Poverty Reduction & Adaptation Practice ——Experiences from Ningxia, China Ma Zhongyu Ningxia Governmental Research Department 16th June, 2012
contents General situation of Ningxia Facts recognized from climate change in Ningxia Practices of adaptation in Ningxia The realities and politics of adaptive decision-making
The situation of landscape & social- economic development in Ningxia The Northern Oasis: area 29%; population 65%;GDP 90%; fiscal income 94%; access to water resources 92%. The Middle and Southern part is dryland and Rainfed- land : area 71%; population 35%;GDP10%; fiscal income 6%; access to water 8%.
Ecosystem-based Vulnerability Assessment in Ningxia The most vulnerable areas ： Haiyuan 、 Yuanzouqu 、 Pengyang and Xiji county. General vulnerable areas ： Lingwu 、 Yanchi 、 Hongsiboqu 、 Tongxin and Longde county. Vulnerable areas ： Dawukou 、 Pingluo 、 Yinchuan sity 、 Qingtongxia 、 Shapotou 、 Zhongning and Jingyuan county. Non-vulnerable areas ： Helan 、 Yongning and Litongqu county.
Human Carrying Capacity and Poverty Situation in Ningxia Human carrying capacity in middle and southern part is only 1.30 million of people, but its population is 2.30 million in 2010. The current poor people under the line of absolute poverty is 1.10 million in 2010.
Facts Recognized from Climate Change in Ningxia The annual temperature has increased by 2.2 oC over last 50 years. The annual precipitation goes down by 9.87mm each 10 years in the period of last 50 years. The precipitation isoline of 400mm, which is a division line between plantation and grazing, has moved toward south for 50 km over last 50years.
Practices of adaptation in Ningxia Relocation of population 0.66 million poor people has been relocated over last 30 years. About 3 million mu of cropland has been returned to forest after emigration.
Practices of adaptation in Ningxia Re-allocation of water resources Diverting 0.73 billion m3 of water resources from yellow river to middle and south areas for irrigating and drinking Converting 1.65 million mu of rainfed land to irrigated land.
Practices of adaptation in Ningxia Re-allocation of water resources 2.05 million people has got access to clean drinking water.
Practices of adaptation in Ningxia Improving cropping system: raising the ratio of high- valued crop and draught- resistant varieties Applying the less tillage and no-tillage system in rainfed land.
Practices of adaptation in Ningxia Rehabilitating the degradated ecosystems through controlling the desertification and soil erosion Implementing reforestation program, increased forest by 4.88 million mu from 2005 to 2010. Quadrangling the desert with wheat straw in order to fix the sand of desert from movement.
Practices of adaptation in Ningxia Using the renewable energy for improving farmer’s livelihood. Providing the solar oven and biogas utensils freely or with subsides to local farmers. Developing wind and solar power and making farmers in the remote area easily have access to new energy use.
The Realities and Politics of Adaptive Decision-Making Institutional arrangement of adaptation Setting up the Provincial Leading Group for Climate Change Adaptation. Working out and implementing the 《 12th 5-Year Plan of Adaptation for Climate Change in Ningxia 》 etc.
The Realities and Politics of Adaptive Decision-Making Another 0.35 million peoples has been planned to be relocated in the 12th 5-Year period . Government: 11.8 billion RMB Yuan. Relocated people: 3 billion RMB Yuan.
The Realities and Politics of Adaptive Decision-Making Building up “two barriers and two belts” ecological security pattern in Ningxia for 12th 5-Year Plan period . Two barriers: Helan mountain in the north-most and Liupan mountain in the south-most, which will be covered with denser forest. Two belts: Ningxia plain oasis and Middle wind-sand resistant forest belt, which will be covered with fruit forest and bushes.
The Realities and Politics of Adaptive Decision-Making Re-adjusting the industrial pattern by raising the ratio of service and low carbon industries. Wind power: 3 million kw and 5 million kw in 2015 and 2020 respectively. Solar power: 0.6 million kw and 2 million kw in 2015 and 2020 respectively.
The Realities and Politics of Adaptive Decision-Making Releasing 0.6 million people out of the poor in 12th 5-Year Plan of Poverty Reduction. Decreasing the energy consumed and CO 2 emitted per unit of GDP by 15% and 16% respectively during the period of 12 th 5-Year Plan. Capacity building of adaptation through training and education