ROMA per Kyoto Sustainable energy and other measures to achieve Kyoto target in a Mediterranean Climate Local Renewables Freiburg 2007 Freiburg im Breisgau, 13 June 2007 Claudio Baffioni City of Rome – Dept. X Environmental Policies [email_address]
The context: Rome <ul><ul><li>- surface 1.285 (Km 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- residents 2,8 (ml) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- road network 5.000 (Km) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- vehicles 2,4 (ml) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cars 1.900.000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 wheels 450.000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delivery of goods 150.000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- daily trips 6,1 (ml) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The historic and cultural heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The status of Italian Capital City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vatican City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Attitude (85 vehicles/100 citizens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tourists (>23 millions per year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourist coaches: 200.000 per year </li></ul></ul>Rome and…
L Rome green and historical system: 83.000 ha total area: 129.000 ha Agricultural areas in green system 63.000 ha Arrone - Galeria Castel Porziano Vejo Marcigliana Appia Antica Litorale Romano Aniene
Leading a sustainable growth In 2005 Rome reached 94,3 million euros GDP +6,8% in 2001 – 2005, compared to the national average growth rate of 1,4% Rome points to a social cohesion strategy: to bridge the poverty gap by improving social inclusion and cohesion in 2005 were spent 1,8 billions euros in environmental projects aimed at restoring suburban areas, involving the living conditions of one million citizens in 13 zones. Employment Rate Growth +13,7% in 2001 – 2005, compared to the national average growth rate of 4,7% Economical Growth
Strategic actions to save energy and to implement renewable energy have to be well integrated in a high level policy framework <ul><li>Environmental Action Program (EAP) A Strategic Program for Sustainable Development of Rome </li></ul>2. Forum of Local Agenda 21 of Rome 3. Town-planning Scheme (TPS)
An EAP for Rome <ul><li>The City of Rome decided to adopt an EAP: </li></ul><ul><li>* To define goals, tools and processes for environmental sustainability in Rome; </li></ul><ul><li>* To improve the coordinated action for environmental policies in the City Council; </li></ul><ul><li>* To reinforce processes and actions for communication and participation of citizen. </li></ul>L Energy Policies are a chapter of EAP. Among their main topics we would like to underline the reduction of the energy consumption and the increase of renewable energy use
EAP and Local Agenda 21 in Rome <ul><li>In 1997 was prepared a draft version of EAP containing the strategies for sustainable development defining general and operative goals, the tools and the way to implement, the monitoring of the action </li></ul>L Representatives of the communities in Rome had a share in the Forum with a consultative function on the guideline of EAP and to define the participative strategies
EAP and TPS <ul><li>T opics concerning air, energy, water, waste are integrated into the new town-planning scheme (TPS) of Rome. </li></ul>L Infact, TPS is a Sustainable Urbanistic Plan where air, earth, water are environmental resources to preserve and to regenerate.
City Council adopted the Environmental Action Plan in 22th of September 2002 and the town-planning scheme in 20th March of 2003 L In this context an important role is played by the Agency of the City of Rome for the sustainable use of energy, RomaEnergia
Rome and climate change mitigation actions <ul><li> Climate change is, without doubt, the main long-term challenge at global and local level. </li></ul>L The objective is to define an action plan for the City of Rome that identifies the methods required to achieve the 6.5% reduction (Italy’s objective) by 2012 and specifically the emissions that can be attributed to the City of Rome, compared to the city’s 1990 emission levels In the framework of the Kyoto Protocol commitments, the City of Rome has in aim to drawn up a strategy to safeguard climate against human activities impacts.
The Action Plan is based on: <ul><li>quantifying the reduction by assessing emissions from 1990 to 2012. The starting point to evaluate the emission was the ICLEI CCP campaign, implemented in Rome by RomaEnergia, appropriately extended to the time series 1990 – 2012 to build up the reference scenario </li></ul>Reference Scenario It analyses how energy trends could evolve were Rome to implement a set of policies and measures that the City is currently considering to adopt We implement the Reference Scenario based on Town-Planning Scheme
The Action Plan is based on: <ul><li>identifying the reduction strategies through structural actions (use of the “sinks”, electric power from Renewable Energy Sources, energy savings in final uses, management of solid waste disposal, sustainable mobility measures) </li></ul><ul><li>implementing “Pilot Actions” within a Municipio (e.g. City District: Rome is divided in 19 Municipios) and/or on the Departments of the City Administration, in order to check the effectiveness of measures related to estimates and forecasts made in the Plan </li></ul><ul><li>involving the stakeholders to implement a participative process constructing the Plan and distributing the public information through meetings, events and Internet networks </li></ul>
Transport and Mobility Household and Commercial Sectors Energy Waste Rome approach: Integration into a unique picture… … involving the Stakeholders with the Voluntary Agreement !
