologna process inpean community in 1995 but has kept geology has been a recognized topic in 2007 and are, therefore, accredited by theits national currency, the Swedish krona. the sciences catalogue. The one in Umeå is Swedish government. The aims for join-Geology plays an important role in local related to the existence of important min- ing the Bologna process were primarilysociety and economical development, eral resources in the region. Besides these to simplify the mobility between differ-Sweden being one of the more produc- universities, courses and programmes ent universities both on a national andtive mining countries in Europe. Sweden are also offered in technical geology and international level. The goal was furtheris a major iron ore exporter – the largest marine geology at several other schools in to increase the employment opportunitiesone in Europe. The country further exports Sweden (Fig. 2). However, these are usu- after graduationcopper, lead and zinc. ally offered to engineers only. Education in geology is based on a The number of geologists in the coun- The programme is open to students three-level scale; Bachelor-, Master-, andtry is uncertain but c1000 geologists are from all over the world and was until 2010 Ph.D.-level. Every degree has a fixedmembers of the Swedish Association of free of charge, apart from a small fee for number of credits and a full year of stud-Geologists within SACO (Swedish Aca- compulsory membership in the Student’s ies equals 60 ECTS credits The Bachelordemic Central Organization). There are Union. Since 2011 however, a fee for Mas- level is three years and to achieve a Masters ters studies is required from students from degree, two years must be added. The usual 1 Professor in palaeontology at the non-European community member states. modus operandi is the existence of only Department of Earth and Ecosystem Applicants should have a B.Sc. in Geol- two or three different study programmes Sciences, Lund University Sweden ogy or Earth Sciences or equivalent pro- at both levels. As a few examples one can 2 Post doctoral researcher in palaeon- ficiency. Non-Nordic students who do not mention Palaeontology, Bedrock Geology tology and climate modelling at the have English as their mother tongue must and Quaternary Geology. The workload of Department of Earth and Ecosystem have passed an internationally-acknowl- a full-time student for one academic year of Sciences, Lund University Sweden edged test in English, such as TOEFL (at study is defined as 60 ECTS credits, normallyEuropean Geologist 30 39
  • 40. 50 60 45 50 40Euro-Ages 35 40 30 30 Bachelor Bach 25 Master Mas 20 20 15 10 10 5 0 0 Gothenburg Gothenburg Kristianstad Luleå Gothenburg Lund Umeå Uppsala Stockholm marine geology technical geology Figure 1. Number of freshmen students (blue = Bachelor; red = Masters) Figure 2. Number of freshmen students (blue = Bachelor; red = Masters) in the in the Swedish universities Swedish geotechnical system 30 ECTS credits for each semester. 1 ECTS skills are promoted throughout the period additional prerequisites. However, the credit equals ~ 30 hours of workload. The of study. institutional board at each HEI bases the Bachelor programme involves 180 ECTS The learning outcomes in the field of learning outcomes partly on expectations credits and the Masters an additional 120 Geology are not defined at a national level. of national stake-holders. Sweden does ECTS credits. The structures of the differ- It is entirely the responsibility of the indi- not yet have a system for accreditation of ent courses, as well as the learning out- vidual HEI to define its own learning out- geology programmes. The unemployment comes and goals of education, have been comes for the geology programmes. There rate among geologists is low in the country re-written according to the Bologna Pro- are no professional bodies that define and continues to decrease. cess. All courses have learning outcomes. For each type of geological education one has to complete particular courses to ful- fill the specific learning outcome for the chosen type of exam. Since Sweden has not yet graduated any students within the Bologna Process, it will only be possible to see the full outcome and its advantages after 2010. Number of freshman students and grad- uates in the country The total number of places offered in geology programmes by all universities in Sweden is around 250 per year but the total number of freshmen that finally join the programmes each year is only 100. In We see solutions parallel with the reduction of freshmen where others don’t. students, the number of study places has increased, and as a consequence the uni- versities have specialized their teaching programmes in order to attract students. Besides the shorter Bachelor pro- gramme, most