European Geologist nº 30 - Dec. 2010


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European Geologist nº 30 - Dec. 2010

  1. 1. N° 30 Dec 2010European Geologist Revue dé la Fédération Européenne des Géologues Journal of the European Federation of Geologists Revista de la Federación Europea de Geólogos Higher Education in Geology Euro-Ages
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  3. 3. Contents European Geologist 30 PageForeword...Ruth Allington 4 Advertisers Rockware (pages 2 and 48); SLR (page 13);Euro-Ages Stump Foratec AG (page 22); Polymetra Gyro Services (page 29); Geoscience Data Manage-Euro-Ages...André Rieck 5 ment (page 38); Golder Associates (page 40); Geobrugg (page 47).The Bologna Process...Paul D. Ryan 9 Cover photo:Mapping the European geological qualification 14 Main photo: Bologna, which houses the oldest continuously operating university in the world, ...Isabel Fernandez and David Norbury established probably in 1088 (Photo: D. Harper). Smaller photos, from left: Graduation day atThe Euro-Ages programme and Ireland...Ben Kennedy 18 Bologna University (Photo: D. Harper); Student on practical training in a mine, Hungary.Learning outcomes and skill levels...David Norbury 19 Photos this page: From left: Participating countries in mappingAcademia and industry, Hungary...Janos Foldessy and Ferenc Madai 23 European Qualification; Students on mining practical training, Hungary; Students at theHigher education in geology in Hungary...Éva Hartai 26 GeoMining Museum, Geological Survey of Spain (Photo: A. Calonga).Geological higher education in Serbia...Vladica Cvetković 28The higher education system in Italy...M. Trimboli and E. Nucci 30 © Copyright 2010 The European Federation of Geologists All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy orProfessional registration in Canada...O. Bonham and G. Finn 35 transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No responsibility isPerspective from employers...Luca Demicheli 37 assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence, or otherwise,Euro-Ages and geology in Sweden...Vivi Vajda and Linda M. Larsson 39 or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in theEFG News material herein. Although all advertising mate- rial is expected to conform to ethical (medical) standards, inclusion in this publication does notOn regulations and renewals...David Norbury 41 constitute a guarantee or endorsement of the quality or value of such product or of the claimsOther News made by its manufacturer. ISSN: 1028 - 267XFirst Spanish Geological Olympiad...Amelia Calonga Garcia 41News from GsF. The Togo project...Carlo Enrico Bravi 43Book ReviewIntroducing Patrick Wyse Jackson 45 ... review by D. Harper p. 41 p. 14 p. 23European Geologist 30 3
  4. 4. Foreword EUROPEAN GEOLOGIST Euro-Ages is published by the by EurGeol. Ruth Allington, President T European Federation of Geologists his edition of European GeologistC/O Service Geologique de Belgique is a thematic issue on higher educa- Rue Jenner 13 tion and lifelong learning to mark B-1000 Bruxelles, Belgium the conclusion of the Euro-Ages project1. Tel:+32 2 6270412 The final conference took place on 22 October 2010 and the final report will be completed during December 2010 and the early part of 2011. THE BOARD OF EFG The principal objective of the Euro- Ages project has been to review quality PRESIDENT standards and criteria for the assessment EurGeol. Ruth Allington of higher education study programmes in geology across Europe and to propose a framework for Europe-wide standards. This is not a project about develop- VICE-PRESIDENT ing and attempting to impose prescrip- Nieves Sanchez tive Europe-wide curricula for geological professional qualification (such as study programmes, but about articulating European Geologist (EurGeol.)) a set of high level learning outcomes (the - Facilitating mutual recognition of higher SECRETARY-GENERAL quality standards) based on existing qual- education programmes and professional Elisabeth Däcker ity frameworks, and defining appropriate qualifications through programme vali- levels of attainment in terms of learning dation and certification on a Europe- outcomes achieved on completion of each wide basis TREASURER of the key Bologna cycles (including cycle - Supporting the mobility of geology grad- Leonard Luzieux 4, the stage at which professional qualifica- uates and professional geologists tions may be attained). The vision is for the - Providing a ‘quality label’ for accred- establishment of a Europe-wide accredita- ited geology programmes of first and EU DELEGATE tion scheme for geological programmes second cycle. Marino Trimboli (based on assessment/certification against delivery of the Euro-Ages learning out- Intermediate results of the project are available on the Euro-Ages website: comes) that can sit alongside national and regional accreditation schemes that (, or via the EFG EDITOR website: ( determine content and course structures in Maureen Mc Corry accordance with national laws and norms. As the final results become available, they The potential advantages of developing will also be posted on this website. Feed- a shared understanding of an appropriate back on all these materials and an ongo- EDITORIAL BOARD set of high level learning outcomes from ing discussion within the wider geological Maureen Mc Corry geological programmes of study across community will be welcomed both now Marino Trimboli Europe (and elsewhere in the World), and and when the project is finished. This will Éva Hartai of agreeing the progression of skills and be co-ordinated via the EFG and reported Gareth Ll Jones experience appropriate at the end of each periodically in this magazine. Edmund Nickless Bologna cycle include: Manuel Regueiro 1 Project Partners: ASIIN Consult - Supporting university teachers of geol- GmBH; European Federation of Geolo- ogy in designing and developing their gists; Official Spanish Association of Pro- Translations by programmes having regard not only to fessional Geologists (ICOG); Hungarian Antoine Bouvier the Bologna requirements (inputs and Geological Society (MFT); Swedish Nat- Manuel Regueiro credits) but also to ensuring that gradu- ural Scientists Association - Geological ate geologists possess the appropriate Section. Layout by skill sets and experience to go on and Advisory Board: Dr. Hans-Jürgen Maureen Mc Corry become professional geologists Weyer (German Professional Associa- - Providing a common framework within tion of Geoscientists - BDG); Dr. Paul which geologists can demonstrate pro- Ryan (Tuning Educational Structures in gression and development from first Europe); Dr. Luca Demichelli (EuroGeo- cycle graduation to attainment of a Surveys).4 European Geologist 30
