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Urban Self-Sufficiency with
Sustainable Energy & Clean Mobility




                          Gustav R. Grob. F.IP (F.EI)
...
The complexity of the future global sustainable energy system intelligently
interlinking a multitude of decentralized clea...
Energy supply for a growing population is
facing fundamental change for three reasons:

1 - The economic supply of the min...
TOTAL USABLE
                      ENERGY ON EARTH
                                                   DEPLETION OF FINITE ...
Global Warming Forecasts
by prominent scientists of
Meteorological Institutes




          Prevention of catastrophic
   ...
To cope with these serious problems, benign,
renewable energy systems must be multiplied
    to replace conventional combu...
WORLD ENERGY SCENARIO 2000 - 2050
300. 0


250. 0


200. 0
                                       WORLD E NE RGY DE M AND
...
Hydropower
     Wind Power
                          Heat
    Clean                 Pumps
   Vehicles

                   ...
Energy Option                  Immediately Feasible Theoretical Potential
- Bio energy                          50      PW...
Geothermal Energy
           Borehole systems
        a) Hydraulic fracturing by high pressure   Brunnschweiler system wit...
Advantages of geothermal deep well
energy co-generation

Produces electricity and heat (suitable also for AC)
Much lower n...
Typical          locations
Example NRW
Subsitution of
Nuclear & Coal
Finite Nuclear Power (to be replaced)
Sucess Story: Barcelona Solar Ordinance
 One of the first cities to oblige owners to equip roofs with solar collectors !
T...
Conclusions of the ISEO Energy Study
1. There is more affordable renewable energy available on Earth than
   humankind eve...
Transportation absorbs over 1/3 of World Energy Production

          i.e. over 50 % of World Oil Production


        Eur...
SUSTAINABLE
TRANSPORTATION
OF THE FUTURE
Clean Rapid Mass Transit and inter-modal
freight systems are indispensable for the
efficient flow of people and goods in h...
Rapid Mass Transit Systems
People Transportation

 must evolve towards combined Road-Rail
Mass Transit Systems.     Excellent example:
 the Electric ...
Example: Electric Schoolbus with Supercaps




                     Inductive Re-Charging
Individual Transport
is, however, one of the basic human urges.
  It must be satisfied for professional and
leisure purpos...
EV Concept   Solar Car




Battery Charging
Future Electric Cars - Long Range & Long Life

                Comparison of 15 kWh Batteries by Weight
          500
    ...
COMPARISON OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN COST (40 kW; 240’000 km over 6 years)
      Drive Options Battery    Hydrogen    Hydroge...
The Merits of Bicycles & Electric 2 & 3 Wheelers
     for Good Health and Congested Areas
Taiwan Mail Service




Netherla...
The link between electric vehicles and power
              The Smart Grid
The elements of Smart Grids
Smart Power Grid Practicalities
Benefits of Rapid Transition to Electric Vehicles
                                     Swiss Example

  4 Million Vehicles...
Visionary clean MASDAR CITY
 with absolutely clean traffic
Freight Transportation

must undergo drastic change towards
 inter-modal road-rail-barge-freighter
 transportation by mean...
Ship-Road-Rail Freight Container Transloading Facility
Air Transport
    > a tough environmental problem <

 It is responsible for excessive pollution in
very sensitive atmosphe...
Hydrogen Aeroplanes

Space Shuttle
                      Clean Airships
CONCLUSIONS
Clean vehicles, fed by clean renewable energy
are needed to satisfy individual mobility
Clean Mass transport f...
RECOMMENDATIONS

Accelerate the development of efficient,
quiet and non-polluting drive systems
Implement more electric ra...
www.uniseo.org
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Urban Self Sufficiency with sustainable energy and clean mobility (ICLEI World Congress 2009)

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Transcript of "Urban Self Sufficiency with sustainable energy and clean mobility (ICLEI World Congress 2009)"