students choose to continue with the two-year Masters (120 ECTS © 2008, GAC credits) in geology. The M.Sc. programme covers nearly all aspects of geology, from minerals to climate changes and the evo- Why not mine into Golder’s resources in Europe – lution of life. It aims to provide students 14 countries, 34 offices, 850 professionals. with a broad knowledge of geology and Specialising in mining, ground engineering and environmental solutions, Golder gives you global exposure to areas on the cutting edge of reach and local presence on six continents. For over 45 years, Golder has built a rock-solid research, a thorough understanding of reputation on client service, innovative thinking and cost-effective solutions that work. the practical applications of geology, and A World of Capabilities Delivered Locally. transferable and subject-specific skills necessary for academic research or entry Africa + 27 11 254 4800 | Asia + 62 21 252 1975 | Australasia + 61 7 3721 5400 Europe +353 45 874411 | North America + 1 800 275 3281 | South America + 55 21 3095 9500 into various employment opportunities in Contact: Barry Balding | private companies or governmental agen- cies. Training in writing and oral presentation 542_IRE_CWall_Press2.indd 1 4/28/08 9:12:16 AM 40 European Geologist 30
  • 41. review is that the regulations have been CPD reports are sent to the relevantOn regulations and renewals split into a series of separate documents Licensed Body. This is either a National EFG News and Events 2010Regulations which will make it much easier to maintain Body (IGI Ireland, ICOG Spain, CHGEOLThe EFG Statutes and Regulations are in the coming years. The schedule of regu- Switzerland and GSL UK) or the Interna-important documents that underpin the lations is shown in the box below. tional Body which is administered throughsmooth running of the Federation. In The task of editing and updating the the EFG Office in Brussels.addition, the statutes and regulations can statutes and regulations largely fell to Bob Chaplow my predecessor as Chair of the David Norburybe used to demonstrate to members and Registration Authority, and the EFG owes Chair, EFG Registration Authorityother professional organizations that EFGis organized and run in a structured and him a big vote of thanks for the hugeprofessional manner. contribution this task has made to the pro- News from Spain The Statues had remained unchanged fessional operation of EFG; thanks arefor most of the life of the EFG whilst the also due to those Council members who First Spanish Geological OlympiadRegulations were last updated in 2002. In assisted in the review process. Geology as a science, wishes to join the2008, Council decided that the time had Scientific Olympiad and in order to do so,come for a fundamental review of these Renewals several Spanish geological associations,documents by the Registration Authority. One of the changes that the revision of coordinated by the Spanish Association forThe main reason that a review was deemed the regulations has confirmed is for the the Teaching of Earth Sciences (AEPECT),necessary was that a series of changes renewal of the EurGeol. title to be now decided to organize the 1st Spanish Geo-over the years had resulted in a number of made on an annual basis, rather than logical Olympiad.inconsistencies, and that the regulations the previous triennial arrangement. This This Olympiad was held for the firstno longer reflected the way that the EFG means that every EurGeol. has to provide time internationally during the Interna-wanted to operate. all the details for renewal to the relevant tional Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). Its first This process has now been completed Licensed body annually. A renewal con- call took place at Seoul National Univer-with updated Statutes which are published sists of payment of the annual EurGeol. fee sity (Korea) in September 2007. AEPECTon the EFG web site. The full set of regula- and the provision of a CPD record. presented the project to the IYPE Com-tions has also now been completed and was The provision of an annual CPD return mission but funding failed, but the firstapproved by Council in May 2010. is a requirement of maintaining your Eur- Geological Olympiad was carried out in The main change that has arisen in the Geol. status. This return can either be Spain in the Basque Country in 2009. The electronic or on a extraordinary success of this call encour- proforma summary aged us to promote this Olympiad at a General sheet sent on paper national level. G1 Schedule of Regulations or as a pdf and We aimed to stimulate students of G2 Statutes and Regulations: compliance although there is no Earth Sciences as well as to promote the G3 Publications and Communications particular required advancement and dissemination of geol- G4 Use of the Common Seal format, templates ogy in today’s world. So that geology, G5 Awards are provided on the as a branch of science with an enormous EFG web pages. It educational value, can also have an impor- Code of Ethics is not necessary tant cultural aspect. It is hoped that the C1 Code of Ethics for all evidence Geological Olympiad, more than a mere C2 Grievance and Disciplinary Procedures and documenta- exam, is turning into a true celebration tion in support of of geology. the statement to be Operation of the European Federation of Geologists During this first event, participation provided. N1 Membership of the EFG was voluntary. Some regions had no par- Once a return N2 Subscriptions and Fees for Members of EFG ticipants, but the objective in future calls is provided to the N3 Working Groups and Panels of Experts is a global participation so that we will Licensed Body, the N4 Operation of the Office be able to attend the International Geo- EurGeol. should N5 Projects and Contracts logical Olympiad. The regional phase was assume that it has N6 Financial Management conducted at the provincial level through- been received N7 Election of Officers out February 2010 with 600 participating and is satisfac- N8 Council Meetings students. tory unless there N9 The Board is correspondence Development of the national phase of to the contrary. European Geologist the Olympiad A small number E1 Criteria for award of title of European Geologist The national phase took place from 27-28 of returns are ran- E2 Procedure for award of title of European Geologist March in Madrid (Figs 1&2), with the domly selected for E3 National Vetting Committees participation of three winners from the audit, and in these E4 Licensed Bodies regional phase. During this first part of cases the Licensed E5 Registration Authority the competition, participants had to dem- Body might call for E6 Continuing Professional Development onstrate their knowledge by answering further supporting E7 Subscriptions and fees for European Geologists questions at the Faculty of Geology in information. Madrid.European Geologist 30 41
  • 42. On 27 March, 36 students from 14 provinces (Alicante, Barcelona, Gerona, Guadalajara, La Coruña, Huelva, Madrid,News and Events 2010 Málaga, Murcia, País Vasco, Sevilla, Valencia y Zaragoza) were received by the Dean and Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Geology, accompanied by the president of AEPECT. Then, the test began by following a route marked by Dinosaur footprints. The tests comprised a questionnaire on geol- ogy and the identification of samples (51 questions in all), were held in classrooms and laboratories. Two questions had to be solved by a team of three participants from different provinces. The development of these tests had the cooperation of the Organizing Committee and the support of 7 students of the Faculty. Figure 1. Geological Olympiads held in Madrid 26 February (Photo: L. Quintanilla) The test was followed by a workshop on “Discovering our steps through Atapuerca” concerning research on human evolution. The workshop was chaired by Dr Ignacio Martinez and Dr Alejandro Mendizábal, who do research on this wonderful deposit of human fossils located near Burgos. In the afternoon, participants moved to the GeoMining Museum at the Geological Survey of Spain, to enjoy a guided tour by its director, Dr. Isabel Rábano (Fig. 3). The awarding ceremony took place on 28 March at the premises of the Offi- cial Spanish Association of Professional Geologists (ICOG). It was chaired by the President, Mr. Luis Suarez, accompanied by the Director of the Geological Survey of Spain, Dr. José Pedro Calvo, the Dean Figure 2. A group of participants in the 1st Spanish Geological Olympiad with accompanying of the Faculty of Geology of Madrid, Dr. teachers (Photo: A. Calonge) Eumenio Ancochea, the President of the Geological Society of Spain, Dr. Ana Crespo and the President of the Spanish Association for the Teaching of Earth Sci- ences Dr. Amelia Calonge, who coordi- nated this event. We must congratulate all the participat- ing schools for the high level of geological knowledge of the 36 students who reached the finals. Out of a maximum score of 52 points no one obtained less than 26 and all 6 winners exceeded 40 points. The win- ners were: 1. Manuel Ledesma Rodríguez. IES Emilio Prados (Málaga). 2. Andreu Vinyoles Busquets. Escola Pia Nostra Senyora (Barcelona). 3. Sergio Linares Fernández. IES Fuente Juncal de Aljaraque (Huelva). 4. Ignacio Fernández Herrero. IES La Serna de Fuenlabrada (Madrid). 5. Irene García Ruíz del colegio El Armelar de Paterna (Valencia). Figure 3 .- Visit the GeoMining museum (IGME), supervised by Dr Isabel Rábano, Museum director 6. Manuel Ibáñez Gabarrón de Lorca (Photo: A. Calonge) (Murcia). 42 European Geologist 30
  • 43. All finalists received a certificate and a the next generation to solve. Others will Shallow water wells had previouslygift, depending on the position obtained in become more responsible citizens thanks been drilled in the area with negative News and Events 2010the ranking (Fig. 4), as stated in the website to a deeper and extended knowledge of the results; where water was found, wells gen-of the Olympics: ( planet were we live. erally dry up during drought periods.olimpiadasgeologia/index2010.htm). Earth itself is not in danger, but human- The results of the hydrogeological At the end of the awarding ceremony, ity needs the planet and we need future investigation suggested that drillings hada questionnaire was distributed among the geologists and scientists to find the solu- to be deep, looking for productive faultsparticipants which was completed by 30 tion to living on Earth without making it and fractures in the granite basement.students. Although we would have liked inhospitable. We recognize that the great In February 2009, the project enteredto have the views of all the students, we effort of organizing the Spanish Geological the operational stage.believe that the results are representative Olympics has been adequately rewarded by Two deep water production wells haveof the general feeling. Broadly speaking, it the enthusiasm of bringing geology close been drilled in the area of Koledjikopeis noteworthy that the Olympics were rated to all our citizens - especially younger ones village, choosing the central portion ofwith a 4 or 5 on a scale of 1 - 5. Specifically, - who will be in the future responsible of the plateau, an area known as Fadakope,60% of survey respondents assessed the the protection of our planet. where a Pilot Farm has been put in place,Olympics as excellent (4), and 40% con- offering working opportunities for the pla-sidered it more than excellent (5). It should Acknowledgements teau noted that 100% would recommend that We would also like to thank the finan- The drillings, at depths of 75 and 98this activity should be carried our annually cial support of Repsol and AEPECT. We m, have proved to be very positive andand 15% suggested that the exams should have also received staff and merchandis- have been equipped with screen casing andbe made in the four regional languages ing support from IGME, CosmoCaixa, electric submergible pumps, working withexisting in Spain. Moreover, the reply to Fundación Ancestros, Geonatura, Official solar panels. The average water yield foropen questions such as “your opinion about Association of Professional of Geolo- each well is around 10,000 litres/day.the best thing of the Olympics” highlighted gists (ICOG), Complutense University of Simple water distribution systems,the friendly atmosphere generated from Madrid (UCM), University of Alcalá de consisting of pipeline connections fromthe beginning. Henares (UAH), and the Faculty of Geol- the well to suspended plastic (polythene) In view of these results, all members of ogy of the UCM. water tanks and fountains with water taps,the Organizing Committee and the Board have been put in place for both drilledof AEPECT consider that these results Amelia Calonge García wells.somehow compensate the important effort President of the Spanish Association for the Two water retention basins have beenand dedication that have been made during Teaching of Earth Sciences (AEPECT) excavated (centre of the plateau and north-this year to organize this first edition of the ern area (Yava Village), with capacities of www.aepect.orgOlympics. 6,000 / 8,000 m3. They have proved to be of great benefit to the whole population News from GsFFinal thoughts of the surrounding villages, especially forThe great success of this initiative leads the agricultural purposes.organizers to propose that these Olympics During May and June 2010, a furtherof Geology should be held every year, to two deep-water wells (depths of 160 andsupport the promotion of careers in science 115 m) were drilled in the Villages of Yavaand hoping to add Geology as a new subject (North - population around 1,900) andduring the 5th edition of the International Avovo (Centre-East - population 2,500).Olympics. It is important to point out that in both The second National Geological Olym- The TOGO Project (West Africa ) areas several drilling attempts had beenpics will also be held in Madrid to help 2007-2010 previously made with negative consolidate the project, with the hope The GsF TOGO project started in March Both drillings have proved to be posi-of rotation through different provinces in 2007, with a preliminary mission to the tive. Water was found at considerablethe future. country, in order to evaluate, in a central depths - 85 and 140 m in Yava and 70 