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  • 1. Local Renewables Freiburg 2007 The Bioenergy Chain: Energy for Buildings, Districts and Vehicles Gabor Heves
  • 2. The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC)
    • Head Office in Hungary, offices in 17 countries
    • 190+ staff (some 30 nationalities)
    • Over 3500 projects since 1990
      • Environmental information
      • Environmental policy
      • Environmental law
      • NGO support
      • Climate change
      • Capacity building
      • Public participation
      • Sectoral integration
      • Environmental education
    • The REC hosts the REEEP Secretariat for Central and Eastern Europe and Turkey.
    REC Video – Click!
  • 3. Overview
    • What is bioenergy?
    • How is it produced?
    • How is it used?
    • Key issues
    REC Video – Click!
  • 4. What is bioenergy?
    • Energy from any organic material:
      • From plants
      • From animals
      • From organic waste
    • Can be solid, liquid, gas
    REC Video – Click!
  • 5. Food plants
    • Wheat
    • Corn
    • Rape-seed
    • Sugarbeet
    • Sunflower
    • Potato
    • And many more!
    REC Video – Click!
  • 6. Energy plants
    • Energy grass
      • 15 t/ha dry mass
    • Energy reed
      • 13 t/ha dry mass
    • Energy forest
      • 8-20 t/ha/year dry mass
    REC Video – Click!
  • 7. Wood
    • 80% of organic heat from burning wood
    • From traditional forest cultivation:
    • 40% main product
    • 38% fire wood
    • 22% woodchips
    REC Video – Click!
  • 8. Type of wood production
    • Traditional forest cultivation
      • 10-15 t/ha/year
    • Accelerated forest cultivation
      • 8-15 t/ha/year
      • Clear-cut after 8-15 years
    • Short rotation coppice (SRC)
      • E.g. willow, poplar, robinia
      • 8-20 t/ha/year
      • Cutting every 2-5 years
    REC Video – Click!
  • 9. Forms of bioenergy
    • Burning as it is
    • Burning in compressed form
    • Converting to oil (biodiesel)
    • Converting to alcohol (bio-ethanol)
    • Converting to gas (biogas [methane])
    REC Video – Click!
  • 10. Burning directly
    • Highest energy gain (no conversion loss)
    • Simple, anything can be burnt
    • Huge potential for district heating!
      • 10% distctict heating in Europe, 4.7% annual growth
      • Co-generation & integration of other renewables (geothermal, solar)
    REC Video – Click!
  • 11. Burning in compressed form
    • Bale
      • E.g. from hay, straw, crops, grass
    • Briquets
      • E.g. from woodchips, seeds
    • Pellets
      • E.g. from sawmill dust
    REC Video – Click!
  • 12. Ethanol
    • Wheat
    • Corn  4500 l/ha alcohol
    • Sugarbeet (sugarcane)
    • Potato
    • Manufactured by bacterial fermentation
    • Can be mixed to regular petrol
    • Energy loss in conversion
    REC Video – Click!
  • 13. REC Video – Click!
  • 14. Biodiesel
    • Rape-seed (700 kg/ha oil)
    • Sunflower (740 kg/ha oil)
    • Soya (850 kg/ha oil)
    • Manufactured by simple pressing
    • Used oil  e.g. from restaurants
    • Can be mixed to regular diesel
    REC Video – Click!
  • 15. REC Video – Click!
  • 16. REC Video – Click!
  • 17. Gasification
    • By bacteria from any organic material  from waste!
    • 25-50% CO 2 , 50-75% CH 4 , (=natural gas [methane]) and 0-10% other (N 2 , H 2 S, H 2, ,O 2 )
    • 1 kg dry material  230-400 liter gas
    • Useful side products/effects
      • Kills germs
      • Produces manure
    • Heating, co-generation, feed-in to gas network
    REC Video – Click!
  • 18. REC Video – Click! Units in ktoe (1000 ton oil equivalent). 2005. Source: 2006 Biogas Barometer – EurObserve’ER
  • 19. Local conditions determine use
    • Should we
      • burn?
      • liquify?
      • gasify?
      • a combination of these?
    • Local conditions  type of cultivation
    • Food production vs. energy production
      • AND?
      • OR?
    REC Video – Click!
  • 20. Consider
    • Every conversion = energy loss
    • Priority: food – stationary application – fuel
    • Can be stored – complements fluctuating renewables
    • Best used locally
    REC Video – Click!
  • 21. Advantages of energy plantations
    • Soil maintenance
      • E.g. fertility, erosion
    • Uptake of liquid organic waste
      • E.g. sewage sludge or liquid manure
    • Multiple-use cultivation possible
      • E.g. food & energy, furniture wood & fire wood
    • Employment and rural development
    • Off-season work
      • E.g. winter wood cutting/harvesting
    REC Video – Click!
  • 22. Risks with energy plantations
    • Competition with food production
    • Industrialised, chemical-intensive cultivation
      • Landscape deterioration, monocultures
      • Alien species (e.g. acacia), biological degradation
      • Soil/groundwater degradation
      • Genetically-modified plants
    • Bioenergy import from developing countries  forest cutting, loss of natural habitat
    REC Video – Click!
  • 23. Huge potentials
    • 200x technical potential
    • Use of marginal lands
    • Agricultural overproduction
    • Vast resource of organic waste
    REC Video – Click!
  • 24. Thank you for the attention! G áb or Heves [email_address] (36-26) 504-045 Tam ás Janicsek tjanicsek @rec.org (36-30) 2313-772 www.rec.org REC Video – Click!