  1. 1. Urban Self-Sufficiency with Sustainable Energy & Clean Mobility Gustav R. Grob. F.IP (F.EI) International Sustainable Energy Organization ISEO Chairman ISO/TC203/WG3 Energy Systems Analysis President International Clean Energy Consortium ICEC
  2. 2. The complexity of the future global sustainable energy system intelligently interlinking a multitude of decentralized clean energy sources with efficient stationary users and electric vehicles with millions of buffer batteries
  3. 3. Energy supply for a growing population is facing fundamental change for three reasons: 1 - The economic supply of the mineral energy resources oil and gas is ending in a few decades. 2 - Health hazards, risks and global warming caused by emissions from combustion engines. 3 - Imperative conservation of the fossil resources for the chemical and metallurgical industries.
  4. 4. TOTAL USABLE ENERGY ON EARTH DEPLETION OF FINITE ENERGY RESOURCES E ENERGY [PWh] 200 MAXIMUM TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OPTION B INEVITABLE CLIMAX OF OPTION A MINERAL ENERGY SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SUPPLY SITUATION 2000 SOLAR PV & THERMAL ENERGY DIRECT WIND POWER 100 HYDRO POWER / TIDAL / WAVE POWER HAZARDOUS AND OCEAN & GEOTHERMAL ENERGY BIOMASS / BIOGAS ENERGY DEPLETING ENERGY AMBIENT ENERGY CONSUMPTION MUSCLE POWER (FOSSIL & FISSILE) OPTION 0 (ZERO-SUBSTITUTION) RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION t -1000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 [YEARS] SOURCE : ISEO ENERGY HISTORY & FORECAST
  5. 5. Global Warming Forecasts by prominent scientists of Meteorological Institutes Prevention of catastrophic global warming by clean sustainable energies
  6. 6. To cope with these serious problems, benign, renewable energy systems must be multiplied to replace conventional combustion Smart grid electricity is the ultimate concept
  7. 7. WORLD ENERGY SCENARIO 2000 - 2050 300. 0 250. 0 200. 0 WORLD E NE RGY DE M AND 2% ANNUAL GROWT H 150. 0 RE NE WABLE E NE RGY DE M AND GROWT H AV . 5. 2 % 100. 0 50. 0 FI NI T E E NE RGY DE CLI NE 0.0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 So u r c e f o r F i n i t e E n e r g y D a t a : A SP O a t w w w . p e a k o i l . n e t & K y o t o P r o t o c o l
  8. 8. Hydropower Wind Power Heat Clean Pumps Vehicles Solar Energy Bio Energy Geothermal Energy Ocean Energy
  9. 9. Energy Option Immediately Feasible Theoretical Potential - Bio energy 50 PWh/year 80 - Hydropower 8 15 - Geothermal Electricity Conventional 2 ⎞ - Geothermal Electricity Hot Dry Rock 80 ⎬ 400 - Geothermal Heat 4 ⎠ - Wind Power 53 160 - Solar Power PV 6 ⎞ - Solar Thermal Power 40 ⎬ 435 - Solar Active Heat 20 ⎪ - Solar Passive Heat 10 ⎠ - Ocean Energy 15 200 - Heat Pumps 10 50 - Muscle Energy 1 10 - Novel Energy Technologies (R&D) 50 200 Total Renewable Energy Potential 348 PWh/year max. 1550 PWh/year more than twice present world energy consumption
  10. 10. Geothermal Energy Borehole systems a) Hydraulic fracturing by high pressure Brunnschweiler system with safely controlled with relatively small energy yields closed primary water cycle in insulated well or and b) Boreholes to geothermal aquifers secondary steam turbine cycle with co-generation in open systems with limited energy for district heating, AC, greenhouses, industry Disadvantages: a) Water is finding way of lowest resistance = limited Energy yield b) Only in hydro geologic strata often far from consumers. Advantages: Often high energy No yields by hazard ! transport cost. Super performance (GW). Often limited to heat No fuels or waste problems. production only. Excavated materials re-used. Base load power plus heat Energy cost: 5-10 $¢/kWh Energy cost: 2–4 $¢/kWh