  5. 5. Euro-Ages Euro-Ages A leap towards transparency, comparability andmobility in geology in higher education across Europe by André Rieck1Combining the common interests and Combinant les intérêts communs et la Al combinar los intereses comunes yindividual strengths of ASIIN (Ger- motivation de l’engagement individuel las fortalezas de ASSIN (Alemania),many), EFG (Belgium), ICOG (Spain), de l’ASIIN (Allemagne), EFG (Belgique), FEG (Bélgica), ICOG (España), MFTMFT (Hungary) and SACO (Sweden), ICOG (Espagne), MFT (Hongrie) et SACO (Hungria) y SACO (Suecia), el proyectoEuro-Ages provides important refer- (Suède), le dossier Euro Ages fournit des Euro-Ages aporta importantes puntosence points for the development and points de référence importants en mat- de referencia para el desarrollo y elquality assurance of geology and ière de développement et d’assurance aseguramiento de la calidad en lageosciences in tertiary education. qualité pour l’enseignement supérieur educacion terciaria de la geologia yWithin the scope of the project life- de la géologie et des géosciences. las ciencias de la tierra . Dentro de lostime (2009-2011) this was primarily Dans l’optique du projet de toute une objetivos del proyecto, que cubre unimplemented by compiling a set of vie (2009-2011), un premier pas a été periodo de 2009 a 2011, esto se llevóoutcome descriptors for Bachelor’s réalisé en compilant une série de fichiers fundamentalmente a cabo compilandoand Master’s degree programmes. rendant compte des programmes con- un conjunto de descriptores de losThis reference framework can be used duisant aux diplômes de Licence et de resultados de la formacion para losfor programme development by indi- Maîtrise. Ce système de référence peut programas de Licenciado y Master.vidual higher education institutions, être utilisé pour le développement de Este marco de referencia se puedefor the establishment of national sec- programmes par des institutions indivi- utilizar en el desarrollo de los progra-toral qualification frameworks in geol- duelles en enseignement supérieur, pour mas por instituciones de educacionogy and geosciences as well as for la création de cadres de qualifications superior concretas, para el establ-the improvement of accreditation and sectorielles nationales en géologie et ecimiento de marcos sectoriales deevaluation efforts across Europe. géosciences et aussi pour plus de réus- cualificaciones en geologia y ciencias site dans les efforts en accréditation et de la Tierra asi como para la mejora évaluation consentis en Europe. de los esfuerzos de acreditación y evaluación en toda Europa.E uro-Ages aimed at developing a of the EQF. The persistent lack of compara- qualification framework for geol- ble subject-specific tools for assessing and ogy, based on learning outcomes enhancing the quality of geology degreerather than input factors on the European programmes on a national or transnationallevel, thereby increasing transparency level in the past has proven to be a potentialof the Earth Sciences qualifications and obstacle to the mobility of geologists, geol-ultimately facilitating academic and pro- ogy students and graduates. In response tofessional mobility across Europe while at this need, and in line with previous effortsthe same time stimulating students and undertaken by EU-supported projects, thisgraduates in the field of geology as well as joint project has involved the major stake-professional geologists to pursue Lifelong holders in the field of higher education inLearning. The project allowed a structured geology in order to develop a Europe-wideexchange of best practices, expertise and applicable qualifications framework andcountry characteristics of professional descriptors for the EQF level 6 (“Bachelor/ procedural guidelines for the assessmentpractices in geology in the different Euro- 1st cycle”), and 7 (“Masters/2nd cycle”) of geology degree programmes.pean countries. The project moreover serves as a reference framework for pro- The manifold obstacles to academicprovided important reference points for gramme development by individual higher and professional mobility are key chal-quality assurance and related recognition education institutions, for the establish- lenges for the achievement of the Lisbonissues focused on learning outcomes. At the ment of national sectoral qualifications goal of making the EU the most com-same time, a pan-European set of outcome frameworks in geology and for the devel- petitive knowledge-based economy in opment of a sectoral qualification frame- the world. In many countries geology is 1 ASIIN Consult GmbH work for geology encompassing all levels a regulated profession, the exercise ofEuropean Geologist 30 5
  6. 6. which is dependent on predefined aca- the B.Sc. in Earth Science & Engineering. - The geology section of the Swedish demic achievements (frequently defined Valuable information for both the Euro- Association of Scientists (SACO) is a in input factors), practical experience and Ages peers and the programme manag- rapidly-growing professional associa-Euro-Ages continuous professional development. ers at Miskolc were gathered during this tion in Sweden. As a professional asso- Thus mobility will greatly be facilitated process so that the feedback will continue ciation SACO is working with questions by the existence of tools for the recog- to flow in the development of the qualifica- related to their members’ professional nition of qualifications and competences, tion framework in the months ahead. career status. Important issues are qual- such as the Tuning Education Structures in Also, on 22 October, the final project ity control of education and training, Europe Initiatives, the European Qualifica- conference was held in Budapest, Hun- professional and ethical criteria, career tion Framework, ECTS as a Euroepean gary. On this occasion, participants from coaching and the progress of science “academic currency”, accreditation bodies across Europe (and even beyond) had the and research development. acting as strong and independent systems chance to discuss the results, actively par- Additionally, an international advisory of external quality assurance, and mutually ticipate in the development of the qualifi- board, consisting of three members with respected standards and guidelines such as cation framework and exchange ideas for the ones developed by the European Asso- the future of geology in higher education. ciation for Quality Assurance in Higher Education and adopted by the Bergen The partners Conference in 2005. While the Frame- The project was initiated and carried out work for Qualifications of the European by a consortium of five partners: Higher Education Area, as adopted by the - ASIIN Consult is a subsidiary of ASIIN European Ministers of Education in 2005, e.V., a not-for-profit accreditation provides a generic tool for the recogni- agency carried by an all-embracing tion of higher education qualifications, it grand alliance of academic and profes- needs to be translated into the specific sional associations and higher educa- fields of study in order to be applicable tion institutions in Germany. All activi- to the individual degree programme. For ties of ASIIN are aimed at securing degree programmes in some disciplines, and further expanding high standards notably engineering, chemistry and infor- and the quality of higher