and This second event (http://www.aepect. plateau North of Notse town, the possibil- 105 m in ity of supplying drinking water to a certain The wells have been equipped withwill use the facilities of CosmoCaixa in number of rural villages (total inhabitants screen casing and provided with elec-Madrid, a special place with an interac- around 10,000), where water was very tric submergible pumps and solar panelstive science museum. The aim is that 4 scarse. (manufactured by FLUXINOS Italia Srlfinalists will then participate in the next During the first visit, the project area - Grosseto. IT).International Earth Science Olympiads was defined and a preliminary hydrogeo- Chemical analysis has proved the good(September 2011). logical survey of the plateau carried out quality of water in both wells. The II Olympics of Geology will be - mainly granite outcrops of the basement- The works have been completed withheld to encourage students to know and wherein a sketch topographic map of the the installation of water distribution sys-understand Geology and Earth Sciences area at 1:5.000 scale was drawn. tems, similar to those achieved in 2009.better, to be more involved in Planet The villages concerned are: Agbatitoe The people of the plateau can now ben-Earth and the way geologists try to under- (the only Village close to the main National efit from the drinking water obtained fromstand how it works and to explain the Road), Simbao, Koledjikope, Avovo and the four drilled wells.many outstanding problems waiting for Yava. Considering the water retention basins,European Geologist 30 43
  • 44. as well, that have been excavated, which mainly provide water for agricultural pur- poses and domestic uses, it can undoubt-News and Events 2010 edly be seen that living conditions have very much changed and improved in Agbatitoe and the surrounding villages. TheTabarre and Leogane water projects in Haiti The Tabarre and Leogane Water Projects were described in detail in European Geol- ogist 29, May 2010. At present,GsF is in the phase of “fund raising”, in order to raise the necessary amount of money to start the project. Fund raising has been organized on an International basis. We have had a good response from Italy, France, UK and Spain. The “EXPO 2015 MILANO Organiza- Drilling operations in Yava village tion” is considering the project with great interest, as the topic of the “EXPO 2015 Exibition” is “Feeding the Planet”. For more information and to make a contribution to this worthy and much- needed project, please contact: Geologos sin Fronteras - Gelogi senza Frontiere--Delegazione Italiana ONLUS. Via G. Boccaccio, 45. 20123 Milano Italy. Phone: 0039 02 86460491/86463115 Fax: 0039 02 86460579 Banca Popolare di Bergamo - Milano Sede Via Manzoni, 7 29121 MILANO. IT IBAN: IT 11 O054 2801 6020 0000 Water distribution system in Fadakope 0024 497 REF. “Helping HAITI” Carlo Enrico Bravi Senior Hydrogeologist and President of GsF - Italia - Onlus Avovo village: songs and dances to celebrate the arrival Solar panels for the submergible pump installed in the Avovo village water well af drinking water 44 European Geologist 30
  • 45. Introducing Palaeontology book, addresses the 18 main groups that Book review characterize the fossil record; everything from algae and the vascular plants to dino- A Guide to Ancient Life saurs and human evolution is tackled in an engaging style ably supported by John Murray’s clear and didactic illustrations. by Patrick N. Wyse Jackson About three pages are devoted to each group, enough to introduce the morphol- ogy, distribution and ecology of each with Book review by David Harper1 essential terminology that can be pursued T his is the third in a short series of further in a comprehensive glossary.Published by: Dunedin Academic Press There is, however, already a range of concise introductions to aspects ofLtd. [] excellent textbooks in palaeontology. Is the geosciences published by Dun-ISBN: 978-1-906716-15-8 there need for yet another? Well, yes there edin Academic Press. Those already pub-Date: 2010, 152 pages always is a need for another, particularly lished, on geology (2nd edition, see below))Price: £9.99 (stg), paperback one that is ambitious, as well as compe- and volcanology, are clearly written and lavishly illustrated. This new addition to tent and well focused. This book is aimed the stable, Introducing Palaeontology, is no at both the general public and students exception. Patrick Wyse Jackson in some taking introductory courses in palaeontol- 150 pages and 100 figures has attempted ogy. Wyse Jackson admirably crosses this to summarize the history of life on our divide between an informed coffee table planet, a journey that stretches back almost book and an academic text, with a lucid four billion years, underpinning the