Slides from the TEEB Study (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity, also known as the Stern-like report for biodiversity) The report assesses and communicates the urgency of action to address ecosystems and biodiversity loss – by presenting the economic, societal and human value of the benefits of ecosystems and biodiversity, and the scale of the benefits lost in the case of inaction in the area of biodiversity The study shows how we (can) take into account the value of ecosystems and biodiversity in our decisions and choices , and it addresses the needs of policy-makers, local administrators, business and citizens (the “end-users”) – interests, opportunities, & responsibilities. These slides are a very powerful visual way of looking at the future for biodiversity. You can see that in 2050 the red areas are growing. It is especially important to notice that the increase in red areas corresponds to highly and increasingly urbanised areas. Estimates are that with a business as usual scenario until 2050, the loss of biodiversity will have an impact on the global economy amounting to a 6% of the global GDP.
In March 2002 in The Hague, the Netherlands, the Conference of the Parties adopted a CBD Strategic Plan, and, as part of that plan, a target: “to achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national levels as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth”. This was than endorsed and re-iterated by Heads of State at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. This is not only a target of Ministers of Environment, but Heads of State and therefore call for action from all sectors, i.e. transport, finance, trade etc. No global target can be achieved without local action. National governments alone will not achieve the 2010 target, or any other target, without effective and coordinated action at local level.
Local governments manage large areas of land, approve land-use changes, consider development applications, local and regional governments plan and implement development (e.g. infrastructure) and set long term city strategic development frameworks. In many instances the increased responsibility does not go hand in hand with resources (especially, but not only, in the South). Local and regional authorities set up and manage municipal conservation areas and green spaces , and their actions have an impact beyond the municipal area. Decisions made in cities can have positive or negative impacts on the surrounding areas Local governments are responsible procuring large amounts of goods and services (timber, paper, electricity, etc). On the one hand, urban centres can facilitate access to ecosystem services (e.g. piped water systems), and to some extent urban concentration may reduce stress on rural areas. On the other hand, people in urban areas are removed from many ecosystem services while they are also dependent on them. Cities are also often home to poor people, who may migrate to cities hoping for an improved life, but who leave behind the ecosystem services they depended upon. For example, in areas with high population density and no access to alternative energy sources, shortage of fuelwood can drive further loss of forests. Given the importance of fuelwood for energy and cooking, shortages make people vulnerability to malnutrition. Cities are crucibles for global conservation. The earth's future is being shaped in cities. Cities are where the voters are, the political institutions, the media, the opinion-shapers, the corporate headquarters, but citizens and are more and more distance from biodiversity.
to develop activities and design and implement joint projects in support of awareness-raising among local governments on biodiversity and to provide local governments with appropriate tools, training, capacity building, documentation, and exchange of experiences; to strengthen collaboration with the Countdown 2010 partners and promote the “Countdown 2010” initiative; to collaborate on the Steering Committee of ICLEI’s Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB) project and jointly promote the implementation of the activities within this initiative; to promote cooperation on the promotion of local achievements and interaction among local, national and international actors in the field of biodiversity.
Local Action for Biodiversity Cementing the IUCN and ICLEI partnership George Greene, Councillor IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature
Level of Biodiversity in the World in 2000 Using Mean Species Abundance (MSA) indicator Remaining MSA in % Source: Ben ten Brink (MNP) presentation at the Workshop: The Economics of the Global Loss of Biological Diversity 5-6 March 2008, Brussels, Belgium.
Source: Ben ten Brink (MNP) presentation at the Workshop: The Economics of the Global Loss of Biological Diversity 5-6 March 2008, Brussels, Belgium. Level of Biodiversity in the World in 2050 One Scenario of the future : OECD/Globio Remaining MSA in %
“ to achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national levels as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth ”
Local governments manage large areas of land and biodiversity resources. They plan, make decisions, develop and control infrastructure and housing. These actions can threaten biodiversity or can contribute to its conservation through better informed decisions, better policies and better management practices.
Local areas are very dependent on natural resources and biodiversity outside their boundaries, including in adjacent rural areas and around the globe. Through several tools, local governments can mitigate their impact and reduce their dependency on natural resources (e.g public procurement).
Voters and political institutions at the local level have the potential to be a great voice and force for biodiversity conservation, if we can increase understanding of the key issues and change behaviours .
To guide, support , capacitate and motivate local governments and their partners from across the world to integrate biodiversity into all aspects of policy and decision making and implementation activities to result in increased and more sustainable biodiversity conservation .
3. Plan a local biodiversity startegy and action plan (LBSAP)
4. Commit to implement the LBSAP
5. Implement 5 new biodiversity initiatives
Case Study on Cape Town:
One of the three cities in the world to be a biodiversity hotspot
A UNESCO World Heritage site within a city border
Good Practice example for addressing invasive species
STRUCTURE Members Council Secretariat Commissions Steering Committees, Specialist Groups, e.g. WCPA Task force on cities and protected areas Regional & National Committees Regional Offices Headquarters Country and Project Offices Sub-regional Offices
World Commission on Protected Areas
Commission on Communication & Education
Commission on Environment, Economic and Social Policy
Commission on Environmental Law
Species Survival Commission
Commission on Ecosystem Management
BUILDING THE ICLEI- IUCN INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIP - OPTIONS
Programmatic – Possible Approaches
Extend Local Action for Biodiversity
Develop a joint program on urban biodiversity
Establish liaison units in IUCN and ICLEI
Structural - Possible Approaches
Local governments/authorities as part of IUCN structure: