Rua Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro 06.04.2010 (crédito: Alex Herzog) 04.06.2010 Rua Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro ,1988 More than 250 deaths in http://aleosp2008.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/rua-jardim-botanico-rj-1988_11-29- 2008.jpg em 02.05.09 the State of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro City Limits Massifs and River basins 1 3 2Urban sprawl induced by new transit Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro Source: system – new tunnel and highways
Vulnerable Areas to Sea Level rise Sea level rise projection Cotas em metros 0 - 0,50 1,00 - 1,50 0,50 – 1,00 1,50 – 2,00 (Gusmão, P.P. et al., 2008)
(Instituto Pereira Passos - IPP a partir dos dados do IBGE - Censo 2010 andhttp://sigfloresta.rio.rj.gov.br/)
1. Misericordia Massif: Verdejar2. Barra da Tijuca: Península, Gleba F and Mello Barreto Parks
1. Misericordia Massif: Verdejar Rio de Janeiro Context2. Barra da Tijuca: Península, Gleba F and Mello Barreto Parks
Inhaúma District (Misericórdia Massif) Verdejar (NGO)Bottom-up Urban Biodiversity Restoration
Challenges in 1980’s:• LOW SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL VALUE• Degraded remnants of grassy areas, subject tofurther invasion• Area subject to recurrent fires in dry season• Garbage dump slopes – NO PUBLIC SERVICES• Low income residents• Surrounded by favelas (slums)• Lack of formal education• Drug trafic controled region (until today).
Opportunities:• Volunteer reforestation, agroforestry and foodproduction in more accessible areas to avoid furtherillegal occupation and offer ECOSYSTEMS SERVICES tolocal community residents since 1985, intensified in1990’s.• Verdejar promotes garbage collection,environmental education, arts and culture eventsregularly.•“Mutirão Reflorestamento” (“Reforestation CommonEffort” - Public Reforestation Program in upper areassince 1995)• HIGH ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL VALUE TODAY
Barra da Tijuca DistrictPenínsula, Mello Barreto and Gleba F ParksTop-Down Urban Biodiversity Restoration
Challenges:• Dregde dump area surrounded by mangroveremnants in some areas• Irregular occupation of lagoon margins• Invisibility of the lagoon and natural ecosystems(residents ignored their existence before – no socialvalue)• Highly transformed landscape eliminatedecosystems remnants – globalization andhomogeneization of plant species• Lack of ecological education, comprehension andvalue of natural areas
Opportunities:• Environmental Legislation enforced the RealEstate Entrepreneur/Owner to Preserve,Conserve and Restore an area thatencompasses connected ecosystemsfragments.• Protection and restoration of 460,000 m² ofprotected forests along 6.5 Km of coastallagoons, in three PUBLIC ECOLOGICAL PARKS• Visible native ecosystems and lagoon – HIGH ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL VALUE
Before OccupationNot dated probably early 1970’s
Case Study 2December 1997 (Photo Carvalho Hosken)
Restored and Natural Parks October 2008 (Photo Carvalho Hosken)
The pioneer Brazilian ecological landscape architect, Fernando Chacel was hired in 1986 to plan and design two parks to conserve and restore degraded mangrove and restinga (sandbank) ecosystems. The final building license was issued by the City in 2005. The parks were maintained by the owneruntil the buildings were constructed and sold.
Gleba F Park Península Park Mello BarretoEspécie Parkameaçada deextinçãoColhereiro -Ajaya ajaya October 2008 (Photo Carvalho Hosken)
Final RemarksThe two case studies present substantially different social-ecological contexts, although both provide abiotic, bioticand cultural ecosystems services.First case study: Verdejar participants have a deepunderstanding of the ecosystems services the forest providelocally, regionally and even globally, and continue to workto improve the environmental legislation and governance.Second case study: the interviewed residents wereattracted to live there because of the green areas, althoughthey only have a vague perception of the ecological benefitsof the forests. They value the biodiversity, and are eager tolearn more about the local ecosystems.
Final Remarks The city faces URGENT CHALLENGES to control urban sprawl and ecosystems suppression. The two cases are useful to inform futureactions and interventions where biodiversitymay play a central role in the planning, design and retrofitting of urban ecosystems.
Thank you!Cecilia P. Herzog and Ricardo Finotti Cities and Biodiversity Outlook A preview of the first global assessment Rio de Janeiro, June 18th, 2012