plan- and informative narrative, illustrations that et’s biodiversity today of some 20 million really jump from the page and a core of species. The book is logically arranged. very useful information for the amateur The first part, some 50 pages, is devoted and professional alike. One slight irritation to concepts such as taxonomy, the use of is the lack of scales on the photographs; fossils in, for example, biostratigraphy and microscopic radiolarians, for example, the reconstruction of ancient climates and appearing at almost the same size as dino- environments; the occurrence and signifi- saur footprints. Some of these data can be cance of exceptionally-preserved biotas of gleaned from the text but scale bars would the fossil Lagerstätten is a particular focus. be an advantage. I would recommend this The history of life is reviewed and the main as one of the best introductory texts on the extinction events exposed. Particularly subject around at present and no doubt its useful are the sections of the collection fine illustrations will soon begin to punc- and study of fossils and a collectors’ code tuate many introductory courses in our of conduct. The second part, the bulk of the science. Introducing Geology position and history of our planet. In his second edition, some four years later, the A Guide to the World of Rocks text has been revised, many of the line drawings redrafted and a short list of refer- by Graham Park ences to the literature and useful web links added. This remains a key resource for both amateur and professional geologists alike, Review by David Harper1 remarkably squeezing virtually all of the basics of our subject into some 135 pages Published by: Dunedin Academic Press with many informative illustrations. Ltd. [] For a review of the First Edition (2006), ISBN: 978-1-906716-21-9 see European Geologist 22, p.40. Date: 2010, 134 pages Price: £9.99 (stg), paperback G raham Park, in his first edition 1 Professor of Palaeontology and Head of Introducing Geology, captured of Geology, Natural History Museum of the excitement of the Earth Sci- Denmark, University of Copenhagen ences in an accessible, elegantly-written, beautifully-illustrated guide to the com-European Geologist 30 45
  • 46. Submission of articles to European Geologist magazineThe EFG calls for quality articles for future issues of European Geologist. Submissions should be in English, 1000 words for short articles and 3000 wordsfor feature articles. An abstract of between 100 and 120 words should be included in English, French and Spanish. Articles should be sent via e-mail tothe Editor at or. Photographs or graphics are very welcome and should be sent to the Editor as tif or jpg files in CYMGcolour. Further details may be found on the EFG website: www.eurogeologists.euDeadline for submission 30 April and 30 October.AdvertisementsPrices for advertisements One Insertion Two Insertions More than 20,000 electronic copies of EuropeanFull page (colour) 820 Euro 1320 Euro Geologist are distributed among professionalHalf page (colour) 420 Euro 670 Euro geologists all over Europe, as well as the USA.Quarter page (colour) 220 Euro 350 Euro They are sent to the National Associations ofFull page (black and white) 420 Euro 670 Euro geologists of each member country, and theseHalf page (black and white) 220 Euro 350 Euro National Associations distribute them to theirQuarter page (black and white) 120 Euro 200 Euro members. These include geologists working inBusiness card size 90 Euro 150 Euro industry as well as at universities.Preferential location 25% plusPrice for special pages: Layout of the magazine is made in AdobeOutside back cover (colour) 1200 Euro 1900 Euro Indesign CS for PC.Second page (colour) 1000 Euro 1600 Euro Method of payment:Second last page (colour) 1000 Euro 1600 Euro Invoice after publicationData for European Geologist Magazine Subscription Rates: Annual subscription toNumber of issues printed: 6500 the Magazine: 25 EuroPeriodicity: 2 times a yearPrint mode: Offset Contact:Size: A4 (210 mm x 297 mm)Deadline: 30 March, 30 September. Dr. Maureen Mc CorryPublished: 30 May, 30 November e-mail: Harper-mccorry@net.telenor.dkAdvertisement delivered as computer file: EPS, TIFF Tel: 0045 45831970 or 51900266For graphics remember to include fonts. European Federation of Geologists (EFG) The European Federation of Geologists was established in Paris in 1980 during the 26th International Congress of Geology. In the same year the Statutes were presented to the European Economic Community in Brussels. The Council of the EFG is composed of the representatives of the National Associations of geologists of Belgium-Luxembourg (UBLG), Croatia (CGS), Cyprus (CAGME), Czech Republic (CAEG), Finland (YKL), France (UFG), Germany (BDG), Greece (AGG), Hungary (MFT), Ireland (IGI), Italy (CNG), Netherlands (KNGMG), Portugal (APG), Russia (NAEM), Serbia (SGS), Slovakia (SGS), Slovenia (SGD), Spain (ICOG), Sweden (N), Switzerland (CHGEOL), United Kingdom (GS), whilst the American Institute of Professional Geologists (AIPG) is an Associate Member. The EFG currently represents about 50,000 geologists across Europe. Mission To promote the profession and practice of geology and its relevance. Objectives 1. To promote and facilitate the establishment and implementation of national arrangements for recognizing geologists who, through academic training and appropriate periods of relevant experience in the profession and practice of geology, are qualified to be designated as EurGeol. 