education in matics, sectoral qualifications frameworks the fields of engineering, informatics, have already been developed by pan-Euro- mathematics and the natural sciences, pean networks to fit the needs of specific including geology. disciplines. For geology this gap remained - The European Federation of Geolo- to be closed by this project. gists (EFG) with its 22 member coun- try organizations is a Belgium-based The roadmap organization. Its mission is to represent The Euro-Ages project started in Febru- the geological profession in Europe and ary 2009 within the scope of a meeting at to safeguard and promote the present the EFG office in Brussels, Belgium. On and future interest of the profession as this occasion the initial survey about geol- well as to promote best practice policies ogy study programmes across Europe was with regard to the responsible use of the prepared. After refining the questionnaires Earth´s natural resource. and improving the approach of the survey in Lund, Sweden in May 2009, the ques- - The Ilustre Colegio Oficial De Geologos tionnaires were distributed to all major (ICOG) is a professional association stakeholders and the survey started to yield of geologists, a non-profit organization valuable information. These results were created to defend and support the inter- then compiled and edited to benefit the ests of geologists in Spain. Its main first draft of the qualification framework objectives are to promote activities and which was adapted in the aftermath of the studies regarding geology and facilitate third project meeting in Madrid, Spain in the associated members the practice of November 2009. The final project meet- the profession and to carry out stud- ing took place in Düsseldorf, Germany ies, produce reports and assessments, in February 2010 and brought together elaborate statistics and other activities. the various aspects of Euro-Ages. Further- - Magyarhoni Földtani Társulan (MFT), more, planning for the test evaluation as was established as the Hungarian Geo- well as the final conference was started in logical Society in 1848. It represents Düsseldorf. the Hungarian experts and students Ultimately, in October 2010, the quali- involved with geology. Its main activi- fication framework including a first draft ties are bringing together professionals of the accreditation standards could be from geology and related sciences, rep- tested within the scope of an evaluation resenting their interests and presenting at the University of Miskolc, Hungary for and disseminating practical and scien- tific achievements 6 European Geologist 30
  7. 7. backgrounds in the educational as well as Appropriate knowledge of other disciplines of information sources (e.g. textual,professional field, supported the project relevant to geology. numerical, verbal, graphical)throughout the entire project lifespan with Ability to conduct appropriate experi- Analysis, design and implementation Euro-Agesvaluable advice and critical comments: ments, to analyze and interpret data Ability to create simple geological and draw conclusions- Prof. Dr. Luca Demicheli (EuroGeo- models Basic awareness of relevant state-of-the- Surveys) Some understanding of the complexity of art technologies and their application- Prof. Dr. Paul Ryan (Tuning Educational geological problems and the feasibility Basic ability to solve numerical problems Structures in Europe) of their solution using computer and non-computer- Dr. Hans-Jürgen Weyer (BDG - German Understanding the need of a rational use based techniques Professional Association of Geoscien- of Earth resources Basic knowledge of the application of tists). Basic ability in the formalization and information technology to geologicalThe outcomes specification of problems whose solu- scienceWithin two years, two sets of learning tion involves the use of geological Ability to use spreadsheet and word-outcomes as well as criteria and proce- methods processing software.dural guidelines for both the internal qual- Knowledge of appropriate solution pat-ity management and external assessment terns for geological problems Other professional skillsof geological degree programmes have Basic ability to describe a solution at an Ability to complete assigned tasks in abeen developed for EQF level 6 and 7 and abstract level range of technical, economical andmade public ( These social contexts Knowledge of the range of applicationsEuropean outcome descriptors will serve of geology Ability to learn and study including effec-as a reference framework for programme Ability to integrate field and laboratory tive time management and flexibilitydevelopment by individual higher educa-tion institutions in the process of conceptu- evidence with theory following the Awareness of the concept of professional-alizing or remodelling Bachelor and Mas- sequence from observation to recogni- ism and professional ethicsters programmes in the discipline. tion, synthesis and modelling Knowledge of the economic, social, Graduates having completed a First Appreciation of issues concerning sample environmental and legal conditionsCycle degree should have demonstrated selection, accuracy, precision and expected in professional practicethe following capabilities: uncertainty during collection, record- Basic awareness of project management ing and analysis of data in the field and and business practices and understand-Underlying basis laboratory ing of their limitations Ability to formulate and test hypotheses. Ability to work effectively as an indi-Basic knowledge and understanding of the natural sciences (Physics, Chemis- Technological, methodological and trans- vidual and as a member of a team try, Mathematics) underlying the study ferable skills Recognition of the need for, and engage- of Geology ment in self-managed and life-long Basic ability to become familiar with new learningKnowledge and understanding of the geological methods and technologies essential features, processes, materi- Ability to organize their own work inde- Ability to select and use relevant analytic pendently als, history and the development of the and modelling methods Earth and life Basic ability to formulate an acceptable Basic ability to apply appropriate technol- problem solution using geologicalBasic knowledge and understanding of ogy and use relevant methods the key aspects and concepts of geol- methods in a cost-effective and time- Ability to use simple quantitative meth- efficient way ogy, including some at the forefront of ods and to apply them to geological Basic knowledge in estimating and meas- that discipline problems uring costs and productivityKnowledge of the common terminology Basic ability to independently analyze Basic ability to communicate effectively and nomenclature and the use of bibli- earth materials in the field and labora- in written and verbal form with col- ography in geoscience tory and to describe, process, document leagues, other professionals, customersAwareness of the wider spectrum of geo- and report the results logical disciplines and the general public about substan- Ability to undertake field and laboratory tive issues and problems related to theirAwareness and understanding of the tem- investigations in a responsible and safe poral and spatial dimensions in Earth chosen specialization manner, paying due attention to risk Basic ability to prepare, process, inter- processes assessment, rights of access, relevantAwareness of the applications and respon- pret and present data, using appropriate health and safety regulations, and sensi- qualitative and quantitative techniques sibilities of geology and its role in tivity to the impact of investigations on society including its environmental and packages. the environment and stakeholders aspects Basic ability to combine theory and prac- Graduates having completed a SecondAwareness of major geological para- tice to complete geology tasks Cycle degree should have demonstrated digms, the extent of geological time Ability to undertake literature searches, the following capabilities: and plate tectonics and to use data bases and other sourcesKnowledge and understanding of the of information Underlying basis complex nature of interactions within Ability to receive and respond to a variety Advanced knowledge and understanding the geosphereEuropean Geologist 30 7
  8. 8. of the principles of geology the development of knowledge, wealth educational objective. From this perspec- Deeper knowledge of a chosen speciali- creation and improving quality of life tive the framework descriptors would zation Ability to evaluate performance as an serve as departing point for further amend-Euro-Ages Critical awareness of the forefront of their individual and a team member ments describing competencies also for the specialization Ability to identify individual and collective related fields of study and the respective Advanced understanding of Earth system goals and responsibilities and to perform interdisciplinary combinations. The Euro- relevant to their specialization in a manner appropriate to these roles Ages framework is thus intended as a broad Ability to critically evaluate professional common denominator, or overarching ref- Appreciation of the learning capacity and research papers erence point, for the variety of geology needed to progress to independent programmes. In order to allow for possible research. Ability to plan an appropriate programme inclusion of existing geology speciali- of continuing professional develop- Analysis, design and implementation zations within European Higher Educa- ment. tion Institutions, the framework must be Ability to specify and complete geologi- Further, within the scope of the surveys, formulated in rather general terms. The cal tasks that are complex, incompletely a state-of-the-art report concerning the Standards and Criteria represent a quality defined or unfamiliar current status of geology in higher educa- threshold. All graduates of programmes Some ability to formulate and solve prob- tion across Europe has been developed. assessed against the Euro-Ages standards lems in new and emerging areas of their Accordingly, the project provided benefits are expected to achieve the programme discipline to departments of geology and the aca- learning outcomes stated therein. Accredi- Ability to apply state-of-the-art or innova- demic community by engaging them in tation of a geology degree programme is tive methods in problem solving, possi- the most important endeavour of defining the primary result of a process used to bly involving use of other disciplines leaning outcomes in geology. Also, in this ensure the suitability of that programme as Ability to think creatively to develop new process, the employment side, companies, providing the education base for the entry and original approaches and methods. and corporate members and further stake- route to professional practice. It involves Technological, methodological and trans- holders were able to feed in their expec- a periodic assessment against accepted ferable skills tations about the qualification profile of standards of higher education in geology. their future employees. The Standards and Independent, third-party accreditation is Ability to design appropriate experiments, Criteria are intended to provide a means essentially based on a peer review proc- to analyze and interpret data and draw for reviewing the quality of higher educa- ess, undertaken by appropriately trained conclusions integrating knowledge tion geology qualifications in the Euro- and independent teams comprising peers from different disciplines, and handling pean Higher Education Area (EHEA), in from both academia and geology practice, complexity a way that encourages the dissemination in accordance with agreed principles. It is Ability to use advanced, and develop cus- of good practice and a culture of continu- important that accreditation processes go tomized, quantitative methods ous improvement of geology programmes. beyond judgement on the achievement of Comprehensive understanding of appli- Given the great diversity of education in a minimum standard, and effectively pro- cable techniques and methods for a geology across Europe, the attempt to mote the idea of continuous improvement particular specialization, and of their create framework standards comprising of the quality of higher education pro- limits all areas of the geology discipline appears grammes. The Standards for Accreditation Awareness of the limits of current knowl- ambitious. In the course of the project can be used in both the design and the eval- edge and the practical application of the the traditional education of geologists at uation of programmes in all specializations state-of-the-art technology European universities appeared to be in of geology. They are expressed as broad Knowledge and understanding of geology a transition period. The design of study generic programme-learning outcomes to create geological models of complex programmes in geology actually drifts that describe in general terms the capa- systems and processes to more interdisciplinary and/or special- bilities required of graduates from accred- Basic ability to contribute to the further ized focuses and “classical” geology is ited First Cycle and Second Cycle geology development of geology in practice and inserted in a selective way in new pro- programmes, as defined in the Framework research. grammes under different titles. Therefore for Qualifications of the European Higher the number of mere geological study pro- Education Area. Consequently, they can Other professional competences grammes decreases all over Europe whilst be interpreted and elaborated by users to Ability to produce independent work in the interdisciplinary approach focusing on reflect the specific demands of different their professional and scientific fields “geosciences” gains strength. Despite this cycles and specializations. Ability to manage and work effectively as observation the project partners decided a leader of teams that may be composed to continue the work on sectoral geology This project has been funded with sup- of different disciplines and levels outcome descriptors as they would also port from the European Commission. This be useful for the design, implementation publication reflects the views only of the Basic ability to work effectively and com- and quality control of study programmes author, and the Commission cannot be held municate in national and international following a broader and or more inter- responsible for any use which may be made contexts disciplinary and or more specialized of the information contained therein. Appreciation of the role of geology in 8 European Geologist 30