From the problem to the solution: an example. the Plan for Transport and Mobility until 2012. <ul><li>Traffic Demand Management (Urban traffic Masterplan, PT priority, access limitations, area pricing) </li></ul><ul><li>New “Hard” Mobility Infrastructures (Underground and Urban Rails) </li></ul><ul><li>New “Mobility Corridors” and Reserved Lanes (Surface Transport) </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet Renewal & Monitoring (bus and cars, towards lower emissions) </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies and ITS for management, monitoring and enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Mobility (EC CIVITAS Initiative) package (car sharing, car pooling, mobility soft measures, awareness) </li></ul>
Evolution of PT infrastructural offer <ul><li>2006 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Urban railways (km) 112 123 (+10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Underground (km) 36 47 (+30%) </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Corridors (km) 13 130 (+900%) </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Network (km) 206 395 (+190%) </li></ul><ul><li>Stops (n.) 365 586 (+160%) </li></ul><ul><li>Seats/km (ml) 5,8 8,2 (+140%) </li></ul>Investment Plan of 3.000 Millions Euro
<ul><li>… results within a ± 6% band </li></ul>CO2 from mobility until 2012
Main solutions for mobility are infrastructural BUT….. <ul><li>Energy Saving To replace traditional lamps by LED in traffic lights (75.000 lamps in Rome, e.g. 25.000 switched on all the day) saving ~ 2kWh per day per lamps e.g. cut more than 10 kt CO 2 per year </li></ul>
Main solutions for mobility are infrastructural BUT….. 2. Using bio fuels for public fleet To replace till 20% of traditional fuels by bio fuels for all the public buses in Rome e.g. cut about 30 kt CO 2 per year
The Town Council Resolution of February 2006: “ From 2008 in public buildings and in new private buildings, the 30 % of total energy requirements have to be provided by utilizing renewable energetic sources. The 50 % of primary energetic requirements for sanitary hot water have to be assured by utilizing renewable sources.” Energy Saving Strategy….
And for public buildings (e.g. schools, public offices, …) …. photovoltaic plans installed for about 160 kWp
Economic growth matchs with increasing emission of commercial sector The reduction of emissions in this sector, other than the building interventions, will need important operating measures We decided to use a participated process Some subjects (now 36 members) among companies , trade associations , energy companies , trade-union organizations , environmental agencies signed a Voluntary Agreement to exchange information and to decide together a bouquet of proposal to take out the elements to write the Action Plan
The first result is the sharing and approval of emission estimate from 1990 to 2012 1.024,1 13.045,6 12.021,5 12.857,2 Gross Emissions -89,6 154,2 243,8 260,7 Agricolture 2,6 387,6 385,0 411,8 Industry -69,7 1018,8 1088,5 1164,2 Energy -869,0 253,0 1.122,0 1.200,0 Waste 1.362,8 3.105,4 1.742,6 1.863,7 Commercial 701,2 4.444,5 3.743,3 4.003,6 Transport 5,7 3.987,1 3.981,4 4.258,2 Residential Distance from the objective 2012 (Present Status) 2012 (Kyoto objective) 1990 Sectors
Sinks …. Rome has cultivated fields for 63.000 ha (about 50% of whole territory) Rome is the largest agricultural Capital in Europe Rome will plants 500.000 new trees in five years and will double trees in public areas to increase the sinks in Rome (e. g. to cut about 9 kt CO 2 per year)) and to develop actions for the use of biomasses
Last remarks We can use different parameters to implement cost / benefit analysis but… The long term costs are minimal compared to the costs of inactivity The correct cost / benefit analysis must consider economical, environmental and social costs to implement the sustainable development analysis