2. To organize meetings and conferences to discuss issues related to the profession and practice of geology. 3. To co-ordinate the activities of member national organisations in preparing briefing papers on geological issues and presenting these to European bodies, national governments and other relevant organisations. 4. To maintain contact with the European Commission and respond in timely manner to requests for information. 5. To communicate, through meetings and other means, the relevance of geology to the resolution of issues of concern to society. 6. To promote the establishment of best practice for training of geologists. 7. To safeguard and promote the present and future interests of the geological profession in Europe, including: - to guarantee the free movement of geologists in Europe, with the mutual recognition of their academic and professional qualifications by the adop- tion of the title of European Geologist (EurGeol.). - to promote the harmonisation of education and training. - to define and protect the title of geologist and related professional titles. - to promote the code of professional ethics of the EFG. - to provide advice and assistance to constituent member National Associations. 46 European Geologist 30
  • 47. 1. Vertical fall test, Switzerland 1 22. Rockfall barrier, Middle East3. Rockfall barrier, Germany Geobrugg rockfall barriers keep the road clear 3Solutions for the highest demand ofprotection:- For retention capacities of 100 to 5‘000 kJ- Exceed the energy absorption capacity of many existing concrete galleries- Maintain great residual barrier height in the impact zone and virtually 100% in adjacent zones- Minor deflection in the event of major hazardous occurences- Have been tested for a combination of loads involving boundary zones, multiple impacts, tree falls and snowslides- Easy to maintain because only the support and retaining ropes are fitted with brake rings.Request our rockfall brochure anddiscuss your natural hazard problemswith our specialists.Geobrugg AGProtection Systems8590 Romanshorn • SwitzerlandTel. +41 71 466 81 55Fax +41 71 466 81 European Geologist 47
  • 48. Not Just Software. . . RockWare. For Over 27 Years.The Geochemist RockPack III™ QuickSurf™ MapInfo™Workbench® Powerful Microsoft® Windows®- Rock Slope Stability Analysis Fast, Powerful, Surface A Complete Set of Tools for • Kinematic stereonet analyses Modeling System for AutoCAD Based Mapping & Geographic Aqueous Geochemistry for rock slope stability • Runs inside of AutoCAD Analysis Application • New GSS spreadsheet for • Computerized data 2000-2010 • Provides built-in support to storing water data, converting collection • Converts surface mapping access and view a variety of units and more. data such as point or break data software formats directly • Plane, wedge, and toppling • Water chemistry diagrams safety factors line data into contours, • Provides many CAD-like data (Piper, Stiff, time series, series, grids, triangulated irregular creation and editing tools • Considers water pressures, as well as the ability to edit ternary etc.) networks (TIN), and surcharges, and seismicity your tabular data triangulated grids • Eh/pH and activity diagrams • Includes artificial • Dozens of imports • Perform geographic queries • Predict aqueous species, support design on customer data and exports calculate mineral saturation • Topography, slope analysis, • Instantly shade/change style and gas fugacities thickness maps, volumes, or mark territories, boundaries, • Reaction path modeling visibility analysis, road design highways, fiber lines, or points • 1D and 2D reactive based on any tabular data • Profiles and sections along transport modeling values through a simple wizard polyline paths • Provides a spectrum of publishing options Free trial available at Free trial available at Free trial available at Free trial available at www.rockware.comStarting at $999 $875 $1,195 Call for pricingFollow us on: European Sales ++41 91 967 52 53 • F: ++41 91 967 55 50 MapInfo Professional® 48 US Sales European Geologist 30 303.278.3534 • F: 303.278.4099