  9. 9. The Bologna Process: an introduction Euro-Ages by Paul D. Ryan1The Bologna Process, initiated in 1999 Le Processus de Bologne, initié en El proceso de Bolonia, que comenzóand not yet completed, aims to create 1999 et pas encore achevé, vise à en 1999 y todavía no ha terminado,a single European Higher Education créer un Espace européen unique de tiene como objetivo crear un Área deArea in which degrees and diplomas l’enseignement supérieur dans lequel les Educación Superior Europea en queare transparent and transportable. niveaux de qualification et les diplômes los títulos y diplomas sean transpar-The degrees will be based upon a sont clairement définis et validés d’un entes y transportables. Los gradosBachelor, Masters, Doctoral system pays à l’autre. Les qualifications seront se basarán en un sistema de Licen-and should be described in terms of basées selon un système comprenant ciaturas, Másteres y Doctorados y sewhat the student is expected to know, trois niveaux : la Licence, la Maîtrise et deberían describir en términos de lounderstand and demonstrate after a le Doctorat et devraient être présentées que se espera que un estudiante sepa,course of study. Mechanisms are de manière à préciser ce que l’on attend entienda y pueda demostrar que sabe,being put in place which will facilitate de l’étudiant en matières de connais- tras un curso de estudio. Se estándegree recognition throughout the 47 sances, de compréhension et de mise poniendo en marcha mecanismos quesignatory states. There will also be a en application, à l’issue de son cursus facilitarán el reconocimiento de títu-Europe wide system of quality assur- d’études. Des mécanismes sont mis en los entre los 47 estados firmantesance to ensure standards. The Tuning place qui faciliteront la reconnaissance del acuerdo. Habrá también un sis-Project has developed tools to facili- des qualifications dans les 47 états sig- tema europeo de aseguramiento detate the development of such degrees nataires. Il existera aussi un système la calidad para garantizar la calidadat the Institute level and has produced européen complet d’assurance qualité de los estudios. El proyecto Tuning haa template for the Earth Sciences. pour garantir des niveaux standard. Un desarrollado herramientas para facili-The Bologna Process will be of great Projet d’Harmonisation a mis au point tar el desarrollo de dichos grados avalue to the Geoscience Profession as des outils pour faciliter le développe- nivel de facultad y ha producido unait will facilitate professional mobility ment de ces trois niveaux de qualifica- plantilla o modelos para el caso dethroughout Europe. tion et a créé un système référent pour las Ciencias de la Tierra. El proceso les Sciences de la Terre. Le Processus de Bolonia será de gran ayuda para la de Bologne aura une valeur importante profesión de geólogo ya que facilitará pour les professionnels des Géosciences la movilidad profesional en Europa. car il va faciliter leur libre circulation en Europe.T he Bologna Process, adopted cur- reform is still needed today if Europe is signed or were in the process of signing rently by 47 European Nations, to match the performance of the best per- this Convention by 2009. The ultimate aim aims to reform higher education in forming systems in the world, notably the is that a graduate from one country hasEurope and is best summarized by the fol- United States and Asia. The three priorities a degree that is recognized in 46 otherlowing statement: “The Bologna Process of the Bologna process were: introduc- European countries. In the geoscienceaims to create a European Higher Edu- tion of the three cycle system (bachelor / profession, involving large amounts ofcation Area by 2010, in which students master / doctorate), quality assurance and trans-national working, such as that of thecould choose from a wide and transparent recognition of qualifications and periods geologist, these reforms are long overduerange of high quality courses and benefit of study.” (European Commission, 2009a). and are to be welcomed.from smooth recognition procedures. The This Process requires substantial changes This Bologna process is supervised byBologna Declaration of June 1999 has in the structure of degrees in countries not a conference of Government Ministersput in motion a series of reforms needed already using the three cycle system, the from the signatory States who meet everyto make European Higher Education more implementation of quality assurance pro- second year to measure progress and setcompatible and comparable, more com- cedures and of standardized mechanisms priorities for action. After Bologna (1999),petitive and more attractive for Europeans to ensure recognition of qualifications they met in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003),and for students and scholars from other throughout the signatory states. The legal Bergen (2005), London (May, 2007) andcontinents. Reform was needed then and framework for recognition of degrees is the Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve (April, 2009) Lisbon Recognition Convention (Council (see the Official Bologna Process website, 1 Earth & Ocean Sciences, NUI Galway, of Europe, 2010) which states that signa- 2010, for details). At the London meeting Ireland. Tuning area coordinator Earth tories must recognize each others’ degrees Ministers adopted a strategy on how to Sciences unless substantial differences can be dem- reach out to other continents. They also onstrated. Thirty seven countries had either gave the green light to create a RegisterEuropean Geologist 30 9
