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  • P3_Heves

    1. 1. Local Renewables Freiburg 2007 The Bioenergy Chain: Energy for Buildings, Districts and Vehicles Gabor Heves
    2. 2. The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) <ul><li>Head Office in Hungary, offices in 17 countries </li></ul><ul><li>190+ staff (some 30 nationalities) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3500 projects since 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGO support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectoral integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The REC hosts the REEEP Secretariat for Central and Eastern Europe and Turkey. </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is bioenergy? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it produced? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>Key issues </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    4. 4. What is bioenergy? <ul><li>Energy from any organic material: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From organic waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be solid, liquid, gas </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    5. 5. Food plants <ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Rape-seed </li></ul><ul><li>Sugarbeet </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower </li></ul><ul><li>Potato </li></ul><ul><li>And many more! </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    6. 6. Energy plants <ul><li>Energy grass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 t/ha dry mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy reed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 t/ha dry mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-20 t/ha/year dry mass </li></ul></ul>REC Video – Click!
    7. 7. Wood <ul><li>80% of organic heat from burning wood </li></ul><ul><li>From traditional forest cultivation: </li></ul><ul><li>40% main product </li></ul><ul><li>38% fire wood </li></ul><ul><li>22% woodchips </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    8. 8. Type of wood production <ul><li>Traditional forest cultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-15 t/ha/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accelerated forest cultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-15 t/ha/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear-cut after 8-15 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short rotation coppice (SRC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. willow, poplar, robinia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8-20 t/ha/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting every 2-5 years </li></ul></ul>REC Video – Click!
    9. 9. Forms of bioenergy <ul><li>Burning as it is </li></ul><ul><li>Burning in compressed form </li></ul><ul><li>Converting to oil (biodiesel) </li></ul><ul><li>Converting to alcohol (bio-ethanol) </li></ul><ul><li>Converting to gas (biogas [methane]) </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    10. 10. Burning directly <ul><li>Highest energy gain (no conversion loss) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, anything can be burnt </li></ul><ul><li>Huge potential for district heating! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% distctict heating in Europe, 4.7% annual growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-generation & integration of other renewables (geothermal, solar) </li></ul></ul>REC Video – Click!
    11. 11. Burning in compressed form <ul><li>Bale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. from hay, straw, crops, grass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Briquets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. from woodchips, seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pellets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. from sawmill dust </li></ul></ul>REC Video – Click!
    12. 12. Ethanol <ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Corn  4500 l/ha alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Sugarbeet (sugarcane) </li></ul><ul><li>Potato </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured by bacterial fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be mixed to regular petrol </li></ul><ul><li>Energy loss in conversion </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    13. 13. REC Video – Click!
    14. 14. Biodiesel <ul><li>Rape-seed (700 kg/ha oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower (740 kg/ha oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Soya (850 kg/ha oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured by simple pressing </li></ul><ul><li>Used oil  e.g. from restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Can be mixed to regular diesel </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    15. 15. REC Video – Click!
    16. 16. REC Video – Click!
    17. 17. Gasification <ul><li>By bacteria from any organic material  from waste! </li></ul><ul><li>25-50% CO 2 , 50-75% CH 4 , (=natural gas [methane]) and 0-10% other (N 2 , H 2 S, H 2, ,O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>1 kg dry material  230-400 liter gas </li></ul><ul><li>Useful side products/effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kills germs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heating, co-generation, feed-in to gas network </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    18. 18. REC Video – Click! Units in ktoe (1000 ton oil equivalent). 2005. Source: 2006 Biogas Barometer – EurObserve’ER
    19. 19. Local conditions determine use <ul><li>Should we </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liquify? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gasify? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a combination of these? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local conditions  type of cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Food production vs. energy production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AND? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR? </li></ul></ul>REC Video – Click!
    20. 20. Consider <ul><li>Every conversion = energy loss </li></ul><ul><li>Priority: food – stationary application – fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Can be stored – complements fluctuating renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Best used locally </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    21. 21. Advantages of energy plantations <ul><li>Soil maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. fertility, erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uptake of liquid organic waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. sewage sludge or liquid manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple-use cultivation possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. food & energy, furniture wood & fire wood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employment and rural development </li></ul><ul><li>Off-season work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. winter wood cutting/harvesting </li></ul></ul>REC Video – Click!
    22. 22. Risks with energy plantations <ul><li>Competition with food production </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialised, chemical-intensive cultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape deterioration, monocultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alien species (e.g. acacia), biological degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil/groundwater degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically-modified plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bioenergy import from developing countries  forest cutting, loss of natural habitat </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    23. 23. Huge potentials <ul><li>200x technical potential </li></ul><ul><li>Use of marginal lands </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Vast resource of organic waste </li></ul>REC Video – Click!
    24. 24. Thank you for the attention! G áb or Heves [email_address] (36-26) 504-045 Tam ás Janicsek tjanicsek @rec.org (36-30) 2313-772 www.rec.org REC Video – Click!