  11. 11. Advantages of geothermal deep well energy co-generation Produces electricity and heat (suitable also for AC) Much lower net cost than any other energy source Can be built near agglomerations and substations Less energy transmission line cost – hence also less transmission losses than other power plants Invisible, no air or water pollution and no noise Ideal power source for clean electric vehicles No radiation risks or other health hazards Creates new clean sustainable jobs No waste disposal problems ! Lasts forever !
  12. 12. Typical locations Example NRW Subsitution of Nuclear & Coal
  13. 13. Finite Nuclear Power (to be replaced)
  14. 14. Sucess Story: Barcelona Solar Ordinance One of the first cities to oblige owners to equip roofs with solar collectors ! To heat all the domestic sanitary water by solar energy it is necessary to cover 1.62 % of municipal surface or 2.82 % of built surface, representing 1.07 m2/capita > 2.4 m2/appartment > 20.15 m2/residential building Evolution of solar collector surface since ordinance enforcement: 40000 m2 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  15. 15. Conclusions of the ISEO Energy Study 1. There is more affordable renewable energy available on Earth than humankind ever needs at the foreseeable population growth rate. 2. Most renewable energy systems like GEOCOGEN are competitive with the depleting non-renewable sources - even more so, if the full costing “polluters-pay” principle and smart grids are applied. 3. All nations and cities are able to become energy self-sufficient with renewables and thus can drastically reduce pollution by cleaner, more efficient power plants and transport modes. 4. The remaining finite mineral energy resources can and must be conserved for higher added value purposes in the chemical and metallurgical industries.
  16. 16. Transportation absorbs over 1/3 of World Energy Production i.e. over 50 % of World Oil Production European Shares of Energy for Transportation The bulk of energy is used for inefficient road transportation too many trucks and underutilzed cars with low-efficiency engines
  17. 17. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION OF THE FUTURE
  18. 18. Clean Rapid Mass Transit and inter-modal freight systems are indispensable for the efficient flow of people and goods in highly populated regions, but also clean and safe individual transport is required to satisfy the needs of humans living or working in remote, scattered locations and for their leisure time. Solutions are electric trains for goods and people, clean fuel trucks and ships for inter- modal transportation, cleaner aero-planes and efficient 2, 3 & 4-wheelers driven by clean fuels or electricity from RE sources.
  19. 19. Rapid Mass Transit Systems
  20. 20. People Transportation must evolve towards combined Road-Rail Mass Transit Systems. Excellent example: the Electric Swiss Rail Network saving unproductive time of travellers, traffic fines, parking and fuel cost, pollution, reducing traffic congestion and improving social life among the passengers in transit
  21. 21. Example: Electric Schoolbus with Supercaps Inductive Re-Charging
  22. 22. Individual Transport is, however, one of the basic human urges. It must be satisfied for professional and leisure purposes. I characterized the car of the future 1992 in Rio as follows: Comfortable, Light, Zero-Pollution, Quite, Safe, Long-Life, Recyclable, Low Maintenance Cost & Modern Navigation System
  23. 23. EV Concept Solar Car Battery Charging
  24. 24. Future Electric Cars - Long Range & Long Life Comparison of 15 kWh Batteries by Weight 500 420 400 330 300 Weight 214 (kg) 200 150 75 100 50 0 Pb- Ni-Cd- Ni-MH- Li-Ion- NOVEL battery battery battery battery batteries