  10. 10. 100%Euro-Ages 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% % of degrees Non-Bolog na Doctora te 40% Ma ste rs 240 ECTS 30% 180 ECTS Sh ort Cycle 20% 10% 0% m m ny li c al rl a n d s li c Ita ly rk Sta te s y ry Spa in e Ir e la n d Kor e a P ola n d ia li a d d r la n d Au s tr ia e Es ton ia e d n Norw a F ra n c Ic e la n e a la n v e ra g a v e ra g Swe d e F in la n Kin g d o B e lg iu Slov e n Hu n g a P ortu g D e n ma R e pu b R e pu b Ge rma Au s tr a Switze Ne th e Un ite d Ne w Z EU1 9 a OEC D Slov a k Cze c h Un ite d Figure 1. The proportion of Three Cycle System degree types in some Bologna signatory nations and in other countries worldwide. The data is extracted from OECD Education at a Glance (2010). The degrees that are ‘non-Bologna compliant’ do not correspond to the Three Cycle System (see text) of European Quality Assurance Agen- of the European Universities in which the or in six years, whilst most do so in the cies. These meetings define the action subject of Earth Science has been an active prescribed five years. Also, some countries lines that each nation needs to undertake area of investigation since its inception in allow students to proceed from a Bachelor to establish the legislative, administrative 2000. This article will review the role of directly to a Doctorate, although increas- and academic framework to implement Bologna action lines and Tuning in imple- ingly the Masters is deemed to be covered in the Process. The action lines have been menting the Bologna Process within Earth a programme of certified Doctoral training revised with time, making the Bologna Science Higher Education in Europe. which is in addition to the research require- Process a vital and ongoing process. It was ment of that degree. Whilst there has been originally intended that this process should Principle components of the Bologna considerable debate within Europe these be completed by 2010. However, in spite of Process matters are not yet fully resolved. Figure considerable progress being made at insti- The ‘Three Cycle System’ 1 shows the proportion of degrees awarded tutional, national and international levels, The Bologna Process requires that higher by countries both within and outside the these reforms are not yet complete. On education in signatory states follows the Bologna Process that correspond to the 12 March 2010, Ministers from the coun- so-called ‘Three Cycle System’. The basic ‘Three Cycle System’ (OECD Education tries participating in the Bologna Process Bachelor (Cycle 1) degree should take at a Glance, 2010). The number of non- adopted the Budapest-Vienna Declara- either three or four years with the Masters Bologna compliant degrees will decrease tion and officially launched the European (Cycle 2) degree being attained after a total with time as new courses are initiated. Higher Education Area. In this declaration of five years of study. The Doctorate or they note “further work, involving staff Cycle 3 degree should then take another Quality Assurance and students, is necessary at European, three years after having completed both The development of a pan-European Qual- national, and especially institutional levels Cycles 1 and 2. There is, however, some ity Assurance system for higher education to achieve the European Higher Education variation in this system. There is a ‘Short will be the driver which monitors and pro- Area” (see the Official Bologna Process Cycle’ degree, usually available after two motes the implementation of the Bologna website, 2010, for details). Much work has years, in some professional courses. Also, reforms. This is currently a work in progress taken place outside of these conferences, the length of Masters programmes varies with, in 2009, about one third of signatory in particular the Tuning Project (Tuning, from one to two years to complement nations still only embarking on the proc- 2010) has developed tools to assist change the three to four years of Bachelor pro- ess. In general, the model that is followed at the level of the Institutes of Higher Edu- grammes. In a community in which free is that where the discipline, programme, cation and professional programmes. The movement is a fundamental right some department, office, or institute produces Tuning Project is an EU-funded project students may achieve a Masters in four a self-assessment report that is critically 10 European Geologist 30
  11. 11. evaluated with feedback. The evaluation when the student passes all the assess- Few countries yet have fully implementedprocess also involves a site visit. This ments for that year. A Bachelor degree, externally validated NQFs and about oneprocess must involve students and should therefore, requires a minimum of 180 and third of signatory states are only embark- Euro-Agesbe externally, preferably internationally, a maximum of 240 ECTS credits. It should ing on the process. An example of thevalidated. A set of guidelines have been also be noted that these credits must be mapping between an NQF and the EQF ispublished by the European Association cumulative, in other words the student provided in Ireland where Cycle 1 degreesfor Quality Assurance in Higher Educa- needs to acquire them at the level of each can be either of 180 ECTS credits (Level 7tion (ENQA, 2009) whose purpose is to year of study. Some ECTS credits can be or ‘Ordinary Bachelors Degrees’) or 240establish European standards for internal acquired at a lower level, but this limited ECTS credits (Level 8 or ‘Honours Bach-and external quality assurance, external facility exists only to allow students to elors Degrees’ or ‘Higher Diplomas’) inquality assurance agencies and a European take other ‘minor’ subjects. The European the NQF (see which map toregister of quality assurance agencies. The Commission may award an ECTS Label to Level 6 (Bachelors Degrees) of the EQF.quality of degree programmes in all signa- an institution of higher education that ‘hastory states will, therefore, follow similar, shown excellence in applying the European Mobilityregular, validated assessments, effectively Credit Transfer and Accumulation System The Ministers responsible for Higherremoving the argument that degrees in one (ECTS) and the Diploma Supplement (DS)’ Education in the countries participatingstate are of a different quality from those (see below). At the time of writing only 65 in the Bologna Process in the communi-in another. IHEs (approximately 1% of the total) have que following the London Conference in been awarded such Labels, but this number May 2007 issued the following statement.Recognition of Degrees and Diplomas is bound to grow especially as it will give a “Mobility of staff, students and gradu-The main international legal text that aims competitive advantage to those IHEs who ates is one of the core elements of theto further the fair recognition of qualifica- possess such Labels in terms of attracting Bologna Process, creating opportunitiestions is the Council of Europe/UNESCO international students. for personal growth, developing interna-Convention on the Recognition of Quali- tional cooperation between individualsfications concerning Higher Education in Diploma Supplement and institutions, enhancing the quality ofthe European Region (Lisbon Recogni- The Diploma Supplement is the instrument higher education and research, and givingtion Convention, see Council of Europe, whereby an institution of higher education substance to the European dimension”.2010). The recognition of qualifications is gives a full and transportable account of athe responsibility of each country, mean- student’s achievements. It accompanies a Workplace and societying that higher education institutions are locally awarded higher education diploma In the Leuven Communiqué of 2009 theresponsible for the recognition of quali- and provides a standardized description of Ministers identified a list of priorities forfications for the purpose of further study the