  25. 25. COMPARISON OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN COST (40 kW; 240’000 km over 6 years) Drive Options Battery Hydrogen Hydrogen * Gasoline Remarks Criteria NOVEL Fuel Cell Combustion Combust. * a standard 4-cylinder combustion engine is used ** gasoline version: 1$/Liter, 10 Liters per 100 km Li-ion or Amb. Temp. Cryogenic Gasoline *** AC/DC charger on board the electric car for easier battery charging ZEBRA Storage Storage ** Tank **** cryogenic H2 storage boil off loss depending on parking duration Relative Drive the same gear box assumed for all options Investment $/W 0,75 2,35 1,35 < 0.20 including energy management, storage and power train Energy Cost $/km 0,03 0,07 0,16 0,15 > energy supply at 0,1 $/kWh or H2 at 1 $ per Litre gasoline equivalent Relative Weight kg 350 250 250 200 > average weight of energy management, storage and power train Average Range km 300 400 200 400 > with one tank filling or one full charge (plus extra charges at stops) Energy Efficiency % 0,75 0,32 0,13 0,13 > total efficiency over whole energy chain to gear box E + Cap. Cost $/km < 0,20 0,56 0,46 0,28 > at 6 % interest over 3 years and 240’000 km usage incl. service & spares (Total Vehicle Cost) E-Vehicle maintenance cost are the lowest BATTERY η 0.9 0.1 $/W BATTERY CHARGER ON BOARD *** η 0.9 0.5 $/W 400 kg PRESSURE CONTROL AC POWER SUPPLY AC η 0.9 0.1 $/W 50 kg DC DC η 0.95 0.05 $/W 50 kg FUEL CELL AC M HYDRIDE ELECTROLYZER η 0.9 0.1 $/W 200 kg η 0.6 1 $/W 100 kg SUPPLY AND η 0.92 50 kg ELECTROLIZER ELECTROLYZER NANOTUBE 0.1 $/W AC M (STATIONARY) η 0.9 0.1 $/W 100 kg η 0.75 1 $/W ?? CRYOGENIC COMBUSTION DIRECT RENEWABLE η 0.6 0.2 $/W 100 kg ENGINE GEAR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION η 0,3 0.1 $/W 150 kg WHEELS
  26. 26. The Merits of Bicycles & Electric 2 & 3 Wheelers for Good Health and Congested Areas Taiwan Mail Service Netherlands Healthy Sisters China
  27. 27. The link between electric vehicles and power The Smart Grid
  28. 28. The elements of Smart Grids
  29. 29. Smart Power Grid Practicalities
  30. 30. Benefits of Rapid Transition to Electric Vehicles Swiss Example 4 Million Vehicles Expected Vehicle Growth Rate 2 % p.a. Intelligent Mix of 3.5 Clean Vehicles 3 PHEV +15 % PHEV +20 % 2.5 City EV +10 % Massive Cost Reductions City EV +20 % 2 Full EV +10 % 1.5 Full EV +20 % Towards ZERO City Pollution Fuel Engines 1 Fuel Engines Annual EV 0.5 Fleet Growth Rates 10 – 20 % 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  31. 31. Visionary clean MASDAR CITY with absolutely clean traffic
  32. 32. Freight Transportation must undergo drastic change towards inter-modal road-rail-barge-freighter transportation by means of standard ISO containers in line with the improvement of the railway network and modern container handling systems
  33. 33. Ship-Road-Rail Freight Container Transloading Facility
  34. 34. Air Transport > a tough environmental problem < It is responsible for excessive pollution in very sensitive atmospheric layers. It may be resolved by hydrogen jet engines, as demonstrated already in the Eighties, or by air ships lifted by inert gases and propelled by clean fuels
  35. 35. Hydrogen Aeroplanes Space Shuttle Clean Airships
  36. 36. CONCLUSIONS Clean vehicles, fed by clean renewable energy are needed to satisfy individual mobility Clean Mass transport for people has to take the pressure off urban traffic congestions Clean inter-modal freight transport between cities must be developed much faster Air transport must become cleaner, quieter Innovation coupled with huge investments in clean cities and smart grids fulfil these tasks
  37. 37. RECOMMENDATIONS Accelerate the development of efficient, quiet and non-polluting drive systems Implement more electric rapid transit & inter-modal freight transport systems Design and manufacture clean, lighter, quieter, safer, recyclable vehicles Implement clean, renewable energy supply systems at a much faster pace !
  38. 38. www.uniseo.org
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