nature, level, context, content and status the coming decade, which included: thewhereas professional bodies or employers of the studies completed by its holder. This social dimension of higher education;are responsible for recognition for the pur- product should not only make it easier for lifelong learning; employability. A recentposes of the labour market. There are many students to study abroad, but also should Eurobarometer Survey, FLASH 260,aspects to the recognition of higher educa- assist with professional mobility. IHEs can (European Commission, 2009b) amongtional qualifications throughout Europe; be awarded a Diploma Supplement Label students in higher education reported thathowever, the European Credit Transfer and in addition to the ECTS label. the vast majority of students want: widerAccumulation System, the Diploma Sup- access to higher education; universitiesplement and Qualification Frameworks are National and European Qualification to further develop cooperation with theessential requirements for this to happen. Frameworks world of work; wider access to lifelong These Frameworks (NQF/EQF) describe learning. In particular: 97% wanted theThe European Credit Transfer and Accu- the qualifications of an education system knowledge and skills they needed to bemulation System and how they interlink. National qualifica- successful in the labour market, 91% rec-The European Credit Transfer and Accu- tions frameworks describe what learners ognized the need for personal develop-mulation System (ECTS) is the fundamen- should know, understand and be able to do ment; 87% supported the principal thattal tool that allows comparison of courses on the basis of a given qualification as well education should facilitate people to playand degrees across Europe. ECTS grew as how learners can move from one quali- an active role in society; a similar propor-out of the need for transportable certifica- fication to another within a system. They tion agreed that higher education shouldtion for students who took part of their apply to all levels of educational attainment “foster innovation and an entrepreneurialcourse work abroad under such schemes covering school, workplace training, and mindset among students and staff, and thatas Erasmus Mundus. However, this system higher education. The European Qualifica- there should be a possibility to undertakemust now be applied to all courses and tions Framework (European Commission, work placements in private enterprises asprogrammes and a comprehensive set of 2008) provides a meta framework through part of a study programme” (Europeanguidelines for the correct implementa- which individual NQFs can be compared. Commission, 2009b). The Bologna Proc-tion of ECTS has recently been published The NQFs take priority and may differ ess should provide a platform for better(European Commission, 2009). A year of in detail from the EQF, but must have an cooperation between IHEs, industry andstudy, which comprises about 1500 hours agreed mapping onto the EQF. The aim is society. Something that may prove crucialof total student commitment (not to be to provide both individuals and employ- if the geoscience profession is going toconfused with formal timetabled contact ers with a tool to compare the qualifica- meet the challenges of the future.hours), permits the award of 60 ECTS tions levels of different countries, different The recognition of prior learning (RPL)credits on satisfactory completion, that is education and different training systems. and lifelong learning (LLL) are also essentialEuropean Geologist 30 11
  12. 12. in this regard. RPL will allow a profes- completed the full programme should obtain to demonstrate after completion of a learning sional to apply to an IHE to have their a degree awarded jointly by the participat- experience’ (Tuning, 2008). Competences, prior learning assessed. RPL provides a ing institutions, and fully recognized in all be they subject specific or generic andEuro-Ages mechanism by which individuals with countries. Whilst the current development more related to life and the workplace, prior learning obtained through life experi- of Joint Degree programmes is relatively ‘represent a dynamic combination of cog- ence and/or formal education and/or work slow, mainly because many countries are nitive and meta-cognitive skills, knowl- experience are assessed for entry onto, for still in the process of implementing the edge, and understanding, interpersonal, credit towards and/or for exemption from Bologna reforms at institutional level, intellectual and practical skills and ethical components of a higher education quali- this exciting development will undoubt- values’ (Tuning, 2008). This model for a fication. Correct implementation of RPL edly become very important in the future, programme of study requires careful defi- should well provide a platform for better especially for careers in geoscience, which nition of the competences the student must industry-IHE cooperation and, by allowing require workers to be mobile and able to acquire, the outcomes they must success- access to educational programmes, will work in different societies and under dif- fully demonstrate at the end of the course, contribute significantly to a professional ferent conditions. the exact profile and level of the course and geologist’s lifetime programme of con- the student commitment required in terms tinuous personal development. Lifelong Tuning higher educational structures in of total workload, not just contact hours. learning, which will now be integrated Europe It not only gives students a clear idea of into the NQFs is also very important in This started in 2000 as a project to link the what is expected from them but it also pro- this context, as well as helping serve the political objectives of the Bologna Proc- vides a platform whereby outcomes other needs of an ageing population and the ess and the Lisbon Strategy to the higher than exam scripts, for example publicly economic requirement to move towards educational sector. Over time, Tuning has presenting the results of project work, can ‘knowledge based economies’. Both RPL developed into a Process, adopted by 58 be assessed and assigned ECTS credits. and LLL require more flexible, student- countries world-wide, designed to assist in Whilst there is considerable variation centred modes of delivery (for example, the (re-)design, development, implemen- between educational traditions, students part-time course work at times convenient tation, evaluation and quality enhancement can expect to receive 1 ECTS credit for for in-job training and new methods of in first, second and third cycle degree pro- every 25 ± 5 hours of study satisfactorily distance learning) and the widening access grammes. The motto of Tuning is “Tuning completed. to higher education. of educational structures and programmes The SAGs have developed internation- The London Ministerial Communiqué, on the basis of diversity and autonomy”. ally validated templates to assist in the May, 2007, (see UK Government, 2007) This project was initiated by Julia development of courses following this states “Higher education should play a Gonzalez, University of Duesto, Bilbao model. The template for the Earth Sci- strong role in fostering social cohesion, and Robert Wagener, Groningen Univer- ences (Ryan et al., 2010) is available from reducing inequalities and raising the level sity. Whilst funded by the EU, Tuning was the Tuning website. This template recog- of knowledge, skills and competences in in effect the Universities’ response to the nizes the enormous breadth of subjects that society. Policy should therefore aim to challenges of the Bologna Process. Sub- fall within the remit of Earth Science (let maximize the potential of individuals in ject area groups of experts from across alone the wider Earth System Sciences) terms of their personal development and Europe, which included geoscience from and is extremely careful not to recom- their contribution to a sustainable and the outset, were set up to try to develop the mend a ‘standard curriculum’. However, democratic knowledge-based society”. educational tools required by the Process. it does elucidate the fundamental under- These groups also met in plenary session to lying Generic and Subject Specific com- Joint Degrees develop the broader language and policies petences which are required to study the The Bologna Process has paved the way required. Tuning has been highly influential Earth. The template also requires that any for increasingly innovative, cooperative, within the Bologna Process. The adoption Earth Science training programme should cross border study programmes. The so- by the Ministers in their Berlin Commu- include an appropriate amount of field called “Joint Degree” has recently become niqué of 2003 of the following statement work, particularly at the Cycle 1 level, one of the most cited examples, and such “Ministers encourage the member States as “it is impossible to properly analyze joint degree programmes are springing up to elaborate a framework of comparable and interpret field-based data, whether across Europe. The programmes leading to and compatible qualifications for their collected directly or remotely, without an Joint Degrees are developed or approved higher education systems, which should understanding of its inherent limitations” jointly by several institutions. Students seek to describe qualifications in terms of (Ryan et al., 2010). from each participating institution study workload, level, learning outcomes, com- Although the Tuning Europe Project for a significant part of the programme petences and profile. They also undertake formally ended in 2009, a Tuning Academy (as opposed to short exchanges) at insti- to elaborate an overarching framework of was launched in September 2010 whose tutions other than the one in which they qualifications for the Higher Education aim is to promote training and research register. Teaching staff from each partici- Area” was directly a result of this work. to support the Bologna Process. The Min- pating institution devise and administer This policy required a move from ‘input, sters state in 2009 (see: http://www.ond. the curriculum together and participate in teacher oriented’ programmes such as mobility for teaching purposes. Periods defining a degree by giving a list of topics conference/documents/Leuven_Louvain- of study and exams passed at the part- to be studied, to ‘outcome, student ori- la-Neuve_Communiqu%C3%A9_April_ ner institution(s) are recognized fully ented’ programmes. A learning outcome is 2009.pdf) that “the potential and wide- and automatically by all institutions and defined as ‘statements of what a learner is spread significance of learning outcomes countries involved. The students who have expected to know, understand and be able is only just beginning to be realized .... For 12 European Geologist 30
  13. 13. this sort of bottom-up approach there is a Conclusions qualified. The need to restructure degree need for fundamental change at institutional Although there is still a lot more work to do, programmes in a manner that is more level”. It is the aim of the Tuning Academy the Bologna Process is creating a European student centred and takes into account the Euro-Ages to meet this challenge. The Earth Sciences framework in which professional geolo- needs of society and the workplace pro- will be represented in this endeavour. gists should find it much easier to work vides our profession with a unique oppor- in countries other than the one where they tunity to contribute towards high training standards in European higher education. References and resources European Commission. 2009b. Stu- bell, B., Weiszburg, T. 2010. Reference Council of Europe. 2010. (http:// dents and Higher Education Reform: Points for the Design and Delivery of Survey among students in higher edu- Degree Programmes in Earth Science. recognition/1rc_EN.asp). cation institutions in the EU Member ( States, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and ingeu/index.php?option=com_docman ENQA. 2009. ESG Standards and Turkey. ( &task=docclick&Itemid=59&bid=113 Guidelines for Quality Assurance in opinion/flash/fl_260_en.pdf). &limitstart=0&limit=5). the European Higher Education Area - 3rd edition. ( OECD Education at a Glance. 2010. Tuning. 2008. Universities´ contribu- ESG_3edition%20(2).pdf). ( tion to the Bologna Process: An intro- tion/highlights-from-education-at-a- duction (2nd Edition) (http://tuning. European Commission. 2010. (http:// glance-2010_eag_highlights-2010- en). ries/Publications/Tuning_General_ education/doc1290_en.htm). Brochure_english.jpg). Official Bologna Process website. European Commission. 2009a. ECTS 2010. ( Tuning. 2009. (http://tuning.unideusto. Users’ Guide, third edition. (http:// hogeronderwijs/bologna/). org/tuningeu/index.php). ing-policy/doc/ects/guide_en.pdf). Ryan, P. D., Pereira, E., Anceau, A., UK Government. 2007. (http://www. Beunk, F., Boulton, G., Canals, A., Del- European Commission. 2008 The pouve, B. Dramis, F., Gehör, S., Greil- documents/LondonCommuniquefinal- European Qualifications Framework ing, R., Tvis Knudsen, N., Mansy, J-L., withLondonlogo.pdf). for lifelong learning (EQF). (http:// Meilliez, F., Nogueira, P., Petrakakis, K., Roeleveld, W., Sanderson, D., Sta- general/eqf/broch_en.pdf). SUSTAINABLE NATURAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENTSLR Consulting Ireland has over 25 geoscience professionals based in Dublin who are part of the700+ strong SLR Group with offices in the UK, Canada, USA, Australia and SE Asia.SLR provides a full range of services in the following areas: · Minerals & Mining · Energy Resources · Geothermal Energy To find out more, please contact: · Environmental Management Deirdre Lewis / Róisín Goodman · Infrastructure / Geotechnics SLR Consulting (Ireland) Limited 7 Dundrum Business Park, Windy Arbour · Competent Person / Independent Reporting Dundrum, Dublin 14 · Carbon Management T: +353 1 296 4667 F: +353 1 296 4676 · Management Waste · Strategic Planning / Valuations